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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 600C COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems Collection C: Chapters 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22 (Tutorials 4, 5, 6), 23 (Updated), 24, 25, 26 (Updated)

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2010.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 600C Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems Collection C: Chapters 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22 (Tutorials 4, 5, 6), 23 (Updated), 24, 25, 26 (Updated) John L. Campbell Christian M. Richard James L. Brown Monica G. Lichty BATTELLE Seattle, WA Jerry Graham Mitchell O'Laughlin MIDWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE Kansas City, MO Subscriber Categories Design Safety and Human Factors Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 600C RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 17-41 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-15469-7 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2008900429 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT INFORMATION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the research directly to those who are in a position to use them. researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 600C Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Charles W. Niessner, Senior Program Officer Emily R. Greenwood, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 17-41 PANEL Field of Traffic--Area of Safety Thomas Hicks, Maryland State Highway Administration, Hanover, MD (Chair) Larry Christianson, Deja Program Development, McMinnville, OR Maurice R. Masliah, iTRANS Consulting, Inc., Richmond Hill, ON Joseph V. Mondillo, New York State DOT, Albany, NY David K. Olson, Washington State DOT, Olympia, WA Wendel T. Ruff, ABMB Engineers, Inc., Jackson, MS Leo Tasca, Ontario Ministry of Transportation, Downsview, ON Samuel C. Tignor, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, McLean, VA Thomas Granda, FHWA Liaison Richard Pain, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Charles W. Niessner Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report contains guidelines that provide human factors principles and findings for consideration by highway designers and traffic engineers. The guidelines allow the non- expert in human factors to more effectively consider the roadway user's capabilities and limitations in the design and operation of highway facilities. The TRB, AASHTO, and the FHWA have been working since 2001 on two projects that together will help to promote greater safety for all road users. These two projects are the Highway Safety Manual (HSM) and the Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems (HFG). These projects have been supported by funding from NCHRP and the FHWA. The TRB supports the Highway Safety Manual through the HSM Task Force and the Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems through the Joint Subcommittee for the Development of a Human Factors Guideline for Road Systems. The HSM and HFG promote improved safety for highway users and complement each other. They should be used together. Neither document is a substitute for national or state standards such as AASHTO's A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets or the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. The HSM provides highway engineers with a synthesis of validated highway research and proven procedures for integrating safety into both new and improvement projects. It also provides practitioners with enhanced analytic tools for predicting and measuring the suc- cess of implemented safety countermeasures. After using the HSM to develop possible design alternatives to improve safety on an in- service or planned intersection or section of roadway, the practitioner may then use the HFG to enhance the possible solutions. Successful highway safety depends on the consider- ation and integration of three fundamental components--the roadway, the vehicle, and the roadway user. Unfortunately, the information needs, limitations, and capabilities of road- way users are lacking in many traditional resources used by practitioners. The easy-to-use guidelines in the HFG provide the highway designer and traffic engineer with objective, defensible human factors principles and information that can be used to support and jus- tify design decisions. The HFG will allow the non-expert in human factors to recognize the needs and limitations of the road user in a more effective manner and design roads that are safer for all. When reviewing either existing or planned roads or intersections, highway designers and traffic engineers are strongly encouraged to use both the HFG and the HSM to identify and develop the safest solutions for road users.

