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46 CHAPTER six GREENHOUSE GAS POLICIES AND PLANNING Many transit agencies reduce GHG emissions from trans- Some state governments have established policies requir- portation through their existing public transportation ser- ing a reduction in GHG emissions. Beginning with Califor- vices. When agencies implement strategies that further nia's Assembly Bill (AB) 32, passed in 2006, 21 states have reduce GHG emissions, customer service, cost, and exist- adopted targets to reduce GHG emissions. Figure 20 shows ing environmental regulations are often the primary drivers. states that have adopted targets. Many states have also joined Targeted planning for GHG reductions is relatively rare at regional multistate GHG emissions trading schemes, includ- transit agencies. At the same time, many states and even the ing the Western Climate Initiative, the Regional Greenhouse federal government are moving toward regulation of GHG Gas Initiative in the northeast, and the Midwestern Green- emissions from transportation and other sectors. A few tran- house Gas Reduction Accord. So far only the Western Cli- sit agencies are developing policies and planning procedures mate Initiative plans to include transportation emissions in for GHG emissions. its trading scheme. Thirty-six states have developed or are developing com- STATE AND FEDERAL GREENHOUSE GAS POLICIES prehensive climate action plans to reduce GHG emissions (61). These plans typically propose and analyze the emis- Pressure is now mounting within the federal and state gov- sions impacts of strategies for the transportation, energy, and ernments for the transportation industry, as well as other agriculture and forestry sectors. Most states have included industries, to manage and reduce their GHG emissions. In transit strategies in their climate action plans. particular, the Obama administration has called for Con- gress to pass legislation to reduce GHG emissions. Legis- A few states are beginning to implement transportation lation that would affect the transportation industry could measures to achieve their GHG reduction goals. California come in the form of amendments to the Clean Air Act, reau- passed landmark Senate Bill (SB) 375 in 2008, which will thorization of federal transportation funding, or a separate establish regional targets to reduce GHG emissions from piece of legislation devoted to climate change. Congress has passenger travel for California's 18 MPOs. As part of their already devoted substantial attention in recent years to the long-range transportation planning processes, MPOs will possibility of an emissions trading scheme for GHG emis- be required to prepare strategies that identify how they will sions. Ten bills containing emissions trading provisions were meet these regional targets and to use their transportation introduced during the 110th Congress; some of these bills funding authority to achieve the targets. MPOs will have to included the transportation sector. quantify the impacts of strategies to reduce GHG emissions. FIGURE 20 States with GHG reduction goals (Source : Pew Center on Global Climate Change, "Climate Change 101: State Action," Jan. 2009.)