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APPENDIX A Transportation Agency Examples of Corridor-Based Planning This section presents real-life examples of how transportation agencies have undertaken the steps for a corridor-based approach to systems-wide transportation planning. All but one example are focused on state DOTs, with one additional example from an MPO. Establish Corridor Network Some examples of this initial step in the SWCP process are presented herein. Indiana The Indiana long-range plan is based on a simplified planning-level corridor classification system (see Figure A-1), which includes Statewide mobility corridors, which are defined as corridors that provide "safe, free-flowing, high-speed corridors" serving major metropolitan areas and surrounding states; Regional corridors designed to provide mobility within regions of the state; and Local access corridors, which include the remainder of the highway system. The Indiana DOT through the INDOT 2030 Long Range Plan defines the state's transportation system by the level of system management responsibility--state, MPO, and small urban and rural areas. The state system is focused on those routes that move people and goods between the major activity centers that are considered important to the state's economy. Potential highway corridors are evaluated on the basis of Accessibility measures between major urban areas focusing on connecting urban areas of 25,000 population or greater; Designation as a principal arterial on the FHWA functional classification system; Designation as part of the National Highway System; High volumes of commercial traffic and commodity movements; and Concentrations of high passenger-vehicle traffic volumes. Virginia The Virginia DOT (VDOT) used the following criteria to identify statewide multimodal trans- portation corridors. Such corridors included those that Involved multiple modes (i.e., highway, rail, inter-regional transit, airport, port) or is a freight corridor and extends beyond an individual region; Connected regions/states/major activity centers; 36

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Transportation Agency Examples of Corridor-Based Planning 37 Figure A-1. Indiana's statewide mobility connections among population centers. Source: The WDOT Twenty-five Year Plan, As Amended November 2003. Indiana DOT, Division of Environment, Planning and Engineering, p. 100, Figure 5. Provided a high level/volume of transport for Class I rail, Commercial and/or reliever airports, Inter-regional public transportation and stations, Interstate/NHS/Primary facility, Major shipping channel, Major port, Gateway of national or international significance, and Major freight corridor. Provided a unique statewide function and/or addresses statewide goals related to Evacuation route or critical redundancy, Security (military access, STRAHNET, STRACNET), Tourism, Truck route, State bicycle route or inter-regional trail, or Economic development. As noted in the guidance for identifying these corridors, the perspective of the state may differ from that of regional planning bodies in that the state is concerned with transportation throughout the Commonwealth, whereas MPOs and PDCs appropriately focus on regional interests. The state must also ensure that regions are connected and that interstate needs are addressed. As further noted, the intent of the statewide multimodal networks is not to replace regional plans, but to "connect the dots" among regional and modal agency plans.

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38 A Guidebook for Corridor-Based Statewide Transportation Planning Michigan In updating its statewide transportation plan, the Michigan DOT (MDOT) examined travel flows in the state and how these flows related to and affected economic development. Major corridors were identified that connected the state's most important economic centers and served the majority of the state's population. Figure A-2 shows how MDOT used a geographic infor- mation system (GIS) to illustrate the extent to which the state's population was within 20 miles of the state-identified corridors. In this particular example, the "universe" of potential statewide corridors related directly to the linkage between transportation and other state goals, in particular, economic development. This approach is not as complex as that found in Indiana and Virginia, but it serves a very important purpose in illustrating to state and local officials how important the state's transportation system is to the economic well-being of the state. In addition, the Michigan example shows the usefulness of using GIS in identifying statewide networks or potential corridors for SWCP analysis. Minnesota Minnesota is another example of how states define the potential corridors for state transportation investment. Minnesota DOT (Mn/DOT) defines a system of interregional and regional travel corridors as part of the state highway network. These corridors were designed to connect key trade centers in the state based on population and business density. The state transportation plan defined a hierarchy of high-priority and medium-priority inter-regional and regional corridors. The plan (2003) also identified the "state of the system" for other modes, including transit, intercity passenger and freight movement for the state, aviation, and waterways. The role of the state in these other modal areas was one of supporting and encouraging their use. For example, Figure A-2. Corridors of statewide significance and population location, Michigan. Source: State Long-Range Transportation Plan 20052030, Corridors and International Borders Report. Michigan DOT, March 1, 2007, p. 18, Figure 6-1.

