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TCRP TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM SYNTHESIS 85 Effective Use of Citizen Advisory Committees for Sponsored by the Federal Transit Planning and Operations Transit Administration A Synthesis of Transit Practice

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TCRP OVERSIGHT TRANSPORTATION AND PROJECT COMMITTEE* ACRP OVERSIGHT RESEARCH BOARD RESEARCH TRANSPORTATION 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR CHAIR OFFICERS OFFICERS ANN AUGUST James Wilding Santee Wateree Regional Transportation CHAIR Chair: Michael R.:Morris, Adib K.Director of Cahill Kanafani, Transportation, Professor ofNorth Civil Central Texas Engineering, Council of California, Berkeley University Independent Consultant VICEArlington Governments, CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Authority Vice Chair: Neil J. Pedersen, Arlington Governments, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore MEMBERS VICE CHAIR Executive Director: EXECUTIVERobert E. DIRECTOR Skinner, : Robert E.Jr., Transportation Skinner, ResearchResearch Jr., Transportation Board Board JOHN BARTOSIEWICZ Jeff Hamiel McDonald Transit AssociatesPaul MinneapolisSt. MEMBERS MEMBERS MICHAEL BLAYLOCK Metropolitan Airports Commission Jacksonville Transportation Authority J. BARRY BARKER, Executive J. Barry Barker, Director, Executive Transit Director, Authority Transit of River Authority City, City, of River Louisville, KY KY Louisville, LINDA J. BOHLINGER ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, DOT, Harrisburg HNTB Corp. MEMBERS Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania Harrisburg LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Larry L. Brown, Director, Sr., Executive Mississippi Director, DOT, Mississippi Jackson DOT, Jackson RAUL BRAVO James Crites DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Raul V. Bravo & Associates Deborah DallasFort Worth International Airport Corporation, Norfolk, VA H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, JOHN B. CATOE,RichardJR.de Neufville Norfolk, VA Washington Metropolitan MassachusettsArea of Technology WILLIAM A.V. Transit Institute CLARK, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Authority Kevin C. Dolliole Los Angeles GREGORY COOK Unison Consulting NICHOLAS J. David S. Ekern, GARBER, Commissioner, Henry Virginia DOT, L. Kinnier Professor, Richmond Department of Civil Engineering, and Veolia Transportation John K. Duval Nicholas Director, Center for J. Garber, Henry Transportation L. Kinnier Studies, Professor, University ofDepartment of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville TERRY GARCIA BeverlyCREWS Municipal Airport JEFFREY W. HAMIEL, Virginia, Charlottesville Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN StarTran Kitty Freidheim EDWARD A.Jeffrey(NED) HELME, W. Hamiel, President, Executive Center for Director, Clean Air Policy, Metropolitan Washington, Airports Commission, DC Minneapolis, MN KIM R. GREEN Freidheim Consulting GFI GENFARE RANDELL H. IWASAKI, Edward A. Director, (Ned) Helme, California President,DOT, Center Sacramento for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Steve Grossman ADIB K. KANAFANI, ANGELA IANNUZZIELLO Jacksonville Aviation Authority Randell H.Cahill Professor Iwasaki, ofCalifornia Director, Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley DOT, Sacramento ENTRA Consultants Tom Jensen SUSAN MARTINOVICH, Susan Martinovich,Director, Nevada Director, DOT,DOT, Nevada Carson City City Carson JOHN INGLISH National Safe Skies Alliance DEBRA L. MILLER, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Utah Transit Catherine Authority M. Lang PETE K. RAHN, Neil Director, J. Pedersen,Missouri DOT, Jefferson Administrator, MarylandCityState Highway Administration, Baltimore JEANNE W.Federal KRIEG Aviation Administration SANDRA ROSENBLOOM, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Gina Marie Lindsey TRACY L. ROSSER, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA JONATHANLos H. Angeles MCDONALDWorld Airports Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Stantec Consulting STEVEN T. SCALZO, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Carolyn Motz Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA GARY W. MHagerstown CNEIL HENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., Regional Airport Rosa Clausell Rountree, CEOGeneral Manager, Transroute International Canada Services, Inc., St. Louis, MO GO Transit Richard Tucker MICHAEL P. MELANIPHY BEVERLY A. Pitt Meadows, SCOTT, GeneralBCManager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Huntsville International Airport Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Motor Coach Industries Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA FRANK OTERO DAVID Henry Principal, SELTZER, G. (Gerry)Mercator Schwartz, Jr., Chairman Advisors (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup LLC, Philadelphia, PA Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO EX OFFICIO MEMBERS PACO Technologies C. Michael DANIEL SPERLING, Walton,of Professor Ernest CivilH. Cockrell Centennial Engineering Chair in Engineering, and Environmental Science andUniversity Policy; of Texas, Austi KEITH PARKER Sabrina Johnson Director, Institute Linda S. of Transportation Watson, Studies; and Interim CEO, LYNXCentral Director,Transportation Florida Regional Energy Efficiency Center, Authority, Orlando VIA Metropolitan Transit U.S. Environmental Protection Agency University of California, Davis PETER ROGOFF Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR Richard Marchi FTA Airports Council International--North DOUGLAS America W. STOTLAR, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI JEFFREY ROSENBERG Laura McKee C. MICHAEL EX OFFICIO WALTON, MEMBERS Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Amalgamated Transit Air Union Transport Association of America Texas, Austin RICHARD SARLES Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Henry Ogrodzinski New Jersey Transit NationalCorporation Association of State Aviation EX Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT OFFICIO MEMBERS Officials MICHAEL SCANLON Melissa Sabatine J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT San Mateo County Transit American THAD ALLEN Districtof Airport Executives Association (Adm., Rebecca M.U.S. Coast Guard), Brewster, PresidentCommandant, U.S. Coast and COO, American Guard, U.S.Research Transportation Department of Smyrna, G Institute, BEVERLY SCOTT Robert E. Skinner, Jr. Homeland Security, George Washington, Bugliarello, DC President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York MetropolitanTransportation Atlanta Rapid Research Transit Authority Board PETER H. APPEL, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT JAMES STEM University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC J. RANDOLPH BABBITT, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT United Transportation Union James E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Administration, U.S.DOT FRANK TOBEY SECRETARY Smyrna, GA Cynthia Douglass, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety First Transit Christopher W. Jenks Administration, U.S.DOT MATTHEW Transportation O. TUCKER Research Board GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute North County Transit District of New York LeRoy Gishi, Chief, University, Division Brooklyn; of Transportation, Foreign Bureau of Secretary, National Indian Affairs, Academy U.S. Department of the of Engineering, PAM WARD Washington, Interior, DC Washington, DC Ottumwa Transit Authority ANNE S. FERRO, Edward Administrator, R. Hamberger, Federal Motor President andCarrier Safety Administration, CEO, Association of American U.S.DOT Railroads, Washington, DC ALICE WIGGINS-TOLBERT LEROY GISHI, John Chief, Division C. Horsley, of Transportation, Executive Bureau of Director, American Indian Affairs, Association U.S. of State Department Highway of and Transportation Parsons Brinckerhoff the Interior, Washington, DC Officials, Washington, DC EX OFFICIO MEMBERS EDWARD R. Rose HAMBERGER, A. McMurry, President and CEO, Acting Deputy AssociationFederal Administrator, of American Motor Railroads, Washington, Carrier Safety DC U.S.DO Administration, WILLIAM W. MILLAR JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Ronald Medford, Director, Acting DeputyAmerican Association Administrator, of State National HighwayHighway Trafficand Safety Administration, APTA Transportation Officials, Washington, DC U.S.DOT ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. DAVID T. MATSUDA, Deputy Administrator, TRB Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Maritime Administration, Federal Highway U.S.DOT Administration, U.S.DOT VICTOR M. MENDEZ, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT JOHN C. HORSLEY William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC AASHTO VICTOR MENDEZ CYNTHIA L.Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, QUARTERMAN, Administrator, Federal Transit Pipeline andAdministration, U.S.DOT Hazardous Materials Safety Joseph Administration, C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT U.S.DOT FHWA Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT PETER M. ROGOFF, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Robert L. Van Antwerp DAVID L. STRICKLAND, (Lt. Gen., Administrator, U.S. Army), National HighwayChief of Engineers Traffic and Commanding General, Safety Administration, LOUIS SANDERS U.S.DOT U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC APTA JOSEPH C. SZABO, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT SECRETARY POLLY TROTTENBERG, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS ROBERT L. VAN ANTWERP (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding TRB General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2009. *Membership as of October 2009. *Membership as of February as *Membership of .October 2009. 2010

