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OCR for page 83
Geometric Design Elements 83 Exhibit 5-85. Considerations for driveways crossing railroad tracks. Design Element Suggested Practice Reason Intersection Driveway and railroad tracks Enhance the driver's view of the crossing angle intersect at 90 degrees Horizontal Crossings should not be located on Driveway curvature limits a driver's alignment - either driveway or railroad curves view of the crossing ahead and the curvature driver's attention may be directed toward negotiating the curve rather than looking for a train. Railroad curvature restricts a driver's view down the tracks from both a stopped position at the crossing and on approach to the crossing Vertical Driveway-rail crossing should be as Improved sight distance, rideability, and alignment level as possible. AASHTO (5-1, braking and acceleration distances pp. 731-733) recommends that the crossing surface be in the same plane as the top of rails for a distance of 2 feet outside the rails, and that the surface of the roadway be not more than 3 inches higher or lower than the top of the nearest rail at a point 30 feet from the rail, unless track superelevation dictates otherwise. Crossing Handbook points out that the higher occurrence of collisions at these intersections is due in part to a short storage area for vehicles waiting to move through the crossing and the intersection. "If the intersection is signalized or if the driveway approach from the cross- ing is controlled by a STOP sign, queues may develop across the crossing, leading to the pos- sibility of a vehicle becoming `trapped' on the crossing. Also, there are more distractions to the motorist, leading to the possibility of vehicle-vehicle conflicts." The critical distance between a driveway-rail crossing and a driveway-highway intersection is a function of the number and type of vehicles expected to be queued up by the intersection traffic control. If other viable driveway locations are available, consider routing the driveway so that it does not cross the railroad track. References 5-1. AASHTO. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. Washington, DC (2004) 896 pp. 5-2. AASHTO. Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities. Washington, DC (July 2004) 127 pp. 5-3. Louisville-Jefferson County Metro Government. Title VII: Traffic Code, Chapter 74: Bicycles and Motorcycles, Section 74.01: Operation of Bicycles (2008) no page numbers. 5-4. Guth, D., and LaDuke, R. "Veering by Blind Pedestrians: Individual Differences and Their Implications for Instruction." Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness (1995) pp. 2837. 5-5. Guth, D., and Rieser, J.J. "Perception and the Control of Locomotion by Blind and Visually Impaired Pedestrians," in Blasch, B.B., Wiener, W.R., & Welsh, R.L. (eds.) Foundations of Orientation and Mobility (2nd ed.), AFB Press, New York (1997) pp. 317356. 5-6. Fitzpatrick, K., et al. TCRP Report 19: Guidelines for the Location and Design of Bus Stops. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC (1996). 5-7. Gattis, J. L. "Class Notes, CVEG 4423," Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (2009). 5-8. Highway Capacity Manual. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC (2000). 5-9. Systems Planning Office. Driveway Handbook. Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL (March 2005) 100 pp. 5-10. Box, P.C. "Driveway Accident and Volume Studies, Part I-General Relationships." Public Safety Systems (May/June 1969) pp. 1822.

OCR for page 83
84 Guide for the Geometric Design of Driveways 5-11. Neuman, T.R. NCHRP Report 279: Intersection Channelization Design Guide. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC (1985) p. 76. 5-12. Gluck, J. S., Levinson, H. R., and Stover, V. G. NCHRP Report 420: Impacts of Access Management Techniques. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC (1999) 157 pp. 5-13. Stover, V. G., and Koepke, F. J. Transportation and Land Development, 2nd edition. ITE, Washington, DC (2002) 700 pp. 5-14. Gattis, J.L., and Low, S.T. Transportation Research Record 1612, "Intersection angle geometry and the driver's field of view." Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC (1997) pp. 1016. 5-15. Son, Y. T., Kim, S. G., and Lee, J. K. Transportation Research Record 1796, "Methodology to calculate sight distance available to drivers at skewed intersections." Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC (2002) pp. 4147. 5-16. Garcia, A. "Lateral vision angles and skewed intersection design." Proceedings, Third International Symposium on Highway Geometric Design (2005). 5-17. Center for Transportation Research and Education. Access Management Toolkit: Answers to frequently asked questions. Iowa State University, Ames, IA, http://www.ctre.iastate.edu/Research/access/toolkit/ (as of Dec. 31, 2007). 5-18. Missouri Department of Transportation. New Engineering Policy Guide, 940.16. Jefferson City, MO, http://epg.modot.org/index.php?title=940.16_Driveway_Geometrics (as of Dec. 31, 2007). 5-19. New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. Innovative Land Use Planning Techniques: A Handbook for Sustainable Development (draft). Concord, NH, http://www.des.nh.gov/REPP/ilupth/ Access_Management.doc (as of Dec. 31, 2007). 5-20. Koepke, F.J., and Levinson, H.S. NCHRP Report 348: Access Management Guidelines for Activity Centers. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC (1992) pp. 9495. 5-21. Committee on Access Management. Access Management Manual. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC (2003) pp. 184185. 5-22. City of Roseville, CA. "Design Standards," (March 2007) p. 13. http://www.roseville.ca.us/civica/filebank/ blobdload.asp?BlobID=2387 (as of Oct. 28, 2008). 5-23. Kulash, W.M. Residential Streets, 3rd edition. Urban Land Institute, National Association of Home Builders, ASCE and ITE, Washington, DC (2001) 76 pp. 5-24. Eck, R.W., and Kang, S.K. Transportation Research Record 1327, "Low-Clearance Vehicles at Rail-Highway Grade Crossings: An Overview of the Problem and Potential Solutions." Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC (1991) pp. 2735. 5-25. French, L.J., Clawson, A., and Eck, R.W. Transportation Research Record 1847, "Development of Design Vehicles for Hang-Up Problem." Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC (2003) pp.1119. 5-26. Eck, R.W., and Kang, S.K. Transportation Research Record 1356, "Roadway Design Standards to Accom- modate Low-Clearance Vehicles." Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC (1992) pp. 8089. 5-27. Scott, K.I., Simpson, J.R., and McPherson, E.G. "Effects of Tree Cover on Parking Lot Microclimate and Vehicle Emissions." Journal of Arboriculture, Vol. 25, No. 3 (1999) pp. 129142. 5-28. Eck, R.W., and McGee, H. Vegetation Control for Safety: A Guide for Local Highway and Street Maintenance Personnel. FHWA-SA-7-18, FHWA, Washington, DC (July 2007) pp.136, 2123. 5-29. Schellinger, D. In Planning and Urban Design Standards. Sendich, G., Graphics Editor, American Planning Association, John Wiley and Sons, New York (2006). 5-30. ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities (ADAAG), September 2002, http://www. access-board.gov/adaag/html/adaag.htm#4.4 5-31. AASHTO. Roadside Design Guide, 3rd Edition. Washington, DC (2002) 344 pp. 5-32. "Lane Widths, Channelized Right Turns, and Right-Turn Deceleration Lanes in Urban and Suburban Areas." Contractor's Final Report NCHRP Project 03-72, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC. 5-33. Colorado Transportation Commission. Colorado State Highway Access Code. Colorado DOT, Denver, CO (1998, revised March 2002). 5-34. FHWA. Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways. Washington, DC (2003) 760 pp. 5-35. Ogden, B.D. Railroad-Highway Grade Crossing Handbook Revised Second Edition 2007. ITE, Washington, DC (2007) 324 pp.