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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 661 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM A Guidebook for Corridor-Based Statewide Transportation Planning

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2010.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 661 A Guidebook for Corridor-Based Statewide Transportation Planning John L. Carr Carl D. Dixon WILBUR SMITH ASSOCIATES Lexington, KY AND Michael Meyer GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Atlanta, GA Subscriber Categories Highways Planning and Forecasting Environment Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 661 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 8-58 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-15479-6 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2010929232 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT INFORMATION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the research directly to those who are in a position to use them. researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 661 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Senior Program Officer Megan A. Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Andra Briere Editor NCHRP PROJECT 8-58 PANEL Field of Transportation Planning--Area of Forecasting George Gerstle, Boulder County, CO (Chair) Sandra K. Beaupre, Wisconsin DOT, Madison Arnold R. Burnham, Arizona DOT, Phoenix Kenneth A. Carlson, New York State DOT, Albany Barbara K. Fraser, Oregon DOT, Salem Jack Kinstlinger, KCI Technologies, Inc., Sparks, MD Jerome M. Lutin, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark Craig B. Newell, Michigan DOT, Lansing Robert A. Gorman, FHWA Liaison Kimberly Fisher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS NCHRP Project 8-58 was performed by Wilbur Smith Associates (WSA) as the primary contractor in collaboration with Michael Meyer, Ph.D., P.E., of the Georgia Institute of Technology. The Principal Investigator for WSA was John L. Carr, P.E., and the Deputy Project Manager was Carl D. Dixon, P.E. of WSA's Lexington, Kentucky, office. Other contributors from various WSA offices included Don Vary of the Falls Church, Virginia, office (statewide transportation planning); Rob Bostrom of Lexington, Kentucky, and Dave Powers of Columbia, South Carolina (travel demand modeling); Paula Dowell of Atlanta, Georgia (economics and freight); Tim Sorenson of Lexington, Kentucky (transit planning); Jeff Carroll of Columbia, South Carolina (liter- ature research); Abra Horne of Orlando, Florida, and Bob Hamm of Tallahassee, Florida (Florida statewide planning); Rebecca Ramsey of Lexington, Kentucky (survey research, literature research, case study research, and report preparation); and Amanda Spencer of Lexington, Kentucky (corridor plan- ning, statewide transportation planning, follow-up research, and report preparation). Special thanks are extended to the transportation agency participants who gave of their time to participate in interviews for the case study research. Those participants included George Gerstle, formerly with the Col- orado DOT (currently with the City of Boulder); Jerry Blair and Donna Day, East-West Gateway Council of Governments (St. Louis MPO); Bob Romig, David Lee, Ed Hutchinson, and Warren Merrell, Florida DOT; George Schoener, I-95 Corridor Coalition; Eryn Fletcher and Steve Smith, Indiana DOT; Calvin Leggett, David Wasserman, and Alpesh Patel, North Carolina DOT; and Bob Hannigan, Brian Wall, and Jeff Reid, Pennsyl- vania DOT. Thanks are also given to the staff from the 33 state DOTs who took the time to respond to our ini- tial survey; the staff from the state DOTs who participated in our practitioners outreach; and the staff mem- bers from state DOTs that provided updated and additional information during our follow-up research. Finally, WSA and Dr. Meyer wish to express our appreciation to the members of the NCHRP Project 8-58 Research Panel who provided valuable guidance, review, and input into this research project and its products.

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FOREWORD By Lori L. Sundstrom Senior Program Officer Transportation Research Board This guidebook provides a template for corridor planning that will assist states to better understand the implications of transportation decisions on mobility, communities, eco- nomic development, and environmental stewardship. The template can be a useful tool to help states program funds to meet identified needs and priorities. It should be of immedi- ate use to transportation decision makers, managers, and planning practitioners involved in the preparation of statewide transportation plans and priority programs. Federal law (i.e., ISTEA, TEA-21 and SAFETEA-LU) requires states to develop long- range, statewide multimodal plans and priority programs. Some states have met this requirement by developing statewide policy plans while other states have developed statewide plans that result in lists of transportation projects. Without extensive detailed planning, neither policy plans nor project-specific plans contain a sufficient basis for deci- sion making and prioritization. Statewide corridor planning can be an effective method to (1) understand the relation- ship between modes of transportation, (2) evaluate transportation system performance, (3) generate innovative solutions to transportation problems, and (4) aid in preparing an effec- tive statewide transportation plan. It can serve as the link between broad policies and strate- gies that serve as the foundation of many statewide transportation plans and the evaluation of needs and performance expectations that can guide development of priority programs. Statewide corridor planning can also serve as a mechanism for prioritizing the implemen- tation of project-specific plans by linking long-range transportation plans to shorter-term state transportation improvement programs. Under NCHRP Project 08-58, Wilbur Smith Associates was asked to develop a concep- tual multimodal statewide corridor planning process and describe how it relates to other planning and programming activities (e.g., strategic planning, long-range transportation planning, metropolitan planning organization (MPO) planning, priority programming, and project development). To meet the project objectives, the research team conducted a literature review, identified applicable federal requirements and guidance, undertook sur- veys and case study research to further examine the current state of the practice, identified effective approaches and practices used by states and MPOs, and conducted a peer review of the draft guidebook to gather feedback on its content. The contractor's project final report that contains the results of the literature review and the results of the outreach and case study efforts is available on the TRB project website.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 4 Section 1 Guidebook Organization and Purpose 4 Background 5 Purpose 5 Overview 7 Section 2 Statewide Corridor Planning 7 Why Use an SWCP Process? 9 SWCP Framework 10 Establish Organizing Principles and Institutional Structure 11 Establish a Corridor Network 11 Identify Study Corridors 12 Conduct Corridor Studies 13 Identify Statewide Investment Program and System Management Strategy 14 Development of Technical Guidance 15 Section 3 Technical Guidance for SWCP 15 Establish Organizing Principles and Institutional Structure 16 Establish a Corridor Network 17 Identify Study Corridors 17 Conduct Corridor Studies (Elements Related to the SWCP Approach) 20 Identify Statewide Investment Program and System Management Strategy 21 Section 4 Hypothetical Example: Application of SWCP Guidance to the State of South Orange 21 SWCP in the State of South Orange 21 Establish Organizing Principles and Institutional Structure 24 Establish a Corridor Network 24 Identify Study Corridors 27 Conduct Corridor Studies (Elements Related to the SWCP Approach) 31 Identify Statewide Investment Program 33 Conclusion 34 Section 5 References 36 Appendix A Transportation Agency Examples of Corridor-Based Planning 49 Appendix B Levels of Corridor Analysis for Statewide Corridor Planning 51 Appendix C Analytical Tools for Corridor Analysis 57 Appendix D Public Transit in Statewide Corridor Planning

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60 Appendix E Freight Transportation in Statewide Corridor Planning 65 Appendix F Economic Development in Statewide Corridor Planning