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CHAPTER 19 TCRP REPORT 95 TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Employer and Institutional TDM Strategies Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes
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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS Ann August Santee Wateree Regional Transportation Authority CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington MEMBERS VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore John Bartosiewicz McDonald Transit Associates EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Michael Blaylock Jacksonville Transportation Authority MEMBERS Linda J. Bohlinger HNTB Corp. J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Raul Bravo Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Raul V. Bravo & Associates Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Gregory Cook Veolia Transportation Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Terry Garcia Crews Norfolk, VA StarTran William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Angela Iannuzziello Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh ENTRA Consultants John Inglish Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, Utah Transit Authority Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Sherry Little Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Spartan Solutions, LLC Jonathan H. McDonald Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia HNTB Corporation Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Gary W. McNeil Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley GO Transit Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael P. Melaniphy Motor Coach Industries Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Bradford Miller Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Des Moines Area Regional Transit Authority Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Frank Otero Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA PACO Technologies Keith Parker Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO VIA Metropolitan Transit Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Peter Rogoff Authority, Atlanta, GA FTA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Jeffrey Rosenberg Amalgamated Transit Union Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Richard Sarles Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Michael Scanlon Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI San Mateo County Transit District Marilyn Shazor C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority James Stem EX OFFICIO MEMBERS United Transportation Union Gary Thomas Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Dallas Area Rapid Transit Homeland Security, Washington, DC Frank Tobey Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT First Transit Matthew O. Tucker J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT North County Transit District Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Pam Ward George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York Ottumwa Transit Authority University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Alice Wiggins-Tolbert Parsons Brinckerhoff Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Interior, Washington, DC William W. Millar APTA Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC Robert E. Skinner, Jr. John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation TRB Officials, Washington, DC John C. Horsley David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT AASHTO Victor Mendez Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT FHWA William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Louis Sanders U.S.DOT APTA Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT SECRETARY Christopher W. Jenks Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT TRB Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2010. *Membership as of June 2010.
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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 95 Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Chapter 19--Employer and Institutional TDM Strategies J. RICHARD KUZMYAK Lead Chapter Author JOHN E. (JAY) EVANS, IV AND RICHARD H. PRATT Contributing Chapter Authors RICHARD H. PRATT, CONSULTANT, INC. Garrett Park, MD JAY EVANS CONSULTING LLC Washington, DC TEXAS TRANSPORTATION INSTITUTE College Station, TX PB AMERICAS, INC. Baltimore, MD, Portland, OR, and San Francisco, CA J. RICHARD KUZMYAK, L.L.C. Silver Spring, MD CAMBRIDGE SYSTEMATICS, INC. Bethesda, MD VANASSE HANGEN BRUSTLIN, INC. / VHB Vienna, VA GALLOP CORPORATION Rockville, MD MCCOLLOM MANAGEMENT CONSULTING, INC. Darnestown, MD HERBERT S. LEVINSON, TRANSPORTATION CONSULTANT Wallingford, CT K.T. ANALYTICS, INC. Bethesda, MD Subscriber Categories Public Transportation · Planning and Forecasting Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org
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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 95: Chapter 19 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, Project B-12A and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current ISSN 1073-4872 systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand ISBN 978-0-309-11836-1 service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve Library of Congress Control Number 2003108813 these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to © 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions COPYRIGHT INFORMATION to meet demands placed on it. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report published or copyrighted material used herein. 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the Administration--now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success- any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes from CRP. research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, NOTICE facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research administrative practices. Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- Governing Board of the National Research Council. posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Council, and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but they are considered essential to the object of the report. may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- Published reports of the nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- are available from: ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for Transportation Research Board workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure Business Office that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively and can be ordered through the Internet at address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America
