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61 Appendix A SURVEY Survey Process An initial generic e-mail was sent to all survey candidates, asking them to fill out the survey within two weeks. An additional reminder e-mail was sent to those agencies that had not yet responded after one week. Finally, one third set of personalized e-mails was sent to those agencies that had not responded after two weeks. In addition, project panel members were asked to fol- low up with survey candidates as far as possible. Additional assistance was offered to agencies that were having difficulty meet- ing the specified deadline. The response deadline was ultimately extended by two weeks for agencies that needed extra time. The survey was administered using on online survey tool, SurveyMonkey. The length of the survey varied depending on participants' responses to individual questions. The survey used "skip logic" to present only the relevant questions to each respondent. For example, if a respondent answered that her agency is pursuing a particular type of strategy, she was presented with two additional questions to gather further detail on those strategies. If not, these questions were automatically skipped. Because the scope of this study is broad, the survey included a large number of questions. Depending on responses to indi- vidual questions, a completed survey ranged in length from 37 questions to 72 questions. A few agencies did not complete the entire survey. Participants were provided with the option of completing the survey in either an online or printable format. Completed surveys were accepted from February 13 through March 17, 2009. Survey Questionnaire Current Practices in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Savings from Transit: Basics Research Purpose: The purpose of this survey is to gather information about the efforts of transit agencies to reduce green- house gas (GHG) emissions from transportation, as part of a Synthesis of Practice being prepared for the Transportation Research Board. The following questions will ask what specific strategies your agency is pursuing and whether you have estimated the emissions savings that will result from strategies. Strategies that reduce GHG emissions typically encompass those that reduce energy consumption or use alternative forms of energy. Based on the results of this survey, some agencies will be asked to serve as case studies. Additional case study research will be conducted by telephone interview. Survey Instructions: Please expect to spend 3045 minutes to complete the survey in full. You can exit the survey at any point and return later to fill in skipped questions or change answers to questions. Your responses will be automatically saved. Please note that you must continue the survey from the same computer on which you started. 1. Please complete the information below. Transit Agency:______________________________ Contact Name:_______________________________ Title:_______________________________________ Email:______________________________________ Telephone:_ _________________________________

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62 2. Is your agency considering how it can reduce GHG emissions from its own operations and/or from the regional trans- portation footprint (e.g., through formal or informal discussions, quantification of GHG emissions, or participation in state, regional, or local climate planning)? Yes No Strategies: New Service The following questions ask about specific strategies that your agency may be planning or implementing. 3. Are you planning or implementing measures for new, expanded, or increased transit service? Yes No 4. For each applicable category, are you planning or implementing measures, or both? Planning Implementing Expanded route coverage Increased service frequency Increased hours of operation New service types (e.g., BRT or LRT) Other (specify below): 5. What role have GHG emissions played in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies? Reducing GHG emissions is a principal factor in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies. Reducing GHG emissions is a factor in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies, but not a principal one. The agency is aware of the potential impact of these strategies on GHG emissions. The agency has not considered the impact of these strategies on GHG emissions. Comments Strategies: Improve Existing Service 6. Are you planning or implementing strategies that would increase ridership or load factors on existing transit service? Yes No

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63 7. For each applicable category, are you planning or implementing measures, or both? Planning Implementing Transit marketing campaigns Provision of real-time transit information or trip planning software Improved transit shelters and station stops Improved transit access for bicycles and pedestrians Improved transit access for the disabled and elderly Improved vehicle comfort Service improvements, e.g. timed transfers, reduced travel times, improved modal integration Changes in fare structures or payment methods Safety improvements Optimization of existing routes and services Other (specify below): 8. What role have GHG emissions played in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies? Reducing GHG emissions is a principal factor in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies. Reducing GHG emissions is a factor in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies, but not a principal one. The agency is aware of the potential impact of these strategies on GHG emissions. The agency has not considered the impact of these strategies on GHG emissions. Comments Strategies: Compact Development 9. Are you planning or implementing strategies to promote compact development patterns or transit oriented develop- ment (TOD) complementary to transit service? Yes No 10. For each applicable category, are you planning or implementing measures, or both? Planning Implementing Station area planning Coordination with local/regional development decisions Other (specify below): 11. What role have GHG emissions played in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies? Reducing GHG emissions is a principal factor in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies. Reducing GHG emissions is a factor in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies, but not a principal one. The agency is aware of the potential impact of these strategies on GHG emissions.