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP Synthesis 85 Effective Use of Citizen Advisory Committees for Transit Planning and Operations A Synthesis of Transit Practice Consultant KRISTIN HULL CH2M Hill Portland, Oregon S ubscriber C ategories Planning and Forecasting Public Transportation Society Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP SYNTHESIS 85 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environ- Project J-7, Topic SH-10 mental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit ISSN 1073-4880 systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of ISBN 978-0-309-14307-3 upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, Library of Congress Control Number 2010923252 and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is nec- 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. essary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Pro- COPYRIGHT INFORMATION gram (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for meet demands placed on it. obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce Report 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, pub- material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. lished in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Federal Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or recognized the need for local, problem-solving research. TCRP, practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document modeled after the longstanding and successful National Coopera- for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment tive Highway Research Program, undertakes research and other of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the technical activities in response to the needs of transit service provid- material, request permission from CRP. ers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, fa- cilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and ad- NOTICE ministrative practices. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Co- TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. operative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Effi- Council. ciency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with the three cooperating organizations: FTA, the National Academy of regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical Sciences, acting through the Transportation Research Board panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a Governing Board of the National Research Council. nonprofit educational and research organization established by The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent govern- of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those ing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selec- of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the tion (TOPS) Committee. program sponsors. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodi- cally but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the re- The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National search program by identifying the highest priority projects. As Research Council, and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' levels and expected products. names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, ap- object of the report. pointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative re- search programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminating TCRP results to the intended end users of the re- Published reports of the search: transit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. are available from: APTA will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and Transportation Research Board other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban Business Office and rural transit industry practitioners. 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can coop- eratively address common operational problems. The TCRP results and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore support and complement other ongoing transit research and train- ing programs. Printed in the United States of America

