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NATIONAL NCHRPREPORT 659 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Guide for the Geometric Design of Driveways

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of June 2010.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 659 Guide for the Geometric Design of Driveways J. L. Gattis UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS Fayetteville, AR Jerome S. Gluck AECOM New York, NY Janet M. Barlow ACCESSIBLE DESIGN FOR THE BLIND Asheville, NC Ronald W. Eck WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY Morgantown, WV William F. Hecker HECKER DESIGN, LLC Birmingham, AL Herbert S. Levinson Wallingford, CT Subscriber Categories Highways Design Operations and Traffic Management Pedestrians and Bicyclists Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 659 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 15-35 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-15473-4 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2010928290 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT INFORMATION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the research directly to those who are in a position to use them. researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 659 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs David B. Beal, Senior Program Officer, Retired David A. Reynaud, Senior Program Officer Megan A. Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 15-35 PANEL Field of Design--Area of General Design Philip B. Demosthenes, Consultant, Denver, CO (Chair) Tom Dodds, South Carolina DOT, Columbia, SC John C. Jones, Georgetown, ME Cynthia Landez, Texas DOT, Austin, TX Rick Laughlin, HDR Engineering, Inc., Sioux Falls, SD Howard R. Ressel, New York State DOT, Rochester, NY Gary Sokolow, Florida DOT, Tallahassee, FL Richard E. Sommer, Urbana, OH Vergil G. Stover, College Station, TX Scott Windley, US Access Board, Washington, DC Joe Bared, FHWA Liaison Richard A. Cunard, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This guide was developed under NCHRP Project 15-35 by the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Arkansas (UA), prime contractor, and by AECOM, subcontractor. Subcontractors to AECOM include Accessible Design for the Blind; West Virginia University; Hecker Design, LLC; and Her- bert S. Levinson. Dr. James L. Gattis, Professor of Civil Engineering at UA, was the Principal Investigator. Jerome S. Gluck of AECOM was the Co-Principal Investigator. Janet M. Barlow (Accessible Design for the Blind), Ronald W. Eck (West Virginia University), William F. Hecker (Hecker Design, LLC), and Herbert S. Levinson were special consultants for the project.

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FOREWORD By David A. Reynaud Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report presents guidelines that will be of use to state departments of transportation, local governments, and consultants for the geometric design of driveways. It contains driveway-related terms and definitions, basic geometric controls, a summary of access spacing principles, and detailed discussions of various geometric design elements. Material related to and supporting the contents of this publication, including an extensive review of literature, can be found in NCHRP Web-Only Document 151: Geometric Design of Driveways. (This supporting document is available on the TRB website (www.trb.org), search for "NCHRP Web-Only Document 151".) The design of driveways has benefited from little comprehensive research and no national design guidance since the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO) pub- lication, An Informational Guide for Preparing Private Driveway Regulations for Major High- ways, was published in 1959. Since then, roadway design, function, and volumes have changed as have vehicle design and many other aspects of the roadway environment. Driveways, especially busy commercial drives, can have a significant impact on the adja- cent roadway. Good driveway design should facilitate smooth vehicle egress and ingress to and from the roadway and should also provide for pedestrians and bicyclists. Driveway design needs to consider the roadway functional class and driveway usage to better accom- modate varying roadway environments, community needs, and existing conditions. There is currently little guidance on this issue. The Draft Guidelines for Accessible Public Rights-of-Way, disseminated by the U.S. Access Board for public comment in 2001, provides specific guidelines for such elements as mini- mum width, cross slope, grade, and edge conditions at the intersection of sidewalks and driveways to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act. These guidelines are based on pedestrian needs and do not comprehensively address safe and efficient vehicle move- ments at driveways. Recommendations are needed to accommodate accessibility concerns as well as safe and efficient vehicle use of the driveway. This research addressed the design of driveways in the form that roadway designers use-- the area where the driveway intersects the public road. The objective of this research was to develop recommendations for the geometric design of driveways that consider standard engineering practice and accessibility needs and provide for safe and efficient travel by motorists, pedestrians, and bicyclists on the affected roadway. The importance of these issues is reflected in studies that show that up to 19 percent of reported urban traffic colli-

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sions involve driveway traffic. This design guide was prepared by James Gattis of the Uni- versity of Arkansas and other consultants as a by-product of the research for NCHRP Proj- ect 15-35, "Geometric Design of Driveways." This research included a literature review, a survey of street and highway departments, and field studies leading to an improved under- standing of the state of the practice. This guide presents changes to that state of practice based on the evolving requirements for driveways.

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CONTENTS 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Purpose and Scope of the Guide 1 Need for This Guide 2 Organization and Structure of the Guide 3 References 4 Chapter 2 Terms and Definitions 6 References 7 Chapter 3 Design Controls 7 The Driveway Setting 8 User Mix Considerations 10 Attributes of Bicyclists, Drivers, and Pedestrians 10 Motor Vehicle Traffic Attributes 17 References 18 Chapter 4 Driveway Location and Spacing 18 General Guidelines 20 Driveway Location and Spacing 23 References 24 Chapter 5 Geometric Design Elements 26 Sight Distance and Conspicuity 29 Bicyclists 29 Pedestrians and Pedestrians with Disabilities 32 Public Transit Facilities 33 Driveway Plan and Cross-Section Elements 55 Driveway Length 65 Driveway Vertical Alignment Elements 75 Other Elements 83 References