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other university sources. The distribution of program expenditures, also totaling $12.95 million, was principally for transit service contracts (92 percent), accompanied by administration and mon- itoring (3 percent), marketing and public relations (2 percent), the Night Ride Shuttle (2 percent), ridesharing/ridematch elements (1 percent), and bike and pedestrian improvements (1 percent). The success of the U-PASS program, and the idea of putting a transit pass into virtually everyone's hands at a greatly reduced price, convinced Metro to extend the idea to employers. This wide- spread distribution encourages the occasional as well as the regular transit rider. As of the early 2000s, Metro's FLEXPASS program served 130 employers and 118,000 commuters, of which some 44,000 were U-PASS customers. FLEXPASS is believed to have been the first employer-based pro- gram of its kind in the nation. Sources: University of Washington, "2005 U-PASS Annual Report." Transportation Office, Seattle, WA. http://www.washington.edu/upass/news_and_reports/upass_reports/annualreport2005. Association for Commuter Transportation, Urbantrans Consultants, PB Parsons Brinckerhoff, and ESTC, "Mitigating Traffic Congestion: The Role of Demand-Side Strategies." In partnership with the Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (2004). Vehicle trip rate and VTR computations by the Handbook authors. Staggered Work Hours in Manhattan--New York, New York Situation. This case study is adapted from the Second Edition "Traveler Response to Transpor- tation System Changes" Handbook because of its particular relevance to addressing transit usage peaks and associated crowding such as were occurring in mid-2008 in response to $4.00/gallon gasoline prices. On April 1, 1970, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PATH: Trans- Hudson Transit), in cooperation with the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association, initiated a staggered work hours program. The Lower Manhattan area had a worker population of 480,000, about 85 percent of whom used rail transportation for their work trip. A survey of 113 firms with 136,000 employees total indicated that 66 percent began their work day at 9:00 AM and that 64 per- cent ended it at 5:00 PM. Actions. The program at first involved about 50,000 employees of 45 concerns. Some 46,000 had their beginning time shifted from 9:00 to 8:30 AM, and 4,000 to 9:30 AM. Within 2 years 250 offices with over 100,000 employees total were participating, and a similar program was being developed for Midtown Manhattan. Schedule shifts of at least 30 minutes were recommended to compel a def- inite change in commuting habits. Analysis. Before and after counts were taken in February 1970 and 1972 at three of the area's most heavily used subway stations. Vehicular volumes were also monitored at the Brooklyn Battery Tunnel and the Battery Parking Garage. The employees of 27 firms were surveyed to assess reaction. Results. The counts showed a 26 percent decline in station usage (17,658 to 13,074) during the peak 9:009:15 AM period, and a 24 percent passenger volume increase (12,024 to 14,864) between 8:30 and 8:45 AM. At the PATH World Trade Center Terminal, passenger counts fell 18 percent (7,500 to 6,224) between 5:00 and 5:15 PM, and rose more than 50 percent (3,100 to 4,750) between 4:30 and 4:45 PM. In contrast, the monitoring of vehicular volumes showed little or no significant change attributable to the staggered hours. About 85 percent of the participating employees sampled in the employee survey favored stag- gered hours over the previous arrangement. Some 45 percent reported they were experiencing less 19-147