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NOTES ON PUBLICATION OF HUMAN FACTORS GUIDELINES FOR ROAD SYSTEMS Chapters 16 through 20, 24, and 25; Tutorials 4 through 6 of Chapter 22; and updated Chapters 23 and 26 are contained herein. Chapters 1 through 6, 10, 11, 13, 22 (Tutorials 1 through 3), 23, and 26 were published previously. The remaining chapters are being devel- oped under NCHRP Project 17-47 and are expected in October 2011. Chapter 3 (Finding Information Like a Road User) and Chapter 4 (Integrating Road User, Highway Design, and Traffic Engineering Needs) are authored by Samuel Tignor, Thomas Hicks, and Joseph Mondillo. Chapter 5 (Sight Distance Guidelines) and Tutorials 1 and 2 in Chapter 22 (Tutorials) present a revision of materials originally published as: Lerner, N., Llaneras, R., Smiley, A., and Hanscom, F. (2004). NCHRP Web-Only Document 70: Comprehensive Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board. Chapter locations and publication dates. Published Chapter in Report Publication Date 1. Why Have Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems? 600A March 2008 2. How to Use this Document 600A March 2008 3. Finding Information Like a Road User 600A March 2008 4. Integrating Road User, Highway Design, and Traffic 600A March 2008 Engineering Needs 5. Sight Distance Guidelines 600A March 2008 6. Curves (Horizontal Alignment) 600B December 2008 7. Grades (Vertical Alignment) Forthcoming 8. Tangent Sections and Roadside (Cross Section) Forthcoming 9. Transition Zones Between Varying Road Designs Forthcoming 10. Non-Signalized Intersections 600A March 2008 11. Signalized Intersections 600A March 2008 12. Interchanges Forthcoming 13. Construction and Work Zones 600A March 2008 14. Rail-Highway Grade Crossings Forthcoming 15. Special Considerations for Urban Environments Forthcoming 16. Special Considerations for Rural Environments 600C July 2010 17. Speed Perception, Speed Choice, and Speed Control 600C July 2010 18. Signing 600C July 2010 19. Changeable Message Signs 600C July 2010 20. Markings 600C July 2010 21. Lighting Forthcoming March, December 22. Tutorials 600A,B,C 2008; July 2010 23. References 600C July 2010 24. Glossary 600C July 2010 25. Index 600C July 2010 26. Abbreviations 600C July 2010 27. Equations Forthcoming All published chapters are available as individual PDF files and as a consolidated PDF file on the TRB website.

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CONTENTS* PA RT I Introduction 1-1 Chapter 1 Why Have Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems? 1-1 1.1 Purpose of Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems 1-1 1.2 Overview of the HFG 2-1 Chapter 2 How to Use this Document 2-1 2.1 Organization of the HFG 2-1 2.2 Scope and Limitations of the HFG 2-2 2.3 The Two-Page Format 2-4 2.4 Tutorials 2-5 2.5 Other Features PA RT I I Bringing Road User Capabilities into Highway Design and Traffic Engineering Practice 3-1 Chapter 3 Finding Information Like a Road User 3-1 3.1 Introduction 3-1 3.2 Road User as a Component of the Highway System 3-2 3.3 Example Problems of Highway Designers and Traffic Engineers 3-4 3.4 How Road Users Seek Information 3-5 3.5 Examples of User-Scanned Road Environments 3-6 3.6 How Highway Designers and Traffic Engineers Work Together for Road Users 4-1 Chapter 4 Integrating Road User, Highway Design, and Traffic Engineering Needs 4-1 4.1 Introduction 4-1 4.2 Iterative Review Steps to Achieve Good Human Factor Applications 4-4 4.3 Use of Parts III and IV for Specifying Designs 4-6 4.4 Video and Animation Illustrations * See "Notes on Publication of Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems" on facing page.

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P A R T I I I Human Factors Guidance for Roadway Location Elements 5-1 Chapter 5 Sight Distance Guidelines 5-2 Key Components of Sight Distance 5-4 Determining Stopping Sight Distance 5-6 Determining Intersection Sight Distance 5-8 Determining When to Use Decision Sight Distance 5-10 Determining Passing Sight Distance 5-12 Influence of Speed on Sight Distance 5-14 Key References for Sight Distance Information 5-16 Where to Find Sight Distance Information for Specific Roadway Features 5-18 Where to Find Sight Distance Information for Intersections 6-1 Chapter 6 Curves (Horizontal Alignment) 6-2 Task Analysis of Curve Driving 6-4 The Influence of Perceptual Factors on Curve Driving 6-6 Speed Selection on Horizontal Curves 6-8 Countermeasures for Improving Steering and Vehicle Control Through Curves 6-10 Countermeasures to Improve Pavement Delineation 6-12 Signs on Horizontal Curves 7-1 Chapter 7 Grades (Vertical Alignment) [Forthcoming] 8-1 Chapter 8 Tangent Sections and Roadside (Cross Section) [Forthcoming] 9-1 Chapter 9 Transition Zones Between Varying Road Designs [Forthcoming] 10-1 Chapter 10 Non-Signalized Intersections 10-2 Acceptable Gap Distance 10-4 Factors Affecting Acceptable Gap 10-6 Sight Distance at Left-Skewed Intersections 10-8 Sight Distance at Right-Skewed Intersections 10-10 Countermeasures for Improving Accessibility for Vision-Impaired Pedestrians at Roundabouts 11-1 Chapter 11 Signalized Intersections 11-2 Engineering Countermeasures to Reduce Red Light Running 11-4 Restricting Right Turns on Red to Address Pedestrian Safety 11-6 Heuristics for Selecting the Yellow Timing Interval 11-8 Countermeasures for Improving Accessibility for Vision-Impaired Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections 12-1 Chapter 12 Interchanges [Forthcoming]

