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Index A Acid pollution, 29 Agency-level activities, ~10, 92, 111, 112 coordination, interagency, 3, 37, 44, 47, 49-s2, 86, 93, 9~9s decision making, 34 36 expenditures, by agency, 1, 12 monitoring types and geographical scale, 10 see also Environmental Protection Agency; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adm inistration; other specific agencies Agency programs, specific Army Corps of Engineers, 8, 9, 10, 56, 59 California Ocean Plan, 30, 31, 76 Chesapeake Bay Monitoring Program, 29, 30, 39, 42 43, 87, 88 Department of the Interior, 8, 10, 27, 64; see also Minerals Management Service Disposal Area Monitoring System (DAMOS), 8, 59, 62 Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), 3, 44, 47, 48, 93 119 National Estuary Program (NEP), 3, 30, 49, 50, 93 National Marine Pollution Program Plan, 51 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 3, 8, 9, 10, 44, 45, 48, 50, 51, 52, 64, 92-93, 94, 95 National Ocean Pollution Program, 50 National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), 8, 14 National Shellfish Sanitation Program, 22 National Status and [tends Program (NS&~, 3, 8, 11 47, 49, 52, 92, 93 Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, 22 Aquatic organisms, echiuran worms, 78 see also Fish and fisheries Aquatic plants, kelp, 25, 65, 66 68, 72-73, 77, 80 Army Corps of Engineers, 8, 9, 10, 56, so B Bacteria, 22-23 Bays, 71 see also Chesapeake Bay; Harbors; Southern California Bight Benthic habitat and organisms, see Kelp; Sediment-water systems; Shellfish

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120 Biological oxygen demand (BOD), 23 Boston Harbor, 23-24 Boundary issues, monitoring areas, 65~7, 69-70, 74, 76 C Cadmium, 46 California, 25, 28-29 see also Southern California Bight California Coastal Commission, 76 California Ocean Plan, 30, 31, 76 Case studies, 17-18, 23-25, 30, 59 Chesapeake Bay, 2, 9, 17-18, 24, 29, 30, 39, 42-43, 67, 69, 73, 77, 87, 88 conceptual model formation, 111-116 participants, individual and institutional, 117-118 particulate wastes, oceans, 18 Southern California Bight, 2, 17-18, 22, 30, 31, 33, 36, 39, 41~2, 6~62, 67, 78, 86 Chemical pollution, 31 cadmium, 46 kepone, 24 laboratory procedures for monitoring, 83 mercury, 72 pesticides, 25, 45 see also Toxic substances and toxicity Chesapeake Bay, 2, 9, 17-18, 24, 29, 30, 39, 42-43, 67, 69, 73, 77 information dissemination, 29, 30, 87, 88 Chesapeake Bay Monitoring Program, 29, 30, 39, 42-43, 87, 88 Citizens' Monitoring Program for Chesapeake Bay, 29, 30, 88 Clean Water Act, 8, 28 Climate and weather factors, 62, 77 Coastal Zone Management Act, 32 Coastal zones decision making, 57-58 expenditures for pollution abatement, 2, 14-15, 90 pollution problems, 3, 5, 14 see also Bays; Estuaries; Offshore oil and gas resources; Southern California Bight; Wetlands Coast Guard, 8, 9 Computers and computer science data management, 8~85 simulation models, 86 Conceptual models INDEX for assessment of monitoring systems, 7, 111-116 Chesapeake Bay Monitoring Program, 42 defined, 2, 1~17, 68 design monitoring, 54-89; see also Design issues, monitoring Congress, 94 Continental shelves, 27, 64 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 9, 10 Costs, 2 of monitoring, 1~14 of not monitoring, 20 vs. uncertainty factors, 83, 89, 114 D Dams, 62~3, 71 Data collection and analysis, see Information needs; Methodology; Sampling; Statistics DDT, 25 Decision making, 4, 6, 19, 37, 115-116 agency-level, 34 36 elected government officials, 27 informational needs and inadequacies, 15-16, 21, 26, 53, 56-58, 87 modeling and, 16-17, 20 predictions and uncertainty, 21, 56, 71-72, 82, 83-84, 86, 89, 114 statistics and, 74-82 (passim) see also Management issues Delaware River, 25 Department of the Interior, 8, 10, 27, 64 see also Minerals Management Service Design issues, monitoring, 6, 42, 53-89, 90, 113 boundary issues, monitoring areas, 65~7, 69-70, 74, 76 coordination, interagency, 3, 37, 44, 47, 49-52, 86, 93, 94-95 estimation techniques, 81 federal role, 43 feedback, 16-17, 25, 57, 65, 73-74, 83, 89 goals and objectives, 4, 6-7, 37, 57-62, 87, 89, 112 information inadequate, 15-16 natural processes vs. human factors, 4, 21, 42, 60, 62, 65-67, 77-7S, 86 preliminary studies, 72-73 quality control, 2, 4, 82-85 sampling, 8, 15, 22, 42, 43, 44, 45, 48, 62, 65, 69-71, 73 82, 86, 87

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INDEX see also Methodologr; Spatial dimension; Temporal dimension Disposal Area Monitoring System (DAMOS), 8, 59, 62 Dissolved oxygen (DO), 23, 24, 25, 59, 80 Dolphins, see Marine mammals Dredging and dredged material disposal, 8, 56, 59, 62 E Echiuran worm, 78 Education, public, 29-30 Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), 3, 44, 47, 48, 93, 94 Environmental Protection Agency, 3, 8, 9, 10, 30, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49, 50, 64, 9~93, 94, Erosion, 71-72 Estimation techniques, 81 Estuaries, 1, 3 models, 23-25 National Estuary Program (NEP), 3, 30, 49, 50, 93 Sacramento-San Juaquin Delta, 24 salinity, 81 see also Chesapeake Bay Eutrophication, 24, 80 Expenditures monitoring, 1, 1~14, 41, 44, 90 pollution abatement, 2, 14, 15, 90 F Fecal coliform, 22-23 Federal government, 6, 8, 4~44, 51, 93 expenditures, 11 see also Agency-level activities; Environmental Protection Agency; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; other specific agencies Federal Plan for Ocean Pollution Research, Development, and Monitoring, 51 Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 31-32 Feedback, 1~17, 25, 57, 65, 73-74, 83, 89 Ficldwori;, see Case studies Financial issues, 37 cost of monitoring, 1~14 cost of not monitoring, 20 121 cost vs. uncertainty, models, 83, 89, 114 expenditures, 1~14, 15, 41, 44, 90 funding, 33-34, 47 Fish and fisheries, 1, 5, 25, 27, 47, 54, 62-63, 68, 71-72 climatic changes, 77 marine mammals, 5, 21 toxicity testing, 45, 46, 80 see also Shellfish Forecasting, see Predictive modeling Funding, 3~34 National Status and fiends Program (NS&T), 47 G Government role, see Agency-level activities; Federal government; Local activities; State-level activities Government officials, 27 Great Lakes, 9 Gulf of Mexico, 62, 64 H Habitat, 47 Harbors, 23-24, 73 Health issues, see Public health Historical perspectives, 7, 87 evolution of monitoring, 21-25 National Shellfish Sanitation Program, 22 program coordination, 51, 86 Human factors, 6 funding and human resources, 33-34 natural processes vs., 4, 21, 42, 60, 62, 65-67, 77-78, 86 see also Institutional issues; Public health; Public opinion Hurricanes, 62 Implementation issues, 2, 6, 42, 53-54, 55, 113-114 Information needs, 2-3, 90, 91, 94 Chesapeake Bay Monitoring Program, 29, 30, 39, 42-43, 87, 88 data management, 4, 44, 53, 83-87, 94-95, 115 dissemination, 87-89 education of public, 29-30, 56 on expenditures, 1~11

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122 inadequacies, 15-16, 21 integration, 18, 26 model of, 1~17 research reports, 87, 88, 94 see also Statistics Insecticides, see Pesticides Institutional issues, ~4, 25-37 conceptual modeling, 2, 111-112 see also Agency-level activities; specific agencies J James River, 24 K Kelp, 25, 65, 66~8, 7~73, 77, 80 Kepone, 24 L I~borato~y experiments, 25, 44, 83 Lakes, 71-72 Law, 3, ~10, 3~33 recommendations, 93-94, 111-112 see also Permits; Regulations; Standards Laws, specific, 9 Clean Water Act, 8, 28 Coastal Zone Management Act, 32 Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 31-32 Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act, 8-9, 50, 9~94 National Ocean Pollution Research, Development, and Monitoring Act, 50, 94 Ocean Dumping Ban Act, 21 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 9, 10, 32 Water Quality Act, 50, 93 Licenses and permits, see Permits Local activities, 3~39 expenditures, 11, 13 Long Island Sound, 62 M Management issues, 1-2, 19-37, 90, 91-92 data and information, 4, 16, 20, 37, 53, 83-87, 9~95, 115 regional, 41 INDEX technical design and, 2, 59 see also Decision making Marine mammals, 5, 21 Marine organisms, see Aquatic organisms; Aquatic plants Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act, ~9, 50, 9~94 Maryland, 28, 87, 88 Mathematical and numerical models, 7, 20, 23-25, 66, 71, 73, 85, 114 optimization analysis, 74, 78, 82 power analysis, 78, 82 see also Statistics Mercury, 72 Methodology, 7-10, 94, 113 computer simulation, 86 design monitoring, 2, 53 89 estimation techniques, 81 feedback, 16-17, 25, 57, 65, 73-74, 83, 89 general as specific, 55-56 goals and objectives, 4, ~7, 37, 57~2, 87, 89, 9~95, 112 information dissemination, 87~9 networks, monitoring, 3, 44, 45, 47~9, 51 optimization analysis, 74, 78, 82 power analysis, 78, 82 predictions and uncertainty, 21, 56, 71-72,82, 8384,86,89, 114 preliminary studies, 7~73 quality control 82 84 sampling, 8,15, 22, 42, 43, 44, 45, 48, 62, 65, 69-71, 73 82, 86, 87 statistics, 75-76, 79 study strategy, definition, 62-72 surveys, 1~11 see also Case studies; Design issues, monitoring; Models; Spatial dimension; Temporal dimension Minerals Management Service, 8, 9, 10, 64 Models, 86, 91 boundary issues, monitoring areas, 65~7, 69-70, 74, 76 conceptual, 2, 7, 16-17, 54 89, 111-116 defined, 2, 7-10, 1~17 environmental management system, 37 estuaries, 2~25 feedback, 16-17, 25, 57, 65, 73~4, 89 information needs, 1~17, 26, 59 mathematical and numerical, 7, 20, 23-25, 66, 71, 73, 74, 78, 85, 114

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INDEX optimization analysis, 74, 78, 82 power analysis, 78, 82 predictions and uncertainty, 21, 56, 71-72, 82, 83~4, 86, 89, 114 predictive, 20, 84, 86, 91 validation, 3, 8, 20, 22, 2~25, 73, 89, 94 N National activities, 4, 38, 14~9, 90, 91, 92-94 coastal zones and estuaries, 3 expenditures, 1~14, 44, 90 regional networks, 3, 4, 44, 47-49, 51, 92-93 see also Federal government National Estuary Program (NEP), 3, 30, 44, 49, 50, 93 National Marine Pollution Program Plan, 51 National Ocean Pollution Program, 50 National Ocean Pollution Research, Development, and Monitoring Act, 50, 94 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 3, 8, 9, 10, 44, 45, 48, 50, 51, 52, 64, 92-93, 94, 95 National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), 8, 14 National Research Council, 2, 7, 41 National Status and fiends Program (NS&T), 3, 8, 11 17, 49, 52, 92, 93 Natural gas, see Offshore oil and gas resources New Jersey Harbor, 73 New York Bight, 21, 71, 73 New York Harbor, 24, 73 Nonpoint source pollution, 8, 6, 6~62 Nuclear reactom, 65-66, 76 Numerical and mathematical models, 7, 20, 2~25, 66, 71, 73, 85, 114 optimization analysis, 74, 78, 82 power analysis, 78, 82 see also Statistics o Ocean dumping, 21, 29 dredging and dredged material disposal, 8, 56, 59, 62 Ocean Dumping Ban Act, 21 Oceans, 26, 50, 51 123 California Ocean Plan, 30, 31, 76 particulate wastes, 2, 18, 25, 32-33 see Offshore oil and gas resources; Southern California Bight Offshore oil and gas resources development erects, 27, 64 legal mandates, 9, 10, 32 Optimization analysis, 74, 78, 82 Outer Continental Shelf Islands Act, 9, 10, 32 p Particulate wastes, 2, 18, 25, 32-33 dredging and dredged material disposal, 8, 56, 59, 62 regional monitoring, 39 Peer review, 4 Permits, 31, 43, 93 monitoring, rationale, 3, 8, 20, 92 Pesticides, 25, 45 Petroleum, see Offshore oil and gas resources Plankton, 24, 47, 71, 76 Point-source pollution, 8 abatement, 2, 14, 22-25 regional, 6 Southern California Bight, 18, 60~2 Policy development, 92 California Ocean Plan, 30, 31, 76 information needs, 2, 26, 87 see also Agengy-level activities Political issues, 27-28, 36 Pollution abatement effectiveness, 22, 25 expenditures, 2, 1~15, 90 monitoring, rationale, 20 Power analysis, 78 Predictive modeling, 20, 84, 86, 91 uncertainty, 21, 56, 71-72, $2, 83-84, 86, 89, 114 Private sector, 12, 13 Problem solving agency-level decision making, 3~36 identification of problem, 1, 5-6 monitoring inadequacies, 15-16, 21 see also Models Projections, see Predictive modeling Publications, research reports, 87, 88, 94 Public health, 1, 2 management issues, 19, 22-23, 27-28 monitoring design, 67, 69, 92, 11~113

