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42 EMISSIONS INVENTORIES AND REPORTING for details). One agency, Sound Transit, reported that they have estimated emissions associated with employee com- Emissions from agency operations are the core component muting and air travel, and emissions from the nonrevenue of GHG emission inventories for transit agencies. An emis- fleet. Agencies reported using guidance from the California sions inventory is a detailed account of emissions attribut- Climate Action Registry, APTA, The Climate Registry, the able to an agency, subdivided by source category. Standard Chicago Climate Exchange, and the Sacramento Air Quality definitions of responsibility for emissions are emerging as Management District to estimate their emissions. part of GHG reporting schemes, such as The Climate Regis- try, a nonprofit emissions reporting agency, and the Chicago TABLE 16 Climate Exchange, a voluntary program for trading of emis- AGENCIES ESTIMATING OPERATIONAL GHG EMISSIONS sions credits. (% of 41 respondents) Included Emissions Percent The APTA methodology is intended to guide transit Transit vehicle emissions 41 agencies in preparing emissions inventories for submission Emissions from office buildings 27 to The Climate Registry. The Climate Registry uses conven- tions developed by the World Resources Institute to divide Emissions from maintenance yards 34 emissions into three scopes: Construction equipment emissions 7 Scope 1: Direct Emissions --For transit agencies, direct Emissions associated with production or emissions include anything combusted or emitted on transportation of materials (embodied 2 the agency's premises or in the agency's vehicles. emissions) Scope 2: Indirect Emissions --Emissions from pur- Other emissions 2 chased electricity, heating, cooling, and steam. 41 Scope 3: Optional--For transit agencies, this scope Any inventory component (17 agencies) includes displaced emissions from mode shift to transit, con- gestion relief, and the land use multiplier; Eight agencies surveyed indicated that they have reported emissions from transit access trips (e.g., to rail sta- or are planning to report their GHG emissions to a carbon tions or park-and-ride facilities); registry. Agencies are reporting to the California Climate emissions from employee commuting and business Action Registry, the Chicago Climate Exchange, and The travel; Climate Registry. The San Jose Valley Transportation life-cycle emissions from vehicle manufacture and Authority reports its emissions to a local group called Sus- disposal; tainable Silicon Valley. upstream (well-to-tank) emissions from fuel extrac- tion, refining, and transportation; and Some within the transit industry are concerned about emissions from waste disposal. accounting conventions in emissions inventories for tran- sit agencies. The focus to date among carbon registries has The Climate Registry requires agencies to report only been on emissions from agency operations, with little atten- Scope 1 and 2 emissions. Reporting emissions displaced tion paid to emissions that agencies displace. This focus can by transit, which fall under Scope 3, is entirely optional. be challenging for agencies. For example, the Chicago Cli- APTA's methodology strongly recommends that transit mate Exchange currently requires members to show a net agencies reporting their emissions to The Climate Regis- 6% reduction of base 19982001 carbon emissions by 2010. try include Scope 3 emissions to provide a full picture of Displaced emissions are not considered in the calculation. transit's GHG impacts. Transit agencies preparing detailed This requirement would be difficult for agencies to meet if emissions inventories should see APTA's guidance docu- they are seeking to expand service. The focus on emissions ment for further direction on how to categorize and estimate from operations can be challenging to agencies in dealing the agency's GHG emissions impacts. with public perception and policy makers locally, if agencies are seen as emitters of GHGs and their benefits in displacing Some transit agencies have already compiled emissions GHG emissions are not fully recognized. inventories, either for internal use or for reporting to The Climate Registry or other organizations. More than one- Agencies are responding to these challenges both pas- third of agencies surveyed have estimated or are estimat- sively and proactively. Some agencies are adopting a wait- ing baseline or historical GHG emissions produced by their and-see approach before joining any carbon registries, agency. Of those agencies, all have included transit vehicle because they would like a formal method of accounting for emissions in their estimates. Other components of agen- displaced emissions before joining. Other agencies are con- cies' emissions are included less frequently (see Table 16 sidering joining the Chicago Climate Exchange to possibly