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TCRP TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM SYNTHESIS 84 Current Practices in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Savings Sponsored by the Federal from Transit Transit Administration A Synthesis of Transit Practice

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS ANN AUGUST Santee Wateree Regional Transportation Chair: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Authority Governments, Arlington Vice Chair: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore MEMBERS Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board JOHN BARTOSIEWICZ McDonald Transit Associates MEMBERS MICHAEL BLAYLOCK Jacksonville Transportation Authority J. BARRY BARKER, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY LINDA J. BOHLINGER ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg HNTB Corp. LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson RAUL BRAVO DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Raul V. Bravo & Associates JOHN B. CATOE, JR. Corporation, Norfolk, VA Washington Metropolitan Area Transit WILLIAM A.V. CLARK, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Authority Los Angeles GREGORY COOK NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Veolia Transportation Director, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville TERRY GARCIA CREWS JEFFREY W. HAMIEL, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN StarTran EDWARD A. (NED) HELME, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC KIM R. GREEN GFI GENFARE RANDELL H. IWASAKI, Director, California DOT, Sacramento ANGELA IANNUZZIELLO ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley ENTRA Consultants SUSAN MARTINOVICH, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City JOHN INGLISH DEBRA L. MILLER, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Utah Transit Authority PETE K. RAHN, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City JEANNE W. KRIEG SANDRA ROSENBLOOM, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority TRACY L. ROSSER, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA JONATHAN H. MCDONALD Stantec Consulting STEVEN T. SCALZO, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA GARY W. MCNEIL HENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., GO Transit St. Louis, MO MICHAEL P. MELANIPHY BEVERLY A. SCOTT, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Motor Coach Industries Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA FRANK OTERO DAVID SELTZER, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA PACO Technologies DANIEL SPERLING, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; KEITH PARKER Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, VIA Metropolitan Transit PETER ROGOFF University of California, Davis FTA DOUGLAS W. STOTLAR, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI JEFFREY ROSENBERG C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Amalgamated Transit Union Texas, Austin RICHARD SARLES New Jersey Transit Corporation EX OFFICIO MEMBERS MICHAEL SCANLON San Mateo County Transit District THAD ALLEN (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of BEVERLY SCOTT Homeland Security, Washington, DC Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority PETER H. APPEL, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT JAMES STEM J. RANDOLPH BABBITT, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT United Transportation Union REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, FRANK TOBEY First Transit Smyrna, GA MATTHEW O. TUCKER GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute North County Transit District of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, PAM WARD Washington, DC Ottumwa Transit Authority ANNE S. FERRO, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT ALICE WIGGINS-TOLBERT LEROY GISHI, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of Parsons Brinckerhoff the Interior, Washington, DC EX OFFICIO MEMBERS EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC WILLIAM W. MILLAR JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and APTA Transportation Officials, Washington, DC ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. DAVID T. MATSUDA, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT TRB VICTOR M. MENDEZ, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT JOHN C. HORSLEY WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC AASHTO VICTOR MENDEZ CYNTHIA L. QUARTERMAN, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety FHWA Administration, U.S.DOT PETER M. ROGOFF, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR DAVID L. STRICKLAND, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, LOUIS SANDERS U.S.DOT APTA JOSEPH C. SZABO, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT SECRETARY POLLY TROTTENBERG, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS ROBERT L. VAN ANTWERP (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding TRB General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2009. *Membership as of February 2010.

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP Synthesis 84 Current Practices in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Savings from Transit A Synthesis of Transit Practice Consultants FRANK GALLIVAN ICF International San Francisco, California and MICHAEL GRANT ICF International Fairfax, Virginia S ubscriber C ategories Energy Environment Public Transportation Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP SYNTHESIS 84 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and Project J-7, Topic SH-09 energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current ISSN 1073-4880 systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand ISBN 978-0-309-14303-5 Library of Congress Control Number 2009942375 service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. lems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by COPYRIGHT INFORMATION which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce mate- and based on a study sponsored by the Federal Transit Administra- rial in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is tion (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Associa- given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, tion (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation problem-solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, under- reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses takes research and other technical activities in response to the needs will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or repro- of transit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of duced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equip- ment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and NOTICE administrative practices. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Coopera- TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- tive Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlin- with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. ing TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and organizations: FTA, the National Academy of Sciences, acting through with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Develop- opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency ment Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate by organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Board, the Transit Development Corporation, the National Research Council, or Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the respon- according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation sibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the The Transportation Research Board of The National Academies, the Tran- TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. sit Development Corporation, the National Research Council, and the Federal Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed Transit Administration (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research completeness of the project reporting. problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in Published reports of the other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to are available from: reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: transit Transportation Research Board agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of Business Office research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting 500 Fifth Street, NW material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for work- Washington, DC 20001 shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. and can be ordered through the Internet at: The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the ser- vices of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and prog- ress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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TCRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT J-7 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHAIR CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative DWIGHT A. FERRELL Research Programs Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority GWEN CHISHOLM SMITH, Senior Program Officer EILEEN DELANEY, Director of Publications MEMBERS DEBRA W. ALEXANDER TCRP SYNTHESIS STAFF Capital Area Transportation Authority, Lansing, MI STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and DONNA DeMARTINO Special Programs San Joaquin Regional Transit District, Stockton, CA JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and MARK W. FUHRMANN Synthesis Studies Metro TransitMinneapolis/St. Paul DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer ROBERT H. IRWIN DON TIPPMAN, Editor Consultant, Calgary, AB, Canada CHERYL Y. KEITH, Senior Program Assistant PAUL J. LARROUSSE National Transit Institute, New Brunswick, NJ TOPIC PANEL DAVID A. LEE AMY W. DATZ, Florida Department of Transportation Connecticut Transit, Hartford, CT CHRISTINE GERENCHER, Transportation Research Board FRANK T. MARTIN JOAN LeLACHEUR, Washington Metropolitan Area Transit PBS&J, Tallahassee, FL Authority DAVID PHELPS ADAM MILLARD-BALL, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting LTK Engineering Services, Moneta, VA Associates, San Francisco TIMOTHY PAPANDREOU, San Francisco Municipal HAYWARD M. SEYMORE III Transportation Agency Q Straint, University Place, WA KARL PEET, Chicago Transit Authority PAM WARD STEVEN SILKUNAS, Southeastern Pennsylvania Ottumwa Transit Authority, Ottumwa, IA Transportation Authority JOHN SULLIVAN, Office of Sustainable Transportation Systems, Ann Arbor, MI FTA LIAISON TINA HODGES, Federal Transit Authority (Liaison) LISA COLBERT Federal Transit Administration MICHAEL BALTES Federal Transit Administration TRB LIAISON PETER SHAW Transportation Research Board Cover Figure: Metro Transit Go Greener initiative. Source: Metro Transit, Minneapolis/St.Paul, Minnesota.

