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91 However, many assumptions often go undocumented and vide knowledge and experience in specific fields that may not can only be found through direct discussions with project be available to the project team. team members (e.g., planners, designers, estimators, etc.). When identifying risks, be certain to contact the team mem- What does it do? bers directly and ask if they make assumptions in their plans, designs, or estimates that might result in cost or schedule in- The expert interviews provide well developed and in- creases if the assumptions prove to be incorrect. formed consideration of risks. The interviews provide for a way to begin describing, whether qualitatively or quantita- Resources tively, the probability and impact of risks. National Highway Institute (2006). Risk Management Instructor Guide, NHI Course 134065, National Highway Institute, Washing- When to use it? ton, DC. Washington State DOT (2008). Basis of Estimate Subject matter experts should be brought in early in the http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/NR/rdonlyres/76111703-D435-4CB7- process, but generally not until sufficient scope has been defined A965-1297F7F00599/24275/BasisofEstimateFormAug2006rev.doc to warrant their expert opinions. Experts can be utilized during (Viewed June 1, 2008). risk identification, risk assessment, planning, or any other point where the project team would appreciate additional opinions. I2.5 Expert Interviews Expert interviews serve to provide the project team and How to use it? risk analysts with additional input from expert sources. Using During the expert interviews allow the expert to speak freely their insights and expertise, experts may identify risks that are and try to draw as much information for documentation as not apparent to the project team. They also can assist with possible. It is best if the experts remain on-call to clarify risks subsequent risk assessments. that have been identified earlier or to help identify new risks. What is it? Tips Expert interviews are simply the solicitation of expert While reviewing the expert interview documentation, make opinions. Interview questions are generally open ended, and sure not to include any of the team's own biases. Let the infor- the discussion can cover all areas that the expert may be mation speak for itself, and if necessary, talk to the expert knowledgeable about. Documentation of the discussion is about his or her opinion and clarify any confusion. important, as the discussion may reveal a number of differ- ent risks, and the expert may provide information beyond the identification of the risk, such as probability and impact. The Resources WSDOT has important guidelines (Washington State 2008) National Highway Institute (2006). Risk Management Instructor Guide, they follow when selecting a subject matter expert: NHI Course 134065, National Highway Institute, Washington, DC. Washington State DOT (2008). A Policy for Cost Risk Assessment, Subject matter experts (SMEs) are people who are qualified in http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Projects/ProjectMgmt/RiskAssessment their fields to make reasonable subjective assessments on project (Viewed June 1, 2008). costs and schedules without bias; subject matter experts provide relevant technical, management, and political insight to the proj- ect and critically examine the project estimate to validate cost I2.6 Crawford Slip Method and quantity components. Subject matter experts use their real- The Crawford Slip method allows for individuals to identify world construction, risk analysis, and cost estimating knowledge to identify and quantify uncertainties. Subject matter experts risks in a group setting without influence from other team must not have personal agendas and must be willing to work as members. The method can be helpful for eliciting risks from an part of a team. Subject matter experts can be internal or external entiregroupwithout one group member dominating. However, and can be local or national. it can provide an overwhelming number of risks to analyze. Why use it? What is it? Expert interviews provide additional and informed minds The Crawford Slip is a rapid, independent brainstorm- to aid in generating a comprehensive list of risks. Experts pro- ing session. A facilitator begins by introducing the process