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Transportation Agency Examples of Corridor-Based Planning 39 Mn/DOT's role in rail and waterways included the development of plans that guide funding allocation, administer highway/railroad construction projects and develop freight-related data sources. In aviation, the state was to serve as a promoter of both general and commercial avia- tion through technical and financial assistance, educational activities, and statewide planning and research. Florida Florida's Strategic Intermodal System (SIS) was formally established in 2003. The SIS includes all forms of transportation and integrates individual facilities, services, modes, and linkages into Criteria for Identifying Statewide Corridors--Florida Mobility/Connectivity System connectivity Gaps in existing system Intermodal connectivity Connectivity to Strategic Intermodal System Connectivity to regional systems Congestion/delay/reliability Freight and visitor flows Emergency evacuation and response Safety Economic Competitiveness Access to industry clusters and international trade gateways Access to fast-growing areas Access to economically distressed areas Economic development benefits Economic disruptions Community Livability Land use and development Comprehensive planning and visioning Multi-use facilities Historic and archaeological resources Noise and aesthetics Degree of community support Environmental Stewardship Conservation lands Surface waters Wetlands Coastal and marine Threatened/endangered habitat Air quality Energy consumption Source: Florida's Future Corridors Adopted Action Plan. Florida DOT, Central Office, December 2006, p. 16.

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40 A Guidebook for Corridor-Based Statewide Transportation Planning a single, integrated transportation system. The SIS is a statewide network of high-priority state and regionally significant transportation facilities and services, including the state's largest and most significant commercial service airports, deepwater seaports, freight rail terminals, passenger rail and intercity bus terminals, rail corridors, waterways and highways, as well as a spaceport. Multimodal SIS hubs, corridors, and connectors rely on connectivity and volume thresholds to designate these facilities as primary to Florida's mobility network. Facilities may be designated as of statewide/interregional, regional, or local significance. The SIS helps FDOT to Target expenditures to help the state's economic competitiveness, including increased corridor emphasis in planning and funding projects; Apply innovative policies and technologies, including ITS; and Clarify the state's roles and responsibilities on and off this system. The SIS assisted FDOT in the recent update of the Florida Transportation Plan (FTP). The FTP directs full implementation of the SIS Strategic Plan and update of the SIS designation and Strategic Plan at least once every 5 years based on guidance provided by the initial SIS Strategic Plan and the FTP. Wisconsin Connections 2030 is the Wisconsin DOT's long-range multi-modal transportation plan, which is currently under development. It sets forth a blueprint for Wisconsin's transportation system through 2030. Connections 2030 identifies 37 corridors of statewide significance. The 37 corridors of statewide significance build on a corridors approach used in a previous statewide planning effort established in 1988 and updated in the 1990s. This initial effort, called Corridors 2020, identified a system of priority two-lane and multilane highways. The network was categorized into two subsystems: 1. Backbone system: 1,500-mile (approximate) network of multilane highways connecting all major population and economic regions of the state. 2. Connector System: 2,100-mile network of high quality two-lane highways directly linking significant economic and tourism centers to the Backbone system. For the Connections 2030 plan update, each corridor identifies routes and/or multimodal services (e.g., highways, local roads, rail, air, transit, etc.). When completed, the multimodal corridor studies will (1) highlight key Connections 2030 recommendations; (2) prioritize investments; and (3) assist the Wisconsin DOT (WisDOT) transportation staff in prioritizing regional- and corridor- level planning needs. Identify Study Corridors The following examples illustrate some of the approaches that could be used by transportation agencies to identify potential corridors for inclusion in the SWCP. Colorado The current statewide transportation plan, Moving Colorado--Visions for the Future, is a policy-level, corridor-based plan in which the DOT defines corridors, identifies specific need categories established by public input for each corridor, and reviews financial abilities and limitations. Moving Colorado--Visions for the Future was published in February 2005 and has a planning horizon through year 2030.