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64 The agency has not considered the impact of these strategies on GHG emissions. Comments Strategies: Congestion Mitigation 12. Are you planning or implementing strategies that would reduce roadway congestion (e.g., bus lanes, bus pull-outs, signal timing for transit vehicles), in addition to any service changes previously noted? Yes No 13. For each applicable category, are you planning or implementing measures, or both? Planning Implementing Bus-only lanes Signal preemption/signal timing for transit vehicles Bus pull outs Other (specify below): 14. What role have GHG emissions played in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies? Reducing GHG emissions is a principal factor in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies. Reducing GHG emissions is a factor in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies, but not a principal one. The agency is aware of the potential impact of these strategies on GHG emissions. The agency has not considered the impact of these strategies on GHG emissions. Comments Strategies: Vehicle Fuel Efficiency 15. Are you planning or implementing strategies to improve the fuel efficiency of the existing transit fleet? Yes No 16. For each applicable category are you planning or implementing measures, or both? Planning Implementing Anti-idling policies or technologies Vehicle maintenance programs Vehicle engine retrofits Driver education Other (specify below): 17. What role have GHG emissions played in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies? Reducing GHG emissions is a principal factor in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies. Reducing GHG emissions is a factor in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies,

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65 but not a principal one. The agency is aware of the potential impact of these strategies on GHG emissions. The agency has not considered the impact of these strategies on GHG emissions. Comments Strategies: Lower Emitting Vehicles 18. Are you currently operating or planning to purchase low GHG-emitting transit vehicles (e.g., high mpg buses, hybrid buses, CNG buses)? Yes No 19. For each applicable category, are you planning to purchase, purchasing, or currently operating these vehicles? (Check all the apply.) Planning to Purchase Purchasing (i.e., Currently (i.e., in short or long funding secured Operating range plan) or orders placed) Higher efficiency conventional (ICE) vehicles Hybrid-electric vehicles Electric vehicles Alternative fuel/flux-fuel vehicles (vehicles designed for alternative fuels) Vehicle conversion kits Other (specify below): 20. What role have GHG emissions played in the agency's decision to purchase these vehicles? Reducing GHG emissions is a principal factor in the agency's decision to purchase these vehicles. Reducing GHG emissions is a factor in the agency's decision to purchase these vehicles, but not a principal one. The agency is aware of the potential impact of these vehicles on GHG emissions. The agency has not considered the impact of these vehicles on GHG emissions. Comments Strategies: Alternative Fuels 21. Are you using or planning to use alternative fuels in any transit vehicles? Yes No

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66 22. For each applicable fuel type, are you currently using the fuel? Are you planning to begin or increase use of the fuel? Planning to Begin Currently Using or Increase Use Ethanol Biodiesel Electric vehicles Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Hydrogen Electricity Other (specify below): 23. Please describe any plans to increase use of alternative fuels in transit vehicles. 24. What role have GHG emissions played in the agency's decision to use alternative fuels? Reducing GHG emissions is a principal factor in the agency's decision to pursue these fuels. Reducing GHG emissions is a factor in the agency's decision to pursue these fuels, but not a principal one. The agency is aware of the potential impact of these fuels on GHG emissions. The agency has not considered the impact of these fuels on GHG emissions. Comments Strategies: Construction and Maintenance 25. Are you planning or implementing strategies to reduce energy consumption or GHG emissions from your agency's infrastructure construction and maintenance activities? Yes No 26. For each applicable category, are you planning or implementing measures, or both? Planning Implementing Use of alternative fuels/technologies in non-revenue vehicles Changes to construction equipment, vehicles, or fuels Use of alternative construction materials Recycling construction waste Sourcing materials locally Other (specify below):

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67 27. What role have GHG emissions played in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies? Reducing GHG emissions is a principal factor in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies. Reducing GHG emissions is a factor in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies, but not a principal one. The agency is aware of the potential impact of these strategies on GHG emissions. The agency has not considered the impact of these strategies on GHG emissions. Comments Strategies: Other 28. Are you planning or implementing strategies to reduce energy consumption or GHG emissions from the agency's administrative functions? Yes No 29. For each applicable category, are you planning or implementing measures, or both? Planning Implementing Employee commuting Employee travel Energy used in office buildings Energy used in maintenance yards Other (specify below): 30. What role have GHG emissions played in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies? Reducing GHG emissions is a principal factor in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies. Reducing GHG emissions is a factor in the agency's decision to pursue these strategies, but not a principal one. The agency is aware of the potential impact of these strategies on GHG emissions. The agency has not considered the impact of these strategies on GHG emissions. Comments Strategies: Additional Detail 31. Please describe any additional strategies that your agency is planning or implementing to reduce GHG emissions. 32. Please describe in more detail your agency's top 3 (if any) strategies intended to reduce GHG emissions, either from operations or from the regional transportation footprint. Analyses: Emissions Displaced by Transit The following questions pertain to techniques used to estimate the impact and cost-effectiveness of GHG reduction strate- gies. For each strategy that you indicated your agency is considering or implementing, please indicate which if any types of quantitative analysis have been performed.