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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 95 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Stephan A. Parker, Senior Program Officer Tom K.G.C. Van Boven, Project Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natassja Linzau, Editor TCRP PROJECT B-12 PANEL Field of Service Configuration Paul J. Larrousse, National Transit Institute, Rutgers University, NJ (Chair) Patrick T. Decorla-Souza, Federal Highway Administration Keith L. Killough, Arizona DOT Reza Navai, California DOT Cynthia Ann Nordt, The Marketing Studio, Houston, TX Neil J. Pedersen, Maryland State Highway Administration G. Scott Rutherford, University of Washington, Seattle, WA Darwin G. Stuart, Skokie, IL Ron Fisher, FTA Liaison Eric Pihl, FHWA Liaison Richard Weaver, APTA Liaison Kimberly Fisher, TRB Liaison
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FOREWORD By Stephan A. Parker Staff Officer Transportation Research Board TDM (transportation demand management or travel demand management) is a process that can encompass a variety of measures intended to influence travel choices. TDM is used to manage heavy traffic demand and parking requirements, and to enhance the effective- ness of transit services. Employer and institutional TDM actions within the scope of this chapter can be classified into four major categories: employer or institutional support actions, provision of transportation "services," financial incentives or disincentives, and alternative work arrangements. In this report, new as well as synthesized research is presented. Using a collection of 82 cases as an analysis platform, the authors evaluate the relative importance of particular categories of TDM strategies (e.g., support versus incentives), and even, to some degree, of particular strategies (e.g., a transit subsidy versus an HOV parking discount), through pair-wise comparisons from the sample. TCRP Report 95: Chapter 19, Employer and Institutional TDM Strategies will be of inter- est to transit, transportation, and land use planning practitioners; land developers, business associations, employers, institutions, and employees; educators and researchers; and pro- fessionals across a broad spectrum of transportation and planning agencies, MPOs, and local, state, and federal government agencies. The overarching objective of the Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook is to equip members of the transportation profession with a comprehensive, readily accessible, interpretive documentation of results and experience obtained across the United States and elsewhere from (1) different types of transportation system changes and policy actions and (2) alternative land use and site development design approaches. While the focus is on contemporary observations and assessments of traveler responses as expressed in travel demand changes, the presentation is seasoned with earlier experiences and findings to identify trends or stability, and to fill information gaps that would other- wise exist. Comprehensive referencing of additional reference materials is provided to facil- itate and encourage in-depth exploration of topics of interest. Travel demand and related impacts are expressed using such measures as usage of transportation facilities and services, before-and-after market shares and percentage changes, and elasticity. The findings in the Handbook are intended to aid--as a general guide--in preliminary screening activities and quick turn-around assessments. The Handbook is not intended for use as a substitute for regional or project-specific travel demand evaluations and model applications, or other independent surveys and analyses. The Second Edition of the handbook Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes was published by USDOT in July 1981, and it has been a valuable tool for transportation profes-
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sionals, providing documentation of results from different types of transportation actions. This Third Edition of the Handbook covers 18 topic areas, including essentially all of the nine topic areas in the 1981 edition, modified slightly in scope, plus nine new topic areas. Each topic is published as a chapter of TCRP Report 95. To access the chapters, see the project write-up on the TCRP website: http://www.trb.org/TRBNet/ProjectDisplay.asp? ProjectID=1034. A team led by Richard H. Pratt, Consultant, Inc. is responsible for the Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook, Third Edition, through work conducted under TCRP Projects B-12, B-12A, and B-12B. REPORT ORGANIZATION The Handbook, organized for simultaneous print and electronic chapter-by-chapter pub- lication, treats each chapter essentially as a stand-alone document. Each chapter includes text and self-contained references and sources on that topic. For example, the references cited in the text of Chapter 6, "Demand Responsive/ADA," refer to the Reference List at the end of that chapter. The Handbook user should, however, be conversant with the back- ground and guidance provided in TCRP Report 95: Chapter 1, Introduction. Upon completion of the Report 95 series, the final Chapter 1 publication will include a CD-ROM of all 19 chapters. The complete outline of chapters is provided below.
