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23 Texas; San Diego, California; and Seattle, Washington. abandoned because of objections from the local community. Making better use of existing transit capacity in the selected In cooperation with community stakeholders, BART even- corridors, and improving transit service through intelligent tually developed a TOD on the property that incorporates transportation system strategies will relieve both routine retail, affordable housing, and public space (39) (see Figure congestion and congestion related to roadway incidents, 10). BART has several more TOD projects now in various construction, and special events. Specific transit strategies stages of construction. included in the pilot programs will expand transit service, reduce transit travel times, provide real-time transit infor- mation, and provide incentives to use transit (35). The impact of transit service on congestion is dem- onstrated in statistical analyses. A 2004 study found that congestion costs in a city decline as rail transit mileage expands, but that congestion costs tend to increase as bus mileage expands (36 ). Another study, comparing cities of similar sizes, found that cities with larger rail systems tend FIGURE 10 BART's Fruitvale TOD (Source : BART) to have lower congestion costs (37 ). A third study found that growth in congestion slowed in Baltimore, Sacramento, WMATA has a joint development program to support and St. Louis after rail service began (38). The congestion TOD. The program markets properties owned by WMATA impacts of individual transit services and changes to service to developers with the aim of promoting developments that will depend on such factors as existing levels of congestion reduce dependency on automobiles, increase the share of trips and passenger load factors on vehicles. made by walking and biking, foster safe areas around stations, enhance connections to transit, and provide a mix of land uses. Thirty-six of 41 agencies surveyed said that they are plan- WMATA's Joint Development Policies and Guidelines estab- ning or implementing strategies that can reduce congestion lish the objectives and procedures of the program (40). on roadways. Most are aware that such strategies can reduce GHG emissions, and almost half said that reducing GHG Transit agencies can contribute to other local planning emissions is a factor in their decision to pursue such strate- efforts that promote TOD and compact development. These gies. Sacramento Regional Transportation District noted that, efforts include planning for individual sites as well as con- although GHG emissions were a factor in its pursuit of pref- tributions to broader local and regional planning exercises, erential treatments for transit vehicles, the main goals were such as local comprehensive planning and regional land use to increase ridership and reduce congestion. Five agencies-- and transportation visioning exercises. For example, the Montgomery County DOT, Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) in San Authority, TransLink, Sound Transit, and LACMTA--listed Jose, California, fosters compact TOD through its Develop- reducing GHG emissions as a principal factor for pursuing ment Review Program. VTA works with cities in the region strategies that help to reduce congestion. to ensure that individual projects will be compatible with existing and proposed transit services. VTA also has an out- reach program that promotes compact development through STRATEGIES TO PROMOTE COMPACT DEVELOPMENT local planning exercises (41). The mere presence of transit in a region may promote more Strategies to promote compact development differ from compact development patterns, but transit agencies can play most of the other strategies discussed in this chapter in that an active role in facilitating compact development patterns. transit agencies typically have no capacity to implement Indeed, compact development patterns are best planned in these strategies on their own. Transit agencies do not have conjunction with transit service. Transit agencies can pro- control over land use and typically do not develop residen- mote TOD around their transit stations. Metropolitan plan- tial and commercial properties. Therefore, coordination with ning organizations (MPOs), city and county governments, other public and private agencies is necessary to achieve any and developers also have roles to play in establishing com- direct impact on development patterns. pact developments complementary to transit. Almost three-quarters of survey respondents are either Transit agencies can establish TODs on property they planning or implementing strategies to promote compact own surrounding transit stations and major transit nodes. development patterns or TOD complementary to their tran- BART developed a TOD on surplus agency-owned prop- sit services. Table 6 summarizes the survey responses. All erty at its Fruitvale station in Oakland, California. BART of these agencies said that they are coordinating their own originally proposed to use the land for parking to increase service planning with broader local or regional develop- the number of park-and-ride commuters, but plans were ment decisions. Most are engaging in planning exercises for