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Glossary AAPG. American Association of Petroleum Geologists. AOSTRA. Alberta Oil Sands and Tar Research Authority. API. American Petroleum Institute. API gravity. Parameter expressed in degrees where the specific gravity of water is defined as 10; light oil is 20 and greater; heavy oil ranges from 10 to 20, and tar sands range from 0 to 10. Aromatic hydrocarbons. Compounds or mixtures of compounds having benzene rings in their molecules; useful as antiknock additives for gasolines. ART. Asphalt residