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19 Employer and Institutional TDM Strategies OVERVIEW AND SUMMARY Transportation Demand Management (TDM) refers to a body of actions that seek "to manage the demand for travel by drive-alone private car, rather than catering for that demand, or managing the road system . . ." (Ison and Rye, 2008). Managing the road system comes under the category of Transportation Systems Management (TSM). TDM is in the family of actions referred to as demand-side strategies (Association for Commuter Transportation et al., 2004). TDM program goals include achieving traffic and vehicle miles of travel (VMT) reduction and all of the associated transportation, environmental, conservation, and sustainability benefits, gen- erally without large infrastructure investments. Actions may be directed at increasing vehicle occupancy, shifting travel mode or time of travel, or reducing the need for travel. Programs can include supportive actions, special transportation services, financial incentives, or alternative work arrangements. TDM programs can also involve parking management and regular transit service enhancements; however, these topics are for the most part discussed in other chapters within this TCRP Report 95 "Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes" Handbook (see below). TDM can involve many stakeholders, including landowners, developers, employers and institu- tions, employees, business associations, and local, regional, and state levels of government. This chapter provides a synthesis on the potential for employer- or institution-based TDM strategies, in particular, to influence travel behavior. This "Overview and Summary" section presents: · "Objectives of TDM Strategies," highlighting the various goals and purposes of employer and institutional TDM strategies. · "Types of TDM Strategies," categorizing and describing the predominant employer and insti- tutional TDM program elements for purposes of chapter organization. · "Analytical Considerations," covering methods used in quantifying response to employer and institutional TDM strategies, limitations of available research, and cautions that thus apply to its use. · "Traveler Response Summary," providing an encapsulation of the key travel demand findings related to employer and institutional TDM strategies. It is recommended that all lead-in "Overview and Summary" subsections be read as background for both the "Traveler Response Summary" and the chapter as a whole. 19-1
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Following the "Overview and Summary" are sections on: · "Response by Type of TDM Strategy," reviewing travel demand findings related to a variety of individual TDM program elements. · "Underlying Traveler Response Factors," providing perspective on the behavioral mechanisms at work in achieving results with employer- and institutional-based TDM. · "Related Information and Impacts," addressing non-travel-specific implications of TDM strat- egy implementation such as air quality impacts. · "Case Studies," presenting five examples of employer and institutional TDM strategy applica- tions with varying degrees of public involvement. Because this chapter is focused on employer and institutional TDM strategies, it does not directly address public-agency-based TDM programs, most especially programs with which an employer or institution would have little direct involvement. Travel demand effects of most of such program types are covered in other chapters of this "Traveler Response" Handbook, as follows: · High occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes and other provisions for expediting movement of HOVs (strategies typically classed as TDM and/or TSM) are covered in Chapter 2, "HOV Facilities." · Road value pricing, including central area congestion pricing, is the subject of Chapter 14, "Road Value Pricing," with a High Occupancy Toll (HOT) lane update within Chapter 2 under "Traveler Response by Type of HOV Application"--"Response to HOV Facility Exempt Vehicle and Value Pricing Programs." · Operational-level transit service enhancements are addressed in Chapter 9, "Transit Scheduling and Frequency"; Chapter 10, "Bus Routing and Coverage"; and--to the extent express bus can be considered an operational-level strategy--in Chapter 4, "Busways, BRT and Express Bus." · "Vanpools and Buspools" is the sole subject of Chapter 5. · Transit promotion and pricing, including travel pass partnership programs, are topics of Chapter 11, "Transit Information and Promotion," and Chapter 12, "Transit Pricing and Fares." · Parking strategies, especially important to TDM, are covered in two chapters--Chapter 13, "Parking Pricing and Fees," and Chapter 18, "Parking Management and Supply." · Land use and non-motorized travel considerations are addressed in Chapter 15, "Land Use and Site Design"; Chapter 16, "Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities"; and Chapter 17, "Transit Oriented Development." Beyond what is contained within the chapters of TCRP Report 95, resources that cover the broader scope of TDM are identified in the "Additional Resources" section. Also, the regional effect of employer and institutional TDM strategies is felt to be of sufficient importance that a "Site- Versus System-Level Impacts" discussion is included in this chapter's "Related Information and Impacts" section, supported by a case study on overall TDM program effects. Within the realm of employer and institutional TDM strategies, Chapter 19 is unique in the extent to which individual components--individual TDM measures--are covered in other chapters, specif- 19-2