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16 CHAPTER FIVE TERMINAL ACTIVATION GOVERNANCE Discussions with synthesis participants indicated that the Mission Statements adopted by the airports included in this appropriate formality and complexity of terminal activa- synthesis include: tion governance and the involvement of senior management is influenced by the size and complexity of the project-- No surprises on opening day. activations of small repetitive projects require less formal gov- Ensure the activation team works through, not in place ernance and little involvement of senior management; activa- of, the existing organizational structure. tion of larger more complex and unique projects requires a The activation team coordinates--existing organizations more formal and structured governance. This chapter reviews must continue to carry out their assigned responsibilities. the governance used to activate relatively large and complex Provide direct support to authority, airport users, and air- projects. Simpler more streamlined governance is appropriate port service providers. for smaller, simpler projects. Act to resolve disputes, anticipate problems. Provide excellent customer service on opening day that It is not uncommon for airport operators to successfully is seamless with no surprises. plan, design, construct, and open new terminal facilities with- Intent was to meet or exceed expectations of stakeholders. out surprises. The common characteristics of these projects This remains the charter/mission for future projects and are that they are generally small; planning, design, and con- we have done a much better job of managing expecta- struction have short durations; stakeholders and end users tions and achieving this goal. remain closely involved throughout the entire delivery pro- Strive to ensure all facilities and systems were tested and ready for operation by the established deadline. All prob- cess; and all project participants are familiar with each other lems were to be elevated for resolution immediately. and regularly work together as a team with a common culture Achieve a safe and timely opening as perceived by the and goals. This fosters accurate, timely, transparent commu- passengers, media, and the airport community and be pre- nications and a team spirit. Therefore, there is less need for pared to cope with any contingencies. formal activation governance--the policies, processes, and The mission is to ensure that all people, processes, tech- procedures used to operate the airport on a day-to-day basis nologies, and tools are aligned and prepared for operat- are generally adequate. ing at the new facility. Beyond commissioning, activation is the process of When projects are larger and more complex, more formal moving from the construction phase to full operation and more structured activation governance is appropriate, of a facility. The process requires the engagement and because large projects generally include multiple organizations participation of the airport operations, business and with different cultures, goals, objectives, and governance. facilities management, and staff (all the members of the Unfortunately, this typically results in design, construction, organization that are accountable for the execution and operations, and other stakeholders operating in silos--as a continuation of facility management programs to new or league of competitive teams with different interests as opposed expanded works). Activation is ultimately the responsi- to a single team with a common goal. Information flows are bility of the owneroperator of the facility and is carried sometimes controlled to avoid detection of problems resulting out by the existing organization. This includes complete in decisions being made with less than perfect or even ade- familiarity with all elements of the construction project quate information. deliverables and electronic systems that will be added or introduced into a facility. Activation includes: The objective of activation governance is to encourage (and Implementing comprehensive orientation and techni- where necessary force) all of these diverse project partici- cal familiarity training with the project. This effort pants to operate as one team with common goals, as opposed extends to all users of the facility including airlines, to a league of teams (organizations) with different competing tenants, government agencies, and airport. goals. To achieve this, an activation team, including represen- Completing staffing requirements and job training for tatives of all stakeholders and project participants, is gen- new positions and enhancing skills of existing staff to erally established. Often, the first task of this committee is operate and maintain new or upgraded equipment and to adopt an Activation Mission Statement. The Activation systems.

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17 Concluding business arrangements with tenants, par- Activation steering committee--this is the senior man- ticularly defining and implementing those contrac- agement and policy making body for the activation proj- tual responsibilities delegated between the tenant ect and includes senior representation from all of the and airport. major stakeholders. Key issues are discussed and agreed Revising and conducting simulations on operations on and the steering committee has the ability to enforce and emergency plans. agreements. This includes making decisions on changes Preparing and conducting trials and simulations, which to project time scales or deliverables to meet the overall include actual loading of systems and equipment as objective of successful and timely opening. would be experienced in full operations. The activation core team facilitates communications and issue resolution and includes single points of contact The activation team is led and directed by an activation (SPOCS) from all stakeholders, end users, and the design steering committee or other group that includes senior rep- and construction team. The objective of this core team resentatives of all operational departments, the construction/ is to carry out the policies set by the activation steering capital project team, and sometimes one or more airlines. The committee and resolve any issues that have not been group is chaired by the airport director or another individual addressed by lower levels of management. who has the authority to make and enforce decisions. Typi- Activation working group--The activation working cal structure of an activation executive steering committee is group consists of the activation core team and end-user shown in Figure 7. activation SPOCs. Each end user has their own repre- The first activity of the activation steering committee is to sentatives in the activation working group. The activa- adopt an activation mission statement. An appropriate airport tion core team acts as an interface between the activation activation mission statement is: open when ready without sur- working group and the construction team. It is the last prises and operate in a manner that makes it appear AOD is vehicle to resolve issues before escalation to the activa- just another day. The reason this is a good activation mission tion steering committee. statement is that it encompasses the focus of the activation Focus groups--Sub-groups of operational staff who team, but is limited to the scope of what can be controlled by review specific aspects of the activation. These focus the activation team and processes. groups generally include staff from the activation work- streams and stakeholder groups focused on issues such In addition to the executive steering committee, the activa- as familiarization with the new facility, review of design tion team may be further structured into a multi-tiered gover- and construction submissions, witnessing of commis- nance structure, as shown in Figure 8, consisting of: sioning, training, recruitment, and operating procedure FIGURE 7 Typical activation executive steering committee organization structure (Source: Arup 2009).