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Transportation Agency Examples of Corridor-Based Planning 41 The 2030 plan includes corridor visions for about 350 transportation corridor segments. CDOT established corridors in collaboration with the Transportation Planning Regions (TPRs), by segmenting Colorado's highway system into sections, including all modes and facilities within a given geographic area. In this process, logical corridor boundaries are defined by "travelsheds." Travelsheds are not based on a given corridor width that is a specific distance from the major facility on which the corridor is based. Rather, boundaries are based on a subjective assessment that determines which locations are dependent on that facility for access and mobility outside the immediate area. Therefore, travelsheds can be wide in some places if no other major facilities are located nearby or narrow in some places if other nearby facilities are available to provide additional access or mobility to a given region. East-West Coordinating Council of Governments (St. Louis) The East-West Gateway Council of Governments is the MPO for the St. Louis, Missouri/East St. Louis, Illinois metropolitan area. The regional transportation plan, completed in August 2005, is a corridor-based plan in which the MPO defines major corridors and uses major corridor studies to identify investments for inclusion in the long-range plan. There are no pre-established criteria to define corridors of regional significance. Rather, the MPO defines corridors based on the identification of needs as part of the normal transportation planning process. Through the transportation planning process, the MPO identifies the locations of major needs along all routes in the study area. These needs are then examined in greater detail for corridors where problems exist, if warranted. Any route or facility may be identified as a corridor for this more detailed analysis. This analysis is undertaken for both transit and highways. As an example, the MPO has worked with the regional transit provider to identify a dozen potential light-rail lines located in six corridors. In addition to the typical factors such as line capacity, ridership, travel times, service area, and so forth, the transit systems analysis also recognized potential economic development impacts. Florida Florida's Future Corridors Action Plan was developed to identify a vision, goals, objectives, planning processes, and implementation strategies for statewide multimodal transportation corridors for the next 50 years. The evaluation criteria in the Florida Transportation Plan were used to guide decisionmaking for the Future Corridors Program. The Future Corridors Action Plan identified three types of statewide corridor improvements for highways, railways, and waterways to fill gaps: 1. Transformation of existing facilities, 2. Development of new parallel facilities, and 3. Development of new facilities. Existing corridors may be enhanced with the addition of other modes within or near the right- of-way, while new corridors would be planned for multimodal uses. Four broad policy goals, along with corresponding policy objectives and criteria for corridor evaluation, were developed for the Future Corridors Program: 1. Mobility/connectivity, 2. Economic competitiveness, 3. Community livability, and 4. Environmental stewardship.

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42 A Guidebook for Corridor-Based Statewide Transportation Planning A three-step planning process for future corridors was developed that included the following stages of development: 1. Concept Stage--High-level screening of the concept (1) to identify potential corridors and validate whether statewide connectivity or mobility needs exist in the study area and (2) to determine whether a transportation investment is consistent with regional and state plans, including the State Transportation Plan. 2. Feasibility Stage--Study of corridor feasibility to develop consensus in defining the corridor and corridor issues, resulting in specific and feasible improvement alternatives for the corridor. 3. Efficient Transportation Decisionmaking/Project Development and Environmental (ETDM/PD&E) Stage--This defines the effects and impacts of the alternative corridor improvement projects to address a full range of engineering, community, and environmental issues. Figure A-3 shows the candidate corridors identified for Florida's Future Corridors process. Figure A-4 illustrates the steps involved in the Florida DOT corridor development decision process. Wisconsin Candidate corridors were identified that focus on enhancing Wisconsin's economic development and on highway mobility needs, safety, and development pressures. In particular, corridors were chosen that have the potential to address the majority of the criteria specified in the state's long-range plan, including the following: Corridors serving crucial sectors of the economy or major population centers; Corridors producing significant travel activity for both passenger and freight traffic; Corridors that show significant growth in travel or economic development; and Corridors that serve an important role for transportation modes, other than automobile. Local land use and development plans have also influenced corridor selection. Conduct Corridor Studies The following cases illustrate some transportation agencies' efforts to provide consistency across corridor studies. Colorado The CDOT works with the state's designated TPRs, which include both MPOs and RPOs, to define a vision for each of the 350 corridor segments in the state. CDOT provides policy and guidance--and has even developed a CD-ROM Corridor Vision Toolkit--to assist the TPRs in this effort. The State Transportation Commission identified four investment categories to guide funding decisions by CDOT: mobility, safety, system quality, and program delivery. Specific performance measures and objectives have been developed for each investment category, allowing the Trans- portation Commission and CDOT to make informed trade-offs as they decide how best to allocate limited financial resources. These categories are applied to available funding and matched to corridor needs outlined in the corridor study vision statements. Some of the data requirements for comparing corridors and needs include bridge and pavement condition inventories, safety information, congestion levels, AADT, VMT, and maintenance level

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Transportation Agency Examples of Corridor-Based Planning 43 Figure A-3. Florida's future candidate corridors (Dec. 2006.) Source: Florida's Future Corridors Adopted Action Plan. Florida DOT, Central Office, December 2006, p. 11, Figure 5. of service. Corridors are fit into a tiered priority system based on systems designation: Interstate, non-Interstate NHS, and other state highways. Common tools that are used in the project identification/prioritization process include A pavement management system (PMS) that creates annual pavement condition reports and estimates of future needs in an attempt to maintain the pavement network according to specified performance goals. The PMS recommends the most cost-effective pavement surface treatments and maintenance activities. A congestion relief program that highlights sections of roadways where the volume/capacity ratio is greater than 0.85. A travel-time mobility demand measure that is being developed to rank congestion relief projects.

