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51 CHAPTER seven CASE STUDIES This chapter presents three case studies of agencies that are BART is one of the first transit agencies in the coun- working to reduce GHG emissions: try to study the cost-effectiveness of a range of options to reduce GHG emissions (see Cost Analyses in chapter five). BART--San Francisco, California The study is intended to prepare BART to take advantage of LA Metro--Los Angeles, California any funding opportunities that may arise for strategies that LYNX--Orlando, Florida reduce GHG emissions. BART is actively monitoring legis- lative and regulatory developments that affect GHG emis- sions, including California's AB 32 and SB 375. The agency SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA RAPID TRANSIT sees a potential to sell credits under an emissions-trading scheme. The information on strategy cost-effectiveness may BART provides commuter rail service in the metropolitan prepare BART to apply for any grant funds that may become region of San Francisco and Oakland, California, with a total available to reduce GHG emissions. urban area population of 3.2 million. BART provides 1.4 bil- lion passenger miles of service annually on 209 directional BART is conducting a separate exercise to estimate its route miles. own emissions from operation of service vehicles, facilities, and associated administrative functions. BART intends to BART has begun to consider its role in reducing GHG incorporate the cost-effectiveness and inventory studies into emissions just in the past two to three years. A representative a comprehensive Climate Action Plan that will inform deci- from BART sits on the APTA Climate Change Standards sion making. BART has not yet conducted a comprehensive Working Group. BART is planning and implementing a full assessment of emissions displaced by its service. range of strategies that can reduce GHG emissions from the regional transportation footprint and from the agency's BART is also conducting an initiative to publicize the own operations, although many of these strategies are pur- benefits of its service to GHG emissions, as well as other sued primarily to improve air quality and accessibility, and environmental benefits, as part of a marketing drive. BART's reduce costs. BART's current and future strategies include internally released "Green Facts" sheet provides information the following: on the impact that an individual can have on GHG emissions by taking BART. It also provides information on some of TOD planning --BART is planning and constructing the strategies that BART is using and planning to reduce TOD at several of its rail stations, in partnership with its own energy use and GHG emissions. BART has added a local and regional governments and with other regional carbon calculator to its web-based trip planner (www.bart. transit agencies. BART views this strategy as particu- gov) and has received positive reactions from users (see Fig- larly important to reducing regional GHG emissions. ure 23.BART hopes that publicizing the GHG benefits of its Energy-efficiency measures for rail cars and stations--A services will improve public opinion of the agency and even- study jointly commissioned by BART and the local elec- tually bring more funding to the agency. tric utility, Pacific Gas & Electric, found that BART could save substantial electricity through measures such as improved regenerative braking and lighting and improvements to heating and air-conditioning systems in rail cars and stations. These measures also would help to reduce GHG emissions. Renewable energy --BART already draws about two-thirds of its energy from low-GHG hydroelectric plants. The agency is considering expanding its use of clean energy. FIGURE 23 BART CO2 calculator.