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OCR for page 11
HFG SPEED PERCEPTION, CHOICE, AND CONTROL Version 1.0 BEHAVIORAL FRAMEWORK FOR SPEEDING Introduction Behavioral framework for speeding refers to a conceptual overview of the key factors relevant to speed selection, as well as their relationship to potential speeding countermeasures. The figure below provides such a framework and attempts to capture the relevant driver, vehicle, roadway, and environment (DVRE) factors and to link these "predictor variables" to specific indices of driver behavior and driver performance. The factors and relationships depicted in the figure are firmly grounded in relevant studies and analyses of driver behavior. Specifically, it reflects past analyses and syntheses of the research literature on driver behavior and crash risk (1, 2), recent run-off-road safety work (3), safety countermeasures (4, 5), results from the recent 100-car study conducted by VTTI (6), as well as research that covers driving or crashes more generally (e.g., 7, 8, 9). Importantly, the framework includes a variety of countermeasure types, explicitly targeted at specific DVRE interactions. Design Guidelines Countermeasures intended to address speeding should consider the following representation of speed selection to fully understand the relative roles of situation, demographics, individual differences, and unexplained variance in predicting travel speeds. Driver Factors Vehicle Environment Background Factors Factors Characteristics - Type Roadway Factors (Experience, Attitudes, Beliefs, - Size (Edge Marking, Lane Training, etc.) Motivations, etc. Width, Signing, etc.) - Attitudes toward Act - Age Demographic - Critical Events - Field of View Intersection Factors Characteristics (e.g., crashes) - Handling (Signalized, Conf iguration, (Age, Sex, etc.) Signal Timing etc.) - Social Norms - Antilock Braking - Perceived Control Environmental Factors Physiological Factors - Habit (Lighting, Weather) (Vision, Hearing, Health, - Intentions Traffic Factors Perf ormance (RT), Sleep Patterns) - Trip Types (Speed, Volume) Driver Profiles - Impaired This characteristic Driver Performance - Reckless changes that behavior - Speed Selection - Aggressive - Headway Selection - "Normal" - Lane Maintenance - Cautious - Lane Change Behaviors - Capacity-limited - Illegal Actions - Distracted Driving Outcomes, including Excessive Speeding, Near-misses, and Crashes Countermeasure Countermeasure Countermeasure Countermeasure Countermeasure Countermeasure elements that elements that elements that elements that elements that elements that address address specif ic target specific address specif ic address specif ic address specific demographic or driver behaviors, driver types vehicle f actors driving actions situation/ driver f itness attitudes, belief s, environment aspects etc. f actors Based Primarily on Based Equally on Expert Judgment Based Primarily on Expert Judgment and Empirical Data Empirical Data 17-2

OCR for page 11
HFG SPEED PERCEPTION, CHOICE, AND CONTROL Version 1.0 Discussion A substantial amount of research has been done on the causes of speeding and it is clear that speeding is a complex driving behavior. There is typically no single simple solution for addressing speeding concerns. The table below shows the multitude of factors that have been found to be associated with speeding or speed-related crashes. Despite all this research, there is still uncertainty regarding the relative importance of these factors and how this information can be used to develop countermeasures that effectively target specific types of drivers. The figure shown as part of the guideline on the previous page depicts how several of these factors' corresponding countermeasures are related. FACTORS FOUND TO BE ASSOCIATED WITH SPEEDING IN PREVIOUS RESEARCH Factor Example Variables Example References (see Chapter 23 for full citations) Demographic Age, gender, socioeconomic DePelsmacker & Janssens, 2007; Harr, Field & Kirkwood, and education level 1996; Hemenway & Solnick, 1993; Stradling, Meadows & Beatty, 2002 Personality Attitudes, habits, personal and Arnett, Offer & Fine, 1997; Clment & Jonah, 1984; social norms, thrill-seeking, DePelsmacker & Janssens, 2007; Ekos Research Associates, beliefs 2007; Gabany, Plummer & Grigg, 1997; McKenna & Horswill, 2006; Stradling, Meadows & Beatty, 2002 Roadway Posted speed Book & Smigielski, 1999; Giles, 2004 Environment Urban/rural Giles, 2004; Rakauskas, Ward, Gerberich & Alexander, 2007 Vehicle Engine size; vehicle age Hirsh, 1986; Stradling, Meadows & Beatty, 2002 Risky Drinking and driving, seatbelt Arnett, Offer & Fine, 1997; Cooper, 1997; Gabany, Plummer & Behaviors use, red light running Grigg, 1997; Harr, Field & Kirkwood, 1996; Hemenway & Solnick, 1993; Rajalin, 1994 Situational Trip time, mood, inattention, Arnett, Offer & Fine, 1997; Ekos Research Associates, 2007; fatigue Gabany, Plummer & Grigg, 1997; Hirsh, 1986; McKenna, 2005; McKenna & Horswill, 2006 Design Issues None. Cross References Speeding Countermeasures: Setting Appropriate Speed Limits, 17-10 Speeding Countermeasures: Communicating Appropriate Speed Limits, 17-12 Speeding Countermeasures: Using Roadway Design and Traffic Control Elements to Address Speeding Problems, 17-14 Key References 1. Campbell, J.L., Richard, C.M., Brown, J L., Nakata, A., and Kludt, K. (2003). Technical Synthesis of IVI Human Factors Research: Compendium of IVI Human Factors Research. Seattle, WA: Battelle Human Factors Transportation Center. 2. Kludt, K., Brown, J.L., Richman, J., and Campbell, J.L. (2006). Human Factors Literature Reviews on Intersections, Speed Management, Pedestrians and Bicyclists, and Visibility (FHWA-HRT-06-034). Washington, DC: FHWA. 3. LeBlanc, D., Sayer, J., Winkler, C., Ervin, R., Bogard, S., Devonshire, J., et al. (2006). Road Departure Crash Warning Field Operational Test. Washington, DC: NHTSA. 4. Various (2005). NCHRP Report 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, Volumes 1-17. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board. 5. NHTSA (2007). Countermeasures that Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasure Guide for State Highway Safety Offices. Washington, DC. 6. Klauer, S.G., Dingus, T.A., Neale, V.L., Sudweeks, J.D., and Ramsey, D.J. (2006). The Impact of Driver Inattention on Near-Crash/Crash Risk: An Analysis Using the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study Data (DOT HS 810 594). Washington, DC: NHTSA. 7. Hendricks, D.L., Fell, J.C., and Freedman, M. (1999). The Relative Frequency of Unsafe Driving Acts in Serious Traffic Crashes, Summary Technical Report. Washington, DC: NHTSA. 8. Groeger, J.A. (2000). Understanding Driving: Applying Cognitive Psychology to a Complex Everyday Task. Hove, U.K.: Psychology Press. 9. Treat, J.R., Tumbas, N.S., McDonald, S.T., Shinar, R.D., Mayer, R.E., Sansifer, R.L., et al. (1979). Tri-level Study of the Causes of Traffic Accidents, Executive Summary (DOT HS 805 099). Bloomington: Indiana University. 17-3