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FOREWORD Transit administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowl- edge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due con- sideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the transit industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to- day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful informa- tion and to make it available to the entire transit community, the Transit Cooperative Research Program Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, TCRP Project J-7, "Synthe- sis of Information Related to Transit Problems," searches out and synthesizes useful knowl- edge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute a TCRP report series, Synthesis of Transit Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE This synthesis describes the role of transit agencies in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) By Donna Vlasak emissions and catalogues the current practice of a sample of transit agencies. The purpose of this synthesis is to inform transit agencies on how their services and operations spe- Senior Program Officer cifically impact GHG missions from transportation. Transportation is one of the largest Transportation sources of GHG emissions in the United States. Policymakers, planners, and transportation Research Board agencies are increasingly considering how the transportation sector can reduce its GHG emissions. This goal presents a complex challenge with no one single solution for transit agencies. They can contribute to this goal by increasing total ridership, boosting the num- bers of passengers on individual trips, and reducing their use of energy from fossil-based sources. However, planning for and implementing strategies to reduce GHG emissions are still developing scenarios in the transit industry. Many transit agencies are struggling with how a goal to reduce GHG emissions can fit with their traditional planning objectives. Research for this study included a literature review, a survey of 41 transit agencies (66% response rate), and interviews with three agencies. The agencies that responded to the survey were all implementing or planning to implement reduction strategies. Agency interviews were based on depth of agency experience with reducing GHG emissions and implementation of unique strategy types. Frank Gallivan, ICF International, San Francisco, California, and Michael Grant, ICF International, Fairfax, Virginia, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report, under the guidance of a panel of experts in the subject area. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

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Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Synthesis Purpose, 5 Research Methodology, 5 Report Organization, 6 7 CHAPTER TWO OUR CHANGING CLIMATE What Is Climate Change?, 7 Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Passenger Travel, 7 10 CHAPTER THREE ROLE OF TRANSIT IN REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS Travel Mode Shift, 10 Congestion Mitigation, 12 Compact Development, 12 Emissions from Agency Operations, 13 Net Impact of U.S. Transit on Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 15 17 CHAPTER FOUR TRANSIT STRATEGIES TO REDUCE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS Expanding Transit Service, 18 Increasing Vehicle Passenger Loads, 19 Strategies to Mitigate Congestion, 22 Strategies to Promote Compact Development, 23 Vehicle Emission Reduction Strategies, 24 Strategies to Reduce Emissions from Construction and Maintenance, 28 Other Energy-Efficiency and Renewable Energy Measures, 30 Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Decision Making, 31 Effectiveness of Transit Strategies, 31 34 CHAPTER FIVE ESTIMATING GREENHOUSE GAS SAVINGS FROM TRANSIT Travel Mode Shift, 35 Congestion Mitigation, 36 Compact Development, 37 Emissions from Agency Operations, 38 Analyses Conducted by Survey Respondents, 39 Emissions Inventories and Reporting, 42 Cost Analyses, 43 46 CHAPTER SIX GREENHOUSE GAS POLICIES AND PLANNING State and Federal Greenhouse Gas Policies, 46 Policy and Planning at Transit Agencies, 47 51 CHAPTER SEVEN Case Studies San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit, 51 Los Angeles Metro, 52 LYNX (Orlando, Florida), 53 54 CHAPTER EIGHT CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE STUDY NEEDS

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56 ABBREVIATIONS 58 REFERENCES 61 APPENDIX A SURVEY 74 APPENDIX B SURVEY PARTICIPANTS 76 APPENDIX C GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS SAVINGS FROM SELECTED TRANSIT AGENCIES