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18 Makes key decisions and recommendations on issues. Activation Steering Committee Highest point of escalation on the project Activation Working Group (Stakeholders / End Users) Design/Construction Team Other Tenant Activation SPOC Meeting Operational Contractors All Stakeholders represented Department SPOCs SPOCs at SPOC Meeting. CM Activation Core Team SPOC (Chair) Architects & Police & other Air (Airline) Engineers Agencies SPOC(s) SPOCs Manages day to day activities and reports Design and Construction Team appoint Activation progress and issues SPOCs to participate in Activation SPOC Meetings Customs & to the Steering Ground Handling Committee Immigration SPOC SPOC Committees and Focus Groups address Safety & Security, Developing Committees Focus Groups Focus Groups Operational Procedures, (Various) (Various) (Various) Trials Requirements and other tasks FIGURE 8 Typical activation governance structure (Source: Arup 2009). development. Ideally, when issues are identified, they ment to operational procedures that has no impact on can be communicated to the construction team and passengers, airlines, or other stakeholders. Any party resolved without escalation. identified at the field or operational level can raise an issue and seek their counterparts to obtain resolution. If During the life of the activation project the focus groups will this is not possible in the prescribed timescale, or if likely evolve, with additional groups being necessary to man- issues are determined to need input from the next level age and monitor specific elements of the project and resolve of the IRL, the issues are escalated. issues closer to opening and transition times. Level 2--Where issues raised involve contract interpre- As indicated by the activation mission statements those tation, issuing of instructions or change orders, more surveyed provided, a key objective of the activation steer- significant operational changes, or intervention by ing committee is to mitigate surprises on opening day. This is the Level 2 personnel to resolve an issue not resolved achieved by identifying and resolving issues before opening at the field level, they are escalated to Level 2 for day. Ideally, most issues are resolved by the various airport resolution. authority departments, agencies, stakeholders, and the design/ construction team before reaching the activation steering Level 3--Where issues involve resolution between par- committee. One effective way of achieving this is to develop ties that cannot be addressed at Level 2 and involve an issue resolution ladder (IRL) that defines the levels at which input by the SPOCs, they are escalated to Level 3 for issues can be resolved and when escalation is appropriate. resolution. Ideally, issues are resolved between the various departments at an operational level and do not need to be escalated to the Level 4--Only issues that involve the intervention of steering committee. Figure 9 shows a typical issue resolu- senior managers are escalated to Level 4. Typically, tion ladder structure (refer to chapter six for information these involve major impasses between parties or sub- regarding airport terminal activation policies, processes, and ject matter that involves a higher level of approval to procedures): implement. This is the highest level of resolution, reserved for issues that cannot be resolved at Level 3 Level 1--When issues arise at the field or operational level or involve executive decisions to implement. it may be possible to resolve and close the issue at this time. An example of this could be a minor field change To achieve the goal of opening without surprises, trans- that does not involve time or money or a minor adjust- parent accurate information about the real-time status of con-

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19 FIGURE 9 Typical issue resolution ladder structure (Source: Arup 2009). struction and preparedness of all stakeholders is necessary. Depending on the size and complexity of the project, it may Issues that are raised need to be acknowledged and dealt with be appropriate to use EDMS, web-based collaboration tools, in an objective manner. If issues are ignored or resolutions and other automated services to facilitate sharing of accurate not explained, constituents lose confidence in the process and transparent information and managing timely resolution of suspect that the systems, processes, procedures, and opening issues. See chapter seven for an overview of some of the tools will go as planned. that are used to support airport terminal facility activation.