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92 to the team members. For 10 minutes, each participant Resources writes down one risk each minute. After each minute, the National Highway Institute (2006). Risk Management Instructor Guide, current risk is set aside and each member starts a new NHI Course 134065, National Highway Institute, Washington, DC. one. This forces each participant to write down one, and only one, risk during each minute. At the end of the ten minutes, the facilitator collects all of the risks. The facilita- I2.7 SWOT Analysis tor later collates and organizes the risks, eliminating dupli- cates. This can be done by the facilitator alone or in a group SWOT stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, setting. and Threats. The tool is often used for strategic planning pur- poses, but it is helpful in risk identification. The tool is used to solicit potential risks (threats or opportunities) that a proj- Why use it? ect may need to face. The Crawford Slip solicits each participant's opinion of project risks independently. The benefit of this is that each What is it? mind is working independently to identify risks, rather than being guided by the opinion of the group. SWOT analysis is a listing of all strengths, weaknesses, op- portunities, and threats as identified by the project team or a panel of professionals. The process can be viewed as brain- What does it do? storming within each of the categories. Each factor is exam- The Crawford Slip can generate a large number of poten- ined in turn and all discussion is documented. The final step tial risks. With a group of 10 participants, within 10 minutes is to use the identified strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, the group will have generated 100 risks, excluding duplicates. and threats to identify risks within the project. This creates a significant amount of information for the facil- itator to sift through to identify risks. Why do we use it? The SWOT analysis generates a great deal of information. When to use it? This can be useful in coming up with risks that would not Use the Crawford Slip method when the project team necessarily be identified in traditional brainstorming. The needs to generate risks in a short period of time. The process process can also examine internal and external risks sepa- will create a large number of risks, but it may not be as thor- rately. This can be useful in establishing a risk breakdown ough as some of the other risk identification tools. The risks structure. identified in this process can later be examined in more detail to identify further potential risks. What does it do? SWOT analysis, when used with other risk identification How to use it? techniques, provides a comprehensive picture of potential Use the Crawford Slip as a starting point for risk identifi- risks. The tool identifies risks with potential, as well as the cation. The results of the Crawford Slip can be presented to greatest source for threats or opportunities (internal or exter- the group afterward to clarify the intention of the risk identi- nal). This can be used for more effective risk planning. fiers, as well as to evaluate each risk as a group. When to use it? Tips SWOT analysis should be used early in risk identification. Since the Crawford Slip method generates a large number The SWOT analysis can be used to begin brainstorming, but of risks, allow for time to collate like risks. This can be done can also be used to supplement existing risk identification. independently by the facilitator or it can be done in a group setting. How to use it? Do not rely solely on the Crawford Slip for risk identifica- tion. While it is a powerful tool, it cannot be comprehensive SWOT analysis is used as a part of risk planning, but the of risks on the project because of the nature in which risks are items identified in the SWOT analysis can be used as discus- identified. sion points for possible risks.

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93 Example Sample SWOT Analysis from American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators: AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF MOTOR VEHICLE ADMINISTRATORS Strategic Plan for 2006 2009 THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT: SWOT Analysis Strengths: 1. AAMVA has represented the motor vehicle community since 1933, is a recognized national authority, is a dynamic, progressive association and has an enhanced public profile. 2. The association provides the mechanism for uniformity, policies, procedures, best practices, training and model laws for its membership. 3. The association's members and staff are experts in motor vehicle, driver licensing administration and enforcement issues which are essential in developing standards. 4. We have committed and active volunteers. 5. AAMVA offers several methods for information exchange and has a secure private network that connects all U.S./Canada jurisdictions. 6. AAMVA has a positive and respected image on Capitol Hill and among its member jurisdictions and federal and law enforcement partners. 7. The Association and its jurisdictional and associate members continue to build a strong alliance through grassroots efforts with state and Federal legislators and key Federal agencies such as Department of Transportation, Department of Justice and Department of Homeland Security 8. AAMVA has strong leadership at the staff and Board of Director levels. 9. AAMVA is a well-managed and fiscally sound organization. 10. AAMVA Headquarters projects a positive image of the association. 11. AAMVA is a flexible and dynamic organization. 12. AAMVA's associate members offer solutions to improve our business processes. Weaknesses: 1. Many jurisdictions delay implementation of AAMVA standards, programs and systems. 2. Outside factors and limited resources impact delivery of programs and services 3. The association is dependent upon a small, diminishing, volunteer workforce. 4. Many AAMVA members have limited access to and influence upon governors, state legislators, the National Governor's Association (NGA), the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) and members of Congress. 5. There is a lack of participation in voluntary programs that are funded with federal dollars. 6. AAMVA is too dependent upon CDLIS revenue. 7. Associate members' interests sometimes conflict with AAMVA's. 8. Politics Opportunities: 1. The constant, urgent and increasing demand for secure identification presents AAMVA -- through its members an opportunity to take an active role to address these issues. 2. There is a growing need for training on AAMVA-related programs for members and non- members. 3. There is a need for international standards and uniformity within jurisdictions. 4. AAMVA can work with the groups and agencies that produce other identification documents in order to achieve a secure North American identification system. 5. Use of AAMVA's name recognition to promote products, services and new memberships resulting in increased revenue. 6. Recent natural disasters provide public awareness on the necessity of tracking vehicle history information through NMVTIS and exchanging motor vehicle records between states. 7. There is an opportunity to analyze and understand jurisdictional issues related to the implementation of AAMVA standards, programs and systems and provide solutions. 8. The new committee structure creates new opportunities to increase volunteerism and committee deliverables. 9. REAL ID creates an opportunity to implement an all-driver pointer system to enhance highway safety and administrative efficiency. 10. Build and maintain relationships with other associations/organizations to promote the membership's interests. Threats: 1. Stock market fluctuations result in uncertain returns on AAMVA's long-term investments. 2. Increased demands on AAMVA (i.e. single-issue focus) can overextend resources that can result in revenue and commitment losses needed for other issues. 3. Loss of member and jurisdiction commitment and/or funds could weaken the association. 4. Absence of federal funding for the implementation of NMVTIS is threatening AAMVA's financial stability and/or credibility. 5. Lawsuits/litigation arising out of IRP/other activities could adversely affect the association's fiscal soundness and insurability. 6. Power grid failures, SPAM and computer viruses, if they become more prevalent, could impact on the delivery of AAMVA services (CDLIS, Clearinghouse, on-line communication, etc.). 7. AAMVA's reputation can be adversely impacted by missteps. 8. Lack of a complete disaster recovery plan. 9. Ability to recruit qualified technical staff. 10. There has been a steady reduction in customer support from AAMVA's network services provider. Figure I2.7-1. SWOT analysis example.