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37 REFERENCES 1. ICF Consulting, Center for Urban Transportation Research, Association of Canada, 2006, Transportation Associa- Nelson/Nygaard, and ESTC, TCRP Report 87: Strategies tion of Canada, Ottawa, 2006, 26 pp. for Increasing the Effectiveness of Commuter Benefits 9. Senft, G., "U-Pass at the University of British Columbia: Programs, Transportation Research Board, National Lessons for Effective Demand Management in the Cam- Research Council, Washington, D.C., 2003, 137 pp. pus Context," 2005 Annual Conference of the Transpor- 2. ICF Consulting and Center for Urban Transportation tation Association of Canada, Transportation Association Research, TCRP Report 107: Analyzing the Effectiveness of Canada, Ottawa, 2005, 22 pp. of Commuter Benefits Programs, Transportation Research 10.W hite, C., J. Levine, and M. Zellner, "Impacts of an Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., Employer-Based Transit Pass Program: The Go! Pass in 2005, 74 pp. Ann Arbor, Michigan," 2002 Bus and Paratransit Con- 3. ICF Consulting and Center for Urban Transportation ference Proceedings, American Public Transportation Research, TCRP Web Document 27: Appendices to TCRP Association, Washington, D.C., 2002 [Online]. Avail- Report 107: Analyzing the Effectiveness of Commuter Ben- able: http://www.apta.com/research/info/briefings/ efits Programs, [Online]. Available: http://www.trb.org/ documents/white.pdf. news/blurb_detail.asp?id=5566. 11.Gray, D. and D. Strauss, "The Effect of 100 Percent Tran- 4. Multisystems, Inc., Oram Associates, Inc., and Claire sit Subsidy on Changing Mode Share among Employees Barrett & Associates, TCRP Report 51: A Guidebook for in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area Boston, Marketing Transit Services to Business, Transportation Massachusetts," ACT 2000 International Conference: Research Board, National Research Council, Washing- Imagine the Possibilities, Association for Commuter ton, D.C., 1999. Transportation, Washington, D.C., 2000, 14 pp. 5. Block-Schachter and Attanucci, "Employee Transporta- 12.National Association of Regional Councils, Federal Tran- tion Benefits in High Transit Mode Share Areas: Univer- sit Administration, Federal Highway Administration, sity Case Study," Transportation Research Record: and Environmental Protection Agency, Metro Commuter Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2046, Pass Program: Seattle, Washington, Federal Transit Transportation Research Board of the National Acade- Administration, Washington, D.C., 1998. mies, Washington, D.C., 2008, pp. 5360. 13.Dewey, P. and G.S. Rutherford, "The Evolution of a Suc- 6.Zuehlke, K. and R. Guensler, "A Survey of Employer cessful Travel Demand Management Program," ITE 2000 Transportation Demand Management Strategies in Annual Meeting and Exhibit, Institute of Transportation Atlanta," TDM Review, Vol. 15, No. 1, Association for Engineers, Washington, D.C., 2000, 13 pp. Commuter Transportation, 2007, pp. 1417, 14.Evans, H. and D. Roth, TCRP Report 31: Funding Strate- 7. Texas Transportation Institute and Federal Transit gies for Public Transportation, Volume 2, Transportation Administration, Evaluation of Employer-distributed Research Board, National Research Council, Washing- Pass Programs in Texas, Federal Transit Administration, ton, D.C., 1997, pp. 147151. Washington, D.C., 1988. 15.Nuworsoo, C., "Discounting Transit Passes," Access, No. 8. Lambert, B., and J. Beaudoin, "Transit Programs to 26, University of California Transportation Center, Enhance Transportation Options and Partnerships," Berkeley, 2005, pp. 2227. Annual Conference and Exhibition of the Transportation

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38 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS AATA Ann Arbor Transit Authority MCTA Monroe County Transportation Authority CMAQ Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality MTA Metropolitan Transit Authority Improvement Program MVET Motor Vehicle Excise Tax CTR commute trip reduction ORCA One Regional Card for All (smart card in Seat- DDA Downtown Development Authority tle, Washington, metropolitan area) DEQ Department of Environmental Quality RTA Regional Transportation Authority DGS Department of General Services SR State Route FICA Federal Insurance Contributions Act STAR State Agency Rider GA Department of General Administration TDOT Tennessee Department of Transportation GFI General Fare Industries TRIS Transportation Research Information Services GSE General Service employees WSDOT Washington State Department of Transportation HR human resources