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the ser- vices of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advis- ing the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and prog- ress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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TCRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT J-7 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHAIR CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative DWIGHT A. FERRELL Research Programs Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority GWEN CHISHOLM SMITH, Senior Program Officer EILEEN DELANEY, Director of Publications MEMBERS DEBRA W. ALEXANDER Capital Area Transportation Authority, Lansing, MI TCRP SYNTHESIS STAFF DONNA DeMARTINO STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special San Joaquin Regional Transit District, Stockton, CA Programs JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and MARK W. FUHRMANN Synthesis Studies Metro TransitMinneapolis/St. Paul, MN DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer ROBERT H. IRWIN DON TIPPMAN, Editor Consultant, Calgary, AB, Canada DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant PAUL J. LARROUSSE DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate National Transit Institute, New Brunswick, NJ DAVID A. LEE TOPIC PANEL Connecticut Transit, Hartford, CT ANN BECKLUND, Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation FRANK T. MARTIN District, Portland PBS&J, Tallahassee, FL ROBIN CAUFMAN, Metropolitan CouncilCentral Corridor EMEKA MONEME Project Office Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority WILSON FERNANDEZ, MiamiDade Metropolitan Planning Organization HAYWARD M. SEYMORE, III KIMBERLY FISHER, Transportation Research Board Q Straint, University Place, WA J. LAWRENCE MESHACK, Dallas Area Rapid Transit PAM WARD JOHN PASEK, Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Ottumwa Transit Authority, Ottumwa, IA Authority CHRISTOPHER RYAN, Howard/Stein-Hudson Associates, Inc OLGA SMIRNOVA, East Carolina University FTA LIAISON CHARLES R. GOODMAN, Federal Transit Administration MICHAEL BALTES (Liaison) Federal Transit Administration LISA COLBERT Federal Transit Administration TRB LIAISON PETER SHAW Transportation Research Board

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FOREWORD Transit administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which informa- tion already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the transit industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to- day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful informa- tion and to make it available to the entire transit community, the Transit Cooperative Research Program Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, TCRP Project J-7, "Synthe- sis of Information Related to Transit Problems," searches out and synthesizes useful knowl- edge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute a TCRP report series, Synthesis of Transit Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE This synthesis describes the state of the practice for involving advisory committees in tran- By Donna L. Vlasak sit planning and operations, exploring the experiences from a few agencies in detail. The purpose of this report is to provide practitioners with guidance about how their colleagues Senior Program Officer across the country are involving advisory committees and ideas for how to structure suc- Transportation cessful advisory committees. Research Board This synthesis is based on the results from survey responses received from transit agen- cies and metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) in 46 states and the District of Colum- bia. More than 80% of respondents indicated that they had involved an advisory committee in the past 3 years. Additionally, two transit agencies and three MPOs were selected for case studies to highlight their successful practices for committees with different structures and authority levels providing input on different kinds of agency and MPO activities. Kristin Hull, CH2M Hill, Portland, Oregon, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report, under the guidance of a panel of experts in the subject area. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

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Contents 1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Overview, 3 Methodology, 3 Report Organization, 4 5 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW AND PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT REGULATIONS Public Involvement Requirements for Transit Agencies and Metropolitan Planning Organizations, 5 Defining Citizen Advisory Committee, 6 Literature Review, 6 9 CHAPTER THREE AGENCY AND METROPOLITAN PLANNING ORGANIZATION SURVEY RESULTS Survey Process, Topics, and Response Rate, 9 Agencies Not Involving Advisory Committees, 9 Advisory Committee Use and Purpose, 10 Committee Membership, 10 Committee Operations, 11 Committee Responsibilities and Decision Making, 11 Feedback and Measures of Effectiveness, 12 Staff Support and Level of Effort, 13 Positive and Negative Experiences with Advisory Committees,13 15 CHAPTER FOUR Successful Practices and Case Studies Metropolitan Council, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, 15 TriMet, Portland, Oregon, 17 King County Metro Transit, Seattle, Washington, 19 Miami-Dade Metropolitan Planning Organization, Miami, Florida, 21 Valley Metro Regional Public Transit Authority, Phoenix, Arizona, 22 26 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION Conclusions, 26 Key Lessons Learned, 26 Areas for Additional Research, 28 30 REFERENCES 31 BIBLIOGRAPHY 32 ABBREVIATIONS 33 APPENDIX A Survey Questionnaire 45 APPENDIX B List of Respondents 50 APPENDIX C Responses to Multiple Choice Questions

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