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Handbook Outline Showing Publication and Source-Data-Cutoff Dates U.S. DOT Publication TCRP Report 95 General Sections and Topic Area Chapters First Second Source Data Publication (TCRP Report 95 Nomenclature) Edition Edition Cutoff Date Date Ch. 1 Introduction (with Appendices A, B) 1977 1981 2003 a 2000/03/12a Multimodal/Intermodal Facilities Ch. 2 HOV Facilities 1977 1981 1999-05b 2006 Ch. 3 Park-and-Ride/Pool -- 1981 2003c 2004 Transit Facilities and Services Ch. 4 Busways, BRT and Express Bus 1977e 1981 --d --d Ch. 5 Vanpools and Buspools 1977 1981 1999-04b 2005 Ch. 6 Demand Responsive/ADA -- -- 1999 2004 Ch. 7 Light Rail Transit -- -- --d --d d Ch. 8 Commuter Rail -- -- -- --d Public Transit Operations Ch. 9 Transit Scheduling and Frequency 1977 1981 1999 2004 Ch. 10 Bus Routing and Coverage 1977 1981 1999 2004 Ch. 11 Transit Information and Promotion 1977 1981 2002 2003 Transportation Pricing Ch. 12 Transit Pricing and Fares 1977 1981 2002 2003 Ch. 13 Parking Pricing and Fees 1977e -- 1999 2005 e b Ch. 14 Road Value Pricing 1977 -- 2002-03 2003 Land Use and Non-Motorized Travel Ch. 15 Land Use and Site Design -- -- 2001-02b 2003 b Ch. 16 Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities -- -- 2007-10 2011d Ch. 17 Transit Oriented Development -- -- 2004-06b 2007 Transportation Demand Management Ch. 18 Parking Management and Supply -- -- 2000-02b 2003 Ch. 19 Employer and Institutional TDM Strategies 1977e 1981e 2007-09b 2010 a NOTES: Published in TCRP Web Document 12, Interim Handbook (March 2000), without Appendix B. The "Interim Introduction," published as Research Results Digest 61 (September 2003), is a replacement, available at http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_rrd_61.pdf. Publication of the final version of Chapter 1, "Introduction," as part of the TCRP Report 95 series, is anticipated for 2012. b Primary cutoff was first year listed, but with selected information up into second year listed. c The source data cutoff date for certain components of this chapter was 1999. d Deferred for a future TCRP project effort. e The edition in question addressed only certain aspects of later edition topical coverage.
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CHAPTER 19 AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS TCRP Report 95, in essence the Third Edition of the "Traveler Special thanks go to all involved for supporting the cooperative Response to Transportation System Changes" Handbook, is being process adopted for topic area chapter development. Members of prepared under Transit Cooperative Research Program Project B-12 the TCRP Project B-12/B-12A/B-12B Project Panel, named else- as amended by Richard H. Pratt, Consultant, Inc., in association where, are providing review and comments for what will total some with Jay Evans Consulting LLC; the Texas Transportation Institute; 18 individual publication documents/chapters. They have gone the PB Americas, Inc.; J. Richard Kuzmyak, L.L.C.; Cambridge Sys- extra mile in providing support on call including leads, reports, doc- tematics, Inc.; Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc./VHB; Gallop Corpo- umentation, advice, and direction over the almost-decade-and-a- ration; McCollom Management Consulting, Inc.; Herbert S. Levin- half duration of the project. Four consecutive appointed or acting son, Transportation Consultant; and K.T. Analytics, Inc. TCRP Senior Program Officers have given their support: Stephanie Richard H. Pratt is the Principal Investigator. Dr. Katherine F. N. Robinson, who took the project through scope development and Turnbull of the Texas Transportation Institute assisted as co- contract negotiation; Stephen J. Andrle, who led the work during Principal Investigator during initial Project B-12 phases, leading up the Project B-12 Phase and on into the TCRP B-12A Project Con- to the Phase I Interim Report and the Phase II Draft Interim Hand- tinuation; Harvey Berlin, who saw the Interim Handbook through book. With the addition of Project B-12B research, John E. (Jay) to Website publication; and Stephan A. Parker, who is guiding the Evans, IV, then of Jay Evans Consulting LLC, was appointed co- entire project to its ultimate fruition. Editor Natassja Linzau is pro- Principal Investigator. Lead Handbook chapter authors and co- viding her careful examination and fine touch, while Publications authors, in addition to Mr. Pratt, are Mr. Evans (initially with Par- Director Eileen Delaney and her team are handling all the numer- sons Brinckerhoff and now with Cambridge Systematics); Dr. ous publication details. TRB Librarian Jessica Fomalont has pro- Turnbull; J. Richard Kuzmyak, initially of Cambridge Systematics vided invaluable literature procurement aid. The efforts of all are and now of J. Richard Kuzmyak, L.L.C.; Frank