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58 REFERENCES 1. Special Report 251: Toward a Sustainable Future, Trans- 13.Arrington, G.B. and R. Cervero, TCRP Report 128 : portation Research Board, National Research Council, Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, and Travel, Trans- Washington, D.C., 1997, 275 pp. portation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 2008, 66 pp. 2. "Climate Change 2007: The Physical Basis. Summary for Policymakers," Contribution of Working Group I to the 14.Chester, M., Life-cycle Environmental Inventory of Pas- Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel senger Transportation in the United States, Disserta- on Climate Change, 2007 [Online]. Available: http://www. tions, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of ipcc.ch/SPM2feb07.pdf [accessed Apr. 8, 2009]. California, Berkeley, 2008. 3. Hodges, T., Public Transportation's Role in Responding 15. Washington State Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Pro- to Climate Change, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. jections, 19902020, Center for Climate Strategies, Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., Jan. Washington, D.C., Dec. 2007. 2009. 16.Baxandall, P., T. Dutzik, and Joshua Hoen Frontier 4. Davis, T. and M. Hale, Public Transportation's Contribu- Group, A Better Way to Go: Meeting America's 21st Cen- tion to U.S. Greenhouse Gas Reduction, Science Appli- tury Transportation Challenges with Modern Public cations Internal Corporation, San Diego, Calif., 2007. Transit, California's Public Interest Research Group (CalPIRG) Education Fund, Sacramento, 2008. 5. Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 19902007, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 17. van de Coevering, P. and T. Schwanen, "Re-evaluating Washington, D.C., Apr. 2009. the Impact of Urban Form on Travel Patterns in Europe and North-America," Transport Policy, Vol. 13, No. 3, 6. Feigon, S., D. Hoyt, L. McNally, R. Mooney-Bullock, S. 2006 as cited in Bailey et al., The Broader Connection Campbell, and D. Leach, TCRP Report 93: Travel Mat- between Public Transportation, Energy Conservation ters: Mitigating Climate Change with Sustainable Sur- and Greenhouse Gas Reduction, ICF International, Fair- face Transportation, Transportation Research Board and fax, Va., 2008. Center for Neighborhood Technology, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 2003, 89 pp. 18.Replogle, M. and H. Parcells, Linking Bicycle/Pedes- trian Facilities with Transit, National Association of 7. Shapiro, R.J. K.A. Hassett, and F.S. Arnold, Conserving Railroad Passengers and Federal Highway Administra- Energy and Preserving the Environment: The Role of tion, Washington D.C., 1992. 105 pp. Public Transportation, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, D.C., 2002, 39 pp. 19. COMMUTER v.2.0 Model Coefficients, Office of Trans- portation and Air Quality, Transportation and Regional 8. Climate Analysis Indicators Tool, 2005 data, World Programs Division, Environmental Protection Agency, Resources Institute, Washington, D.C. [Online]. Avail- Washington, D.C., Oct. 2005. able: http://cait.wri.org/ [accessed May 14, 2009.] 20.Pratt, R.H. and J.E. Evans, IV, TCRP Report 95: Chapter 9. Schrank, D. and T. Lomax, The 2007 Urban Mobility 10 : Bus Routing and Coverage, Transportation Research Report, Texas Transportation Institute and The Texas Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., A&M University System, College Station, 2007. 2004, 74 pp. 10.Bailey, L., P.L. Mokhtarian, and A. Little, The Broader 21. Bailey, L., Public Transportation and Petroleum Savings Connection between Public Transportation, Energy in the U.S.: Reducing Dependence on Oil, ICF Interna- Conservation and Greenhouse Gas Reduction, ICF tional, Fairfax, Va., 2007. International, Fairfax, Va., 2008, 34 pp. 22.Dargay, J.M. and M. Hanly, "Land Use and Mobility," 11. Holtzclaw, J., Does a Mile in a Car Equal a Mile on a presented at the World Conference on Transport Train? Exploring Public Transit's Effectiveness in Reduc- Research, Istanbul, Turkey, 2004. (As cited in Bailey et ing Driving, Sierra Club, San Francisco, Calif., 2000. al., The Broader Connection between Public Transpor- 12.Evans, J.E., IV, and R.H. Pratt, TCRP Report 95, Chapter tation, Energy Conservation and Greenhouse Gas 17: Transit Oriented Development, Transportation Reduction, ICF International, Fairfax, Va., 2008.) Research Board, National Research Council, Washing- 23.Evan, J.E., IV, TCRP Report 95, Chapter 9: Transit ton, D.C., 2007, 138 pp. Scheduling and Frequency, Transportation Research

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59 Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 35.Baltes, M., et al., "Managing Congestion with Integrated 2004, 42 pp. Corridor Management," Mass Transit Magazine, April/ May 2008 [Online]. Available: http://www.masstransit- 24."Transit Station Improvements," Victoria Transport Pol- mag.com/print/Mass-Transit/Managing-Congestion-with- icy Institute, Victoria, BC, Canada, Aug. 2008 [Online], Integrated-Corridor-Management/1$5923 [accessed Apr. 4, Available: http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm127.htm 2009]. [accessed Apr. 8, 2009]. 36.Winston, C. and A. Langer, The Effect of Government 25.ICF International with R. Kuzmyak, SAFETEA-LU Highway Spending on Road Users' Congestion Costs, 1808: CMAQ Evaluation and Assessment Phase I Final Brookings Institute, Washington, D.C., 2004 (As cited in Report, Prepared for the Federal Highway Administra- Litman, T., Evaluating Rail Transit Criticism, Victoria tion, Fairfax, Va., Sep. 2008. Transport Policy Institute, Nov. 2008.) 26.Accessing Transit: Design Handbook for Florida Bus 37. Litman, T., Evaluating Rail Transit Criticism, Victoria Passenger Facilities, Florida Planning and Development Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC, Canada, Nov. Lab, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Flor- 2008. ida State University, Tallahassee, 2008. 38.Garrett, T.A., Light Rail Transit in America: Policy 27."San Francisco Transit Effectiveness Project: SFMTA Issues and Prospects for Economic Development, Fed- Board Update," San Francisco Municipal Transportation eral Reserve Bank of St. Louis, Mo., 2004. (As cited in Agency, Sep. 24, 2007 [Online]. Available: http://www. Litman, T., Evaluating Rail Transit Criticism, Victoria sf mt a .c om / c m s / mt e p / do cu me nt s /10.10.07 % 20 Transport Policy Institute, Nov. 2008.) SFTEP%20Operations%20Review%20ppt.pdf [accessed June 12, 2009]. 39.Jacobson, J. and A. Forsyth, "Seven American TODs: Good Practices for Urban Design in Transit-Oriented 28.King, R.D., TCRP Synthesis 49: Yield to Bus--State of Development Projects," Journal of Transportation and the Practice, Transportation Research Board, National Land Use, Vol. 1, No. 2, Fall 2008, pp. 5188. Research Council, Washington, D.C., 2003, 78 pp. 40.WMATA Joint Development Policies and Guidelines, 29.Southampton University and the University of Ports- Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Wash- mouth Transport Research Laboratory, Monitoring and ington D.C., revised Nov. 2008. Evaluation of a Public Transport Priority Scheme in Southampton, Transport Research Laboratory, 41. "Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) Program," Santa Crowthorne, Berkshire, United Kingdom, 1999. Clara Valley Transportation Authority, San Jose, Calif., 2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.vta.org/projects/ 30.Burgess, E. and A. Rood, Reinventing Transit: American tod.html [accessed Apr. 8, 2009]. Communities Finding Smarter, Cleaner, Faster Trans- portation Solutions, Environmental Defense Fund, New 42.TIAX LLC, Fuel Cycle Assessment: Well-to-Wheels York, N.Y., 2009. Energy Inputs, Emissions, and Water Impacts, Califor- nia Energy Commission, Sacramento, 2007. 31. Turnbull, K.P. and R.H. Pratt, TCRP Report 95, Chapter 11: Transit Information and Promotion, Transportation 43.Fargione, J., J. Hill, D. Tillmand, S. Polasky, and P. Haw- Research Board, National Research Council, Washing- thorne, "Land Clearing and the Biofuel Carbon Debt," ton, D.C., 2004, 71 pp. Science, Vol. 319, No. 5867, Feb. 29, 2008, pp. 12351238. 32.McCollom. B.E. and R.H. Pratt, TCRP Report 95, Chap- ter 12: Transit Pricing and Fares, Traveler Response to 44.Searchinger, T.D., et al., "Use of U.S. Croplands for Bio- Transportation System Changes, Transportation fuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions Research Board, National Research Council, Washing- from Land-Use Change," Science, Vol. 319, No. 5867, ton, D.C., 2004, 59 pp. Feb. 29, 2008, pp. 12381240. 33.ICF Consulting and Center for Urban Transportation 45.Feigon, S., D. Hoyt, L. McNally, R. Mooney-Bullock, S. Research, TCRP Report 107: Analyzing the Effective- Campbell, and D. Leach, TCRP Report 93, Travel Mat- ness of Commuter Benefits Programs, Transportation ters: Mitigating Climate Change with Sustainable Sur- Research Board, National Research Council, Washing- face Transportation, Transportation Research Board, ton, D.C., 2005, 75 pp. National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 2003, 59 pp. plus appendices. 34.San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, "2009 Climate Action Plan: Draft for Public Review," Dec. 46.Public Transit: A Climate Change Solution, Issue Paper 2008. 16, Canadian Urban Transit Association, Toronto, ON, Canada, Dec. 2005.

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60 47. Gallivan, F., J. Ang-Olsen, and D. Turcheta, "Innova- 56."Climate Action Plan," San Francisco Municipal Trans- tions in State-led Action to Reduce Greenhouse Gas portation Agency, San Francisco, Calif., 2009 [Online]. Emissions from Transportation: The State Climate Available: http://www.sfmta.com/cms/rcap/capindx. Action Plan," presented at the Annual Meeting of the htm [Accessed Apr. 8, 2009]. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., Jan. 57. Millard-Ball, A., Bus Rapid Transit and Carbon Offsets, 1317, 2008. Issues Paper prepared for California Climate Action 48.Boies, A., et al., Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Registry, Los Angeles, Nov. 2008. from Transportation Sources in Minnesota, University 58.Ochoa, M.C., "New York City Fleet Upgrades: Con- of Minnesota Center for Transportation Studies, Min- ventional Diesel, Hybrid or CNG?" In Media Res Cost- neapolis, 2008, 60 pp. Benefit Analysis, Department of City and Regional 49. Baseline Methodology for Bus Rapid Transit Projects, Planning, University of California, Berkeley, 2008. Clean Development Mechanism Executive Board, United 59.Nelson/Nygaard Consulting Associates, BART Actions Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to Reduce GHG Emissions: A Cost Effectiveness Analy- (UNFCCC), Bonn, Germany, 2006. sis, San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District, San 50. Recommended Practice for Quantifying Greenhouse Francisco, Calif., Nov. 2008. Gas Emissions from Transit: Draft, Climate Change 60.Litman, T., Evaluating Public Transit Benefits and Costs, Standards Working Group, American Public Transpor- Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC, Can- tation Association, Washington, D.C., Mar. 2008. ada, 2008. 51. Hellinga, B. and J. Cicuttin, "Impacts of New Express 61. "Climate Change 101: State Action," Pew Center on Bus Service in Waterloo Region," submitted for the Global Climate Change, Arlington, Va., Jan. 2009. Transportation Association of Canada Annual Confer- ence, Session, Integrating Transit Service into Commu- 62.Appendix 4: Leading the Way: Implementing Practical nities, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Oct. 1417, 2007. Solutions to the Climate Change Challenge, Transporta- tion Implementation Working Group, Washington State 52.Litman, T., Rail Transit in America: A Comprehensive Climate Action Team, Olympia, 2008. Evaluation of Benefits, Victoria Transport Policy Insti- tute, Victoria, BC, Canada, Aug. 31, 2006. 63.2009 Pilot Phase of APTA Sustainability Commitment, American Public Transportation Association, Washing- 53. Sacramento Region Blueprint Transportation Land Use ton, D.C., 2009. Study, Special Report: Preferred Blueprint Alternative, Sacramento Council of Governments, June 2007. 64.A Low Carbon Future with Public Transport, Interna- tional Association of Public Transport, Brussels, Bel- 54.Bartholomew, K., "Integrating Land Use Issues into gium, Jan. 2007. Transportation Planning: Scenario Planning--Summary Report," University of Idaho, Salt Lake City, and Federal 65. Greening Mass Transit and Metro Regions: A Synopsis Transit Administration, Washington, D.C., 2005, 34 pp. of the Final Report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on Sustainability and the MTA, Metropolitan Transporta- 55.Wayne, W.S., Environmental Benefits of Alternative tion Authority, State of New York, Albany, Feb. 2009. Fuels and Advanced Technology in Transit, Federal Transit Administration, Washington, D.C., 2007.