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44 A Guidebook for Corridor-Based Statewide Transportation Planning Figure A-4. Florida's Future Corridors Project screening matrix. Source: Florida's Future Corridors Adopted Action Plan. Florida DOT, Central Office, December 2006, p. 17, Table 2.

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Transportation Agency Examples of Corridor-Based Planning 45 Example Corridor Vision Statement, U.S. 491, Colorado Goals Provide for tourist-friendly transit General safety improvements Plan for increased oil and gas production impacts to the road system Support economic development and maintain traffic operations Accommodate growth in freight transport Reduce fatalities, injuries, and property damage crash rate Strategies Add acceleration/deceleration lanes and turn lanes Eliminate shoulder deficiencies and improve hot spots Add surface treatment/overlays Improve ITS traveler information, traffic management, and incident management Add drainage improvements General safety improvements Retain natural and cultural resources and viewsheds Add passing lanes where feasible Improve wildlife crossings Source: Moving Colorado, Vision for the Future, 2030 Statewide Transportation Plan. Colorado DOT, Division of Transportation Development, Planning Section, Regional Plans, Southwest Re- gion, US 491 Corridor. Each DOT region undertakes public involvement activities with TPRs to identify high-priority projects at least every 2 years. These projects are screened against the corridor visions, goals, strate- gies, and available funds before going into the STIP. Any differences between CDOT and the TPRs are negotiated, and differences between TPRs are reviewed and resolved by a legislatively created Transportation Advisory Committee. Some funds are distributed to TPRs by DOT region. Of special importance, CDOT has made significant efforts to link corridor planning to the STIP, particularly by combining planning and environmental analysis. Early environmental planning is done on corridors to reduce the time it takes to get a project into construction. However, this has met with mixed results, primarily having to do with endangered species. CDOT is using habitat banking as a strategy for more programmatically approaching environmental stewardship. CDOT works with Colorado's Environmental Resource Council by providing data and assisting with Resource Management Plans for corridors where future projects might be contemplated. Virginia Guidelines were developed by VDOT that provide a template for analyzing the corridors that were part of the statewide system. This information and analysis tools included the following information. Analysis of Existing Corridor The purpose of the analysis of the existing corridor is to compile information on the current state of the facility/corridor. Items that should be discussed include The existing facility type(s)/cross-section(s); The current travel demand along the facility, including the traffic volumes of passengers vehicles and trucks, and, depending on the level of analysis, bikes and/or pedestrians;

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46 A Guidebook for Corridor-Based Statewide Transportation Planning The degree and type of freight movement (if applicable); A level-of-service (LOS) and capacity analysis along the existing corridor; A safety/crash analysis; Manner by which the facility fits within and connects to the rest of the transportation system; and Other existing non-highway modes of transportation (such as a nearby rail facility). Needs Assessment The purpose of the needs assessment is to develop the purpose and need for improvements along the corridor. Items discussed include The specific goals of the study; The selection of the facility as a Strategic Highway Corridor; The need for improvements along the facility as they relate to the corridor's function as a Strategic Highway Corridor; The future travel demand along the corridor (autos, trucks, and/or freight movement, and depending on the level of analysis, bikes and/or pedestrians); and A LOS and capacity analysis of the future travel demand. Alternatives Development and Analysis The purpose of this analysis is to develop and analyze alternatives that meet the goals, intent, purpose, and need of the corridor study. This task will be performed in coordination and collaboration with the key stakeholders and the general public. Depending on the purpose and need and the intent of the study, the level of effort will vary. For example, if the primary focus of the study is determining the appropriate access management techniques that should be implemented along a corridor, alternatives may be developed solely for accomplishing this goal. Likewise, if the corridor study is a Tiered Environmental Impact Statement (Tiered EIS), alternatives developed might be approximately 100 miles long and 2,000-ft wide. Alternatives include a No-Build alter- native along with potentially several Build alternatives. In addition, other modes of transportation may be examined as necessary, depending on the intent of the corridor study, such as a Tiered EIS. An analysis of each of the alternatives developed will occur to determine the best solution(s) that meet(s) the purpose and need and goals of the study. The analysis may include items such as Mobility benefits; Economic benefits; Environmental impacts; Indirect and cumulative impacts; Cost effectiveness benefits; Effects on other components in the transportation system; and Travel forecast (if applicable). Indiana As noted earlier, Indiana DOT (INDOT) has identified a tiered system of corridors based on their relative role in the state's transportation system. With respect to the planning tools that are part of the technical analysis that occurs in each corridor, the DOT has used the following models and analysis techniques: Statewide travel demand model and GIS that provides system-level travel demand estimates; Major Corridor Investment Benefit Analysis System (MCIBAS); Corridor travel demand modeling; Benefit/cost analysis frameworks applied to specific types of projects; Economic impact models that have focused on business attraction, business expansion, tourism, etc.;

