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8 CHAPTER two LITERATURE REVIEW INTRODUCTION behavior. Workplace location was an important factor, as was the level of subsidy offered by the employer. This chapter summarizes findings from a literature review related to employer pass programs. A TRIS search was con- The appendixes to TCRP Report 107 present survey ducted to aid the literature review. The literature review results and case studies undertaken for this project (3). focuses on studies completed since 1999. Most published Several case studies mention public-sector participation in studies address private-sector employers. specific commuter benefits programs, but the purpose of the report was broader. One of the case studies reported on a General Accounting Office (now known as the U.S. Govern- PREVIOUS TCRP STUDIES ment Accountability Office) survey of federal employee par- ticipation in commuter benefits programs. The survey was TCRP Report 87: Strategies for Increasing the Effectiveness conducted nationally, but three-quarters of all participating of Commuter Benefits Programs helped transit agencies and employees worked in the Washington, D.C., area. other organizations to improve commuter benefits programs to meet employer needs and to increase participation through An earlier TCRP report, TCRP Report 51: A Guidebook more effective marketing (1). Important conclusions include for Marketing Transit Services to Business, provided infor- the following: mation on successful business-to-business marketing tech- niques with applications to transit (4). This report included Agencies need to understand and be able to explain an approach to the development and implementation of a clearly tax ramifications of these programs. Proximity transit-to-business marketing plan. to transit and lack of parking increase the receptivity of businesses toward commuter benefits programs. Small employers and employers with a single location PROGRAM SURVEYS can more easily implement new benefits. Employers that pride themselves on being good places to work are Studies in this section review different types of employer interested in new benefits programs. pass programs. Block-Schachter and Attanucci (2008) Agencies also need to understand the hurdles and legal review previous research into group transit purchase pro- concerns employers may have. These could include grams in which employers purchase transit passes for all how to integrate a program of this type into their exist- their employees (5). The motivations for employees and ing benefits package and perceptions of equity among employers to participate are different depending on existing employees regarding the program. transit mode share. The issues are explored in a university It is important that the program be flexible and easily context, but the authors state that the conclusions are broadly tailored to an individual employer's needs. applicable to other organizations and their employees. The program needs to be easy to use by employees and easy to administer. Zuehlke and Guensler (2007) survey employer transpor- tation demand management strategies in the Atlanta area TCRP Report 107: Analyzing the Effectiveness of Com- (6 ). Few employers have adopted transit-related strategies, muter Benefits Programs summarized research on the whereas free parking for employees was nearly universal. impacts of transit benefits programs, included a guide to the Barriers to implementation of transit programs include dis- evaluation of these programs, and provided information on tance from the office to the nearest transit stop, lack of upper the design and implementation of these programs to meet management support, minimal perceived benefits for the goals and objectives in the most effective manner (2). TCRP company, and insufficient employee interest. Report 107 was a companion document to TCRP Report 87. This report found that most programs were successful in A good summary of early employer pass programs may increasing transit ridership, attracting drive-alone commut- be found in a report authored by the Texas Transportation ers to transit, and changing both commute and noncommute Institute (7 ). This 1988 report reviews employer pass pro-