Spielberg of VHB; greatly appreciated. Brian E. McCollom of McCollom Management Consulting, Inc.; Continued recognition is due to the participants in the develop- Herbert S. Levinson, Transportation Consultant; Erin Vaca of Cam- ment of the First and Second Editions, key elements of which are bridge Systematics, Inc.; and Dr. G. Bruce Douglas of PB. Con- retained. Co-authors to Mr. Pratt were Neil J. Pedersen and Joseph tributing authors include Dr. Kiran U. Bhatt, K.T. Analytics, Inc.; J. Mather for the First Edition, and John N. Copple for the Second Shawn M. Turner, Texas Transportation Institute; Dr. Rachel Wein- Edition. Crucial support and guidance for both editions was pro- berger, Cambridge Systematics (now with the University of Penn- vided by the Federal Highway Administration's Technical Repre- sylvania); Andrew Stryker, PB; Dr. C. Y. Jeng, Gallop Corporation; sentative (COTR), Louise E. Skinner. and Daniel Nabors, VHB. In the TCRP Report 95 edition, J. Richard Kuzmyak is the lead Other research agency team members contributing to the author for this volume: Chapter 19, "Employer and Institutional preparatory research, synthesis of information, and development TDM Strategies." Contributing authors for Chapter 19 are John of this Handbook have been Stephen Farnsworth, Laura Higgins, (Jay) Evans, IV, and Richard H. Pratt. and Rachel Donovan of the Texas Transportation Institute; Nick Participation by the profession at large has been absolutely Vlahos, Vicki Ruiter, and Karen Higgins of Cambridge System- essential to the development of the Handbook and this chapter, atics, Inc.; Greg Benz, Bill Davidson, G.B. Arrington, and Lydia which has received the special attention of TRB Transportation Wong of PB, along with the late travel demand modeler/planner Demand Management Committee ABE50 past chairs/chair and extraordinaire Gordon W. Schultz; Kris Jagarapu of VHB; Sarah selected members. Past Chairs Eric Schreffler and Philip L. Win- Dowling of Jay Evans Consulting LLC; and Laura C. (Peggy) ters, and Chair Lori Diggins--aided by committee members Tom Pratt of Richard H. Pratt, Consultant, Inc. Dr. C. Y. Jeng of Gal- Rye, Peter Valk, and members of the MassRIDES Outreach team, lop Corporation has provided pre-publication numerical quality including Kay Carson, Jennifer Doyle, and Donna Smallwood-- control review throughout. By special arrangement, Dr. Daniel B. reviewed an early version, providing extensive comments, guid- Rathbone of The Urban Transportation Monitor searched past ance, and information leads. Sara Hendricks, Ed Hillsman, and Judy issues. Assistance in word processing, graphics, and other essen- Clark stepped in to provide additional reviews of the formal review tial support has been provided by Bonnie Duke and Pam Rowe of draft. The contribution of each and all is truly valued. the Texas Transportation Institute; Karen Applegate, Laura Finally, sincere thanks are due to the many other practitioners Reseigh, Stephen Bozik, and Jeff Waclawski of PB; others too and researchers who were contacted for information and unstint- numerous to name but fully appreciated; and lastly the warmly ingly supplied both that and all manner of statistics, data compila- remembered late Susan Spielberg of SG Associates (now part tions, and reports. Though not feasible to list here, many appear in of VHB). the "References" section entries of this and other chapters.
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CONTENTS 19-1 Overview and Summary 19-3 Objectives of TDM Strategies 19-3 Types of TDM Strategies 19-7 Analytical Considerations 19-12 Traveler Response Summary 19-15 Response by Type of TDM Strategy 19-17 Response to Support Actions 19-26 Response to Employer Transportation Services 19-40 Response to Incentives and Disincentives 19-61 Response to Alternative Work Arrangements 19-78 Underlying Traveler Response Factors 19-79 Individual Behavioral and Awareness Considerations 19-85 Voluntary Versus Regulatory Employer Motivation 19-91 Characteristics of Employer 19-98 Land Use and Site Design 19-102 Trip Chaining 19-103 Related Information and Impacts 19-103 Synergy and Complementarity 19-104 Program Development Outreach and Support 19-106 Modeling Studies 19-119 International Experience 19-121 Site- Versus System-Level Impacts 19-129 Cost-Effectiveness 19-132 Energy and Environmental Relationships 19-137 Additional Resources 19-141 Case Studies 19-141 "Transportation Days" Marketing and Outreach Programs--Cross Westchester Expressway Corridor 19-144 University of Washington's U-PASS Program--Seattle, Washington 19-147 Staggered Work Hours in Manhattan--New York, New York 19-148 Lloyd District Travel Demand Management--Portland, Oregon 19-151 Overall TDM Program Effects over Time--Bellevue, Washington 19-156 References 19-164 Appendix A 19-173 How to Order TCRP Report 95