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124 Publicly owned treatment works (POIWs), 14, 22, 28 Public opinion, 16, 20, 21, 27-30, 36, 58, 87, 111, 112 Q Quality control and assessment, 21-22, 44, 45 agency responsibilities, 92 data management, 83-84, 85 monitoring design, 2, 4, 82-84 see also Regulations; Standards R Regional monitoring, 4, 38, 39, 41-44, 90, 91, 92-94 Chesapeake Bay, 9, 17-18, 24, 29, 30, 39, 42-43, 67, 69, 73, 77, 87, 88 data integrity, 83-84 estuaries, salinity monitoring, 81 information dissemination, 87 networks, interregional, 3, 4, 44, 47~9, 51, 92-93 rationale, 20, 4~41 recommendations, 93 Southern California Bight, 2, 17-lS, 22, 30, 31, 33, 36, 39, 41-42, 60~2, 67, 78, 86 Regulations, 6, 8, 3~33, 112, 115, 116 monitoring, rationale, 20, 22, 38 see also Permits; Standards Research and development, 4, 111, 114-115 feedback loop, 25, 89 linkages, 91 reports, 87, 88, 94 see also Design issues; Methodology Rivers, 24, 25, 67, 69 fisheries, 62-63 networks for monitoring, 47 see also Estuaries S Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, 24 Salinity, 24-25, 71, 81 Samplin=, 8, 15, 22, 42, 114 boundary issues, monitoring areas, 65~7, 6~70, 74, 76 INDEX design monitoring, 62, 65-67, 69-71, 73-84, 86, 87 National Status and Trends Program (NS&1), 3, 8, 44-47, 48, 52 natural variation and, 77-79 optimization analysis, 74, 78, 82 power analysis, 78, 82 quality control, 82-84 standards, 43, 45, 48 temporal dimension, 69-70, 77, 81, 112 uncertainty, 71-72, 82, 83-84 San Francisco Bay, 71 San Onofore Nuclear Generating Station, 66-67, 76 Seasonal changes, 77 Sediment-water systems, 5, 71, 73 DDT, 25 dredging and dredged material disposal, 8, 56, 59, 62 human-natural processes (echiuran worms) combined, 78 National Status and Trends Program (NS&~, 3, 8, 44-47, 48, 52, 92, 93 natural vs. human factors, Southern California Bight, 78 particulate wastes, 2, 18, 32-33 salinity, 71 seasonal changes, Chesapeake Bay, 77 see also Shellfish Shellfish, 5, 19, 22, 25 National Status and Trends Program (NS&T), 3, 8, 44 17, 48, 52, 92, 93 Southern California Bight, 2, 17-18, 22, 30, 31, 33, 36, 39, 41-42, 60 62, 67, 78, 86 Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, 22 Southern California Edison, 66 67 Spatial dimension, 10, 86, 87, 112 boundary issues, monitoring areas, 65~7, 6~70, 74, 76 sampling, 6~70, 77, 81 Spending, see Expenditures Standards, 48 fecal coliform, 23 mercury in fish, 72 monitoring, rationale, 19 sampling, 43, 45, 83 water quality, 3 State-level activities, 93 expenditures, 11-12, 13

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INDEX legal constraints, 3~33 see also individual states Statistics, 75-76, 79, 81~2, 84, 85, 86 model validation, 3, 8, 20, 22, 2~25, 73, 89, 94 optimization analysis, 74, 78, 82 power analysis, 78, 82 uncertainty, 21, 56, 71-72, 82, 83~4, 86, 89, 114 see also Sampling Statutes, see Law; maws, specific Storms, 77 T Technological innovation, see Research and development Temporal dimension, 86, 87, 112 sampling, 69-70, 77, 81 time-series analysis, 7 trend monitoring, 8, 48, 49, 84, 94; see also National Estuary Program; National S talus and Trends Program; Predictive modeling Thames, 25 Thermal pollution, nuclear reactors, 65 66,76 Time-series analysis, 7 Toxic substances and toxicity cadmium, 46 conceptual models, 68 data analysis on contaminants, 84 DD1; 25 in fish near outfalls, 4s, 46, 80 125 kepone, 24 mercury, 72 sublethal erects, 86 see also Chemical pollution Trend monitoring, 8, 48, 49, 84, 94 National Estuary Program (NEP), 3, 30, 44, 49, 50, 93 National Status and Trends Program (NS&T), 3, 8, 44~7, 49, 52, 92, 93 U Uncertainty, 21, 56, 71-72, 82, 83-84, 86, 89, 114 V Vegetation, see Aquatic plants W Waste management, ocean dumping, 8, 21, 56, 59, 62 Wastewater treatment and disposal Boston Harbor, 2~25 New York Harbor, 25 publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), 14, 22, 28 sediment, natural (echiuran worms)/wastewater processes, 78 Southern California, 3~33, 78, 86 Water Quality Act, 50, 93 see also National Estuaries Program Weather, see Climate and weather factors Wetlands, 5, 47