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13-1 Chapter 13 Construction and Work Zones 13-2 Procedures to Ensure Proper Arrow Panel Visibility 13-4 Caution Mode Configuration for Arrow Panels 13-6 Changeable Message Signs 13-8 Sign Legibility 13-10 Determining Work Zone Speed Limits 14-1 Chapter 14 Rail-Highway Grade Crossings [Forthcoming] 15-1 Chapter 15 Special Considerations for Urban Environments [Forthcoming] 16-1 Chapter 16 Special Considerations for Rural Environments 16-2 Passing Lanes 16-4 Countermeasures for Pavement/Shoulder Drop-offs 16-6 Rumble Strips 16-8 Design Consistency in Rural Driving 17-1 Chapter 17 Speed Perception, Speed Choice, and Speed Control 17-2 Behavioral Framework for Speeding 17-4 Speed Perception and Driving Speed 17-6 Effects of Roadway Factors on Speed 17-8 Effects of Posted Speed Limits on Speed Decisions 17-10 Speeding Countermeasures: Setting Appropriate Speed Limits 17-12 Speeding Countermeasures: Communicating Appropriate Speed Limits 17-14 Speeding Countermeasures: Using Roadway Design and Traffic Control Elements to Address Speeding Problems P A R T I V Human Factors Guidance for Traffic Engineering Elements 18-1 Chapter 18 Signing 18-2 General Principles for Sign Legends 18-4 Sign Design to Improve Legibility 18-6 Conspicuity of Diamond Warning Signs under Nighttime Conditions 18-8 Driver Comprehension of Signs 18-10 Complexity of Sign Information 19-1 Chapter 19 Changeable Message Signs 19-2 When to Use Changeable Message Signs 19-4 Presentation to Maximize Visibility and Legibility 19-6 Determining Appropriate Message Length 19-8 Composing a Message to Maximize Comprehension 19-10 Displaying Messages with Dynamic Characteristics 19-12 Changeable Message Signs for Speed Reduction 19-14 Presentation of Bilingual Information

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20-1 Chapter 20 Markings 20-2 Visibility of Lane Markings 20-4 Effectiveness of Symbolic Markings 20-6 Markings for Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety 20-8 Post-Mounted Delineators 20-10 Markings for Roundabouts 21-1 Chapter 21 Lighting [Forthcoming] P A R T V Additional Information 22-1 Chapter 22 Tutorials 22-2 Tutorial 1: Real-World Driver Behavior Versus Design Models 22-9 Tutorial 2: Diagnosing Sight Distance Problems and Other Design Deficiencies 22-35 Tutorial 3: Detailed Task Analysis of Curve Driving 22-38 Tutorial 4: Determining Appropriate Clearance Intervals 22-39 Tutorial 5: Determining Appropriate Sign Placement and Letter Height Requirements 22-43 Tutorial 6: Calculating Appropriate CMS Message Length under Varying Conditions 23-1 Chapter 23 References 24-1 Chapter 24 Glossary 25-1 Chapter 25 Index 26-1 Chapter 26 Abbreviations 27-1 Chapter 27 Equations [Forthcoming]