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Transportation Agency Examples of Corridor-Based Planning 47 REMI Economic Requirements SystemState Version (HERSST); and INDOT management systems (in particular results from the pavement, bridge, public trans- portation, intermodal, congestion and safety management systems). Multi-jurisdictional project issues are resolved through coordination meetings among the DOT district offices, MPOs, and Regional Planning Organizations. Identify Statewide Investment Program This research project did not identify many cases where there have been many years of experience in this step of the SWCP approach. Thus, the following examples are limited in number, but nonetheless illustrate a few examples of how the SWCP prioritization process can occur. Indiana One of the significant aspects of the INDOT statewide planning process is the creation of a scoring system based on congestion relief, roadway system importance, and project priority: For congestion relief, a pre-set number of points are established for specific thresholds relating to AADT, volume-to-capacity ratio, and LOS improvement derived through the use of the travel demand model for future build scenarios in each corridor. For roadway system importance, pre-established points are assigned based on functional classification, mobility corridor classification, and NHS designation. To adjust for political and/or public opinion, the scoring includes a project priority index that assigns additional points depending on whether a project is already committed and on various levels of project support. This scoring process was used to determine which projects were to be included in the 2030 Long Range Transportation Plan, based on available funds derived from funding forecasts and geographic allocations, based largely on historical funding and expenditures. Ohio ODOT based its previous statewide transportation plan on a macro highway corridor system that provided targeted investment opportunities on those projects that best met statewide goals. The most recent transportation plan defines a macro corridor completion as "corridor segments achieving safety, operational, and design adequacy standards" as defined below: Safety--adequacy is achieved when the crash rate, accidents per annual million vehicle-miles and the crash density per mile are less than 2.5 and 75, respectively. Operational--adequacy is achieved by a roadway traffic volume-to-capacity ratio of 0.9 or less. Design--adequacy is achieved by optimum lane widths, shoulder widths, curves, grades, bridge approach widths, and bridge vertical clearances as defined in the current ODOT sufficiency rating system. The use of the macro highway corridor designation in establishing statewide priorities was also identified by ODOT in the recent transportation plan. As noted, Designation as a macro highway corridor means that ODOT will give priority to needed improve- ments in the corridor, relative to similar needs to other roads in the region. . . . However, (such) designation does not mean that every project or need in the corridor will be addressed prior to the needs on other roadways or other projects prioritized or selected based on system conditions, safety or congestion needs identified through statewide systems analysis.

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48 A Guidebook for Corridor-Based Statewide Transportation Planning The plan goes on to describe the constraints that limit total completion of the macro highway corridor plan, stating that While ODOT will strive to complete all macro highway corridors to meet the safety, operational, and design criteria, total `completion' is limited by financial constraints and the need to maintain a balanced program that distributes funding to: maintenance of the existing infrastructure; safety and congestion improvements; additional capacity; and other programs. Colorado Four investment categories have been identified to guide funding decisions by CDOT: mobility, safety, system quality, and program delivery. Specific performance measures and objectives have been developed for each investment category, allowing the Transportation Commission and CDOT to make informed trade-offs as they decide how best to allocate limited financial resources. These categories are applied to available funding and matched to corridor needs outlined in the corridor vision statements. Changes can be made to investment category funding allocations through a formal approval process for (1) a different purpose; (2) a different amount (generally, an increase); (3) a different mode (e.g., trading dollars from a highway project to a transit project, perhaps with a required local match); (4) retaining a project over time if the TIP allocates only a part of the total cost (with cost adjusted for inflation over time); and (5) consideration of a non-plan project that does not meet the corridor vision. CDOT has implemented an agency-wide, integrated enterprise resource planning computer software application called SAP, pioneered by the SAP Corporation, an international software vendor. This new database package provides department-wide project/programming data and information and merges previously separate databases to create seamless integration. As part of these information modules, SAP includes all regional plan corridors and costs; reports on corridors by investment categories (mobility, safety, system quality, and program delivery); and electronically links STIP projects to a respective corridor to ensure there is money available for that corridor to implement the project.