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30 OTHER ENERGY-EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE Chicago Transit Authority cited cost savings as the primary ENERGY MEASURES driver for implementing such strategies. Other energy-efficiency measures can reduce emissions Specific energy-saving strategies being pursued include from transit agencies' facilities and administrative func- certification of facilities under the Leadership in Environ- tions. Agencies can reduce energy consumption in office mental Design (LEED) standard, a widely used green-build- buildings, stations, shelters, and maintenance yards through ing and energy-efficiency design standard. Many agencies a variety of energy-saving measures. These include changes already have LEED-certified buildings or policies requiring to lighting, heating, and cooling systems in existing facili- LEED certification of new buildings: ties, as well as building new facilities to a higher standard of energy efficiency. Recycling waste from office buildings, WMATA has a policy goal of LEED Silver certifica- especially paper, can also help to reduce GHG emissions. tion for all new buildings and major renovations. Nonrevenue vehicle fleets can incorporate alternative fuels Sacramento Regional Transit District consolidated its and technology to reduce emissions. Transit agencies can headquarters into a LEED-certified building. offer programs for employees to reduce their own emis- King County Metro is pursuing LEED Silver certifica- sions from their commutes by taking transit themselves or tion or better for any new construction. by carpooling. Lee County Transit will use LEED construction guide- lines for a new facility. Thirty-four of 41 respondents are planning or implement- LACMTA plans to adapt the operation and main- ing strategies to reduce energy consumption and/or GHG tenance of its existing buildings according to LEED emissions from their facilities and administrative functions. principles. Table 10 summarizes survey responses. Three-quarters of respondents are either planning or implementing strategies Another option for transit agencies is to increase the to reduce the energy used in their office buildings. Almost amount of electricity they use from renewable sources. two-thirds of respondents are pursuing strategies to reduce Renewable energy, including solar, wind, and tidal energy, emissions from employee commuting and the energy used in has a much lower GHG impact than energy generated from maintenance yards. About half noted that they are working burning fossil fuels. Transit agencies can install renew- to reduce employee travel. able energy infrastructure on their own property and can purchase more of their electricity from renewable sources. TABLE 10 Individual solar cells can be used to power lighting for bus AGENCIES REDUCING EMISSIONS FROM FACILITIES AND shelters, information signs, and emergency telephones. Some NON-REVENUE VEHICLES (% of 41 respondents) agencies, including LA Metro, have installed solar photovol- Planning or taic cells on the roofs their buildings. Community Transit Emissions Source Planning Implementing Implementing in Washington State is incorporating solar panels in its new Employee facilities. The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority 20% 49% 61% commuting is considering building sources of renewable energy to power Employee travel 15% 34% 44% its transit facilities. Other initiatives to reduce GHG emis- sions from administrative functions include the following: Energy used in 41% 56% 76% office buildings Utah Transit Authority installed timers for lights in Energy used in maintenance yards 37% 39% 63% park-and-ride facilities to reduce consumption of electricity. Other 5% 5% 10% Chicago Transit Authority retrofitted lighting in build- 83% ings to reduce energy consumption. The agency also Any strategies (34 agencies) uses flex-fuel nonrevenue vehicles, which can burn alternative fuels. Almost all agencies pursuing such strategies are aware In 2008, King County Metro significantly expanded that their efforts can reduce GHG emissions. Three-quar- its outreach programs to help employees reduce their ters indicated that reducing GHG emissions was a factor in energy consumption. their agency's decision to pursue these reduction strategies. BART and New Jersey Transit use hybrid vehicles in Reducing GHG emissions was a principal factor for almost a their nonrevenue fleets. quarter of these agencies (Montgomery County DOT, South- west Ohio Regional Transit Authority, Jacksonville Trans- A report commissioned by the FTA will supplement portation Authority, Sound Transit, LACMTA, Hampton current knowledge on strategies to reduce emissions from Roads Transit, Sarasota County Area Transit, and Foothill transit agencies' operations. The Transit Greenhouse Gas Transit). Both Sacramento Regional Transit District and Emissions Management Compendium will guide transit