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68 33. Have you estimated (or are you estimating) the impact of exiting transit or planned improvements to transit service on VMT, fuel use, or GHG emissions from private autos? Yes No 34. Have you forecast (or are you forecasting) the impact of new transit service or improvements to existing service on VMT, fuel use, or GHG emissions from private autos? Yes No 35. For each applicable category, which impacts have you analyzed or are your analyzing? GHG Emissions Vehicle Miles Traveled Fuel Use in from Private in Private Autos Private Autos Autos Expanded route coverage Increased service frequency Increased hours of operation New service types (e.g., BRT or LRT) Transit marketing campaigns Provision of transit information Improved transit shelters and station stops Improved transit access for bicycles and pedestrians Improved transit access for the disabled and elderly Improved vehicle comfort Service improvements, e.g., timed transfers, reduced travel times, improved modal integration Changes in fare structures or payment methods Safety improvements Optimization of existing routes and services Other (specify below): 36. Briefly describe the analyses and methodologies. Please provide references to guidance documents and any other writ- ten documentation. 37. Have you estimated (or are you estimating) the impact of your existing transit service on VMT, fuel use, or GHG emis- sions from private autos? Yes No

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69 38. Briefly describe the analyses and methodologies. Please provide references to guidance documents and any other writ- ten documentation. 39. Have you estimated (or are you estimating) the additional impact of transit service on travel in private autos due to related land use changes (i.e., compact development facilitated by transit)? Yes No 40. Briefly describe the analyses and methodologies. Please provide references to guidance documents and any other writ- ten documentation. 41. Have you estimated (or are you estimating) the additional impact of transit service on private auto fuel use or GHG emissions due to reduced congestion? Yes No 42. Briefly describe the analyses and methodologies. Please provide references to guidance documents and any other writ- ten documentation. Analyses: Emissions Produced by Transit 43. Have you estimated (or are you estimating) baseline or historical GHG emissions produced by your transit agency? Yes No 44. Which emissions are included? (Check all that apply.) Transit vehicle emissions Emissions from office buildings Emissions from maintenance yards Construction equipment emissions Emissions associated with production or transportation of materials (embodied emissions) Other (specify below) 45. Briefly describe the analyses and methodologies. Please provide references to guidance documents and any other writ- ten documentation.

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70 46. Have you reported or are you planning to report your GHG emissions to the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX), The Climate Registry, or other carbon registries? Yes No 47. Briefly describe your experience with reporting your GHG emissions to carbon registries. 48. Have you forecast (or are you forecasting) the impact of any strategies on your transit agency's fuel use or GHG emissions? Yes No 49. For each applicable strategy category, which impacts have you forecast or are you forecasting? Fuel/Energy Use GHG Emissions from by the Transit Agency Vehicles and Agency Operations Expansion of transit service Changes in transit vehicle fleets and/or fuel mix Energy efficiency measures for office buildings Energy efficiency measures for maintenance yards Changes to construction equipment and/or fuel mix Changes to construction materials Other (specify below): 50. Briefly describe the analyses and methodologies. Please provide references to guidance documents and any other writ- ten documentation. Analyses: Cost Analyses 51. Have you estimated (or are you estimating) the cost-effectiveness of strategies to reduce VMT or GHG emissions ($/ VMT or $/ton)? Yes No

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71 52. Briefly describe the analyses and methodologies. Please provide references to guidance documents and any other writ- ten documentation. Analyses: Additional Information 53. Have you used any additional resources or guidance documents, other than those already mentioned, to quantify GHG emissions? Yes No 54. What additional resources or guidance documents has your agency used to quantify GHG emissions? 55. Are you aware of the draft APTA guidance on quantification of GHG emissions? Yes No 56. In conducting any analyses of GHG impacts, what challenges have you faced? What additional information, research, and tools are needed? Planning and Implementation Issues 57. How are GHG emissions considered in your agency's decision making? (Check all that apply.) In long term planning In short term planning In plans for specific lines/services Informally considered Not considered Other (specify below) 58. Has your agency adopted or begun to develop policies to reduce GHG emissions (e.g., reduction targets or a climate plan)? Yes No 59. Please describe these policies. 60. Is your agency affected by any state, regional, or local GHG policies? Yes No

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72 61. What are the relevant policies? How is your agency affected by them? 62. Has your agency discussed climate change issues with state, regional, or local governments? Yes No 63. Briefly describe the discussion's scope and context. Which agency initiated discussions? 64. What are the greatest challenges your agency faces in reducing GHG emissions? (Rank all that apply, where 1 is the greatest challenge.) Rank Difficulty describing the GHG benefits of strategies to stakeholders/decisions makers Insufficient partnerships with other regional players (e.g., cities, MPOs, other transit agencies) Lack of staff know-how Technical barriers to implementation of emissions reduction strategies Planning mechanisms/procedures do not consider GHG emissions Lack of staff capacity (person-hours) Lack of organizational mandate/policy Lack of appropriate tools, data, or analysis techniques Lack of funding Other (specify below): 65. What does your agency need to overcome these challenges (e.g., specific training, research, additional staff hires, etc.)? 66. Does your agency have a designated staff person to address climate change/GHG emissions issues? Yes No 67. In what department is the staff person housed? 68. Does your agency have any additional efforts to reduce GHG emissions, other than those already mentioned? Please describe.

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73 Synthesis Report 69. If selected, would you be willing to serve as a case study for this TCRP Synthesis report? Yes No 70. Do you have any suggestions of other agencies that we should survey and/or consider as case studies? Please provide contact names. Agency Name/ Contact Name: Agency Name/ Contact Name: Agency Name/ Contact Name: 71. What information would you most like to see provided in this TCRP Synthesis of Practice? 72. Please describe. Please provide any additional comments below. Thank You! If you would like to submit additional information or documents, or you have questions or comments about this survey, please contact Frank Gallivan (fgallivan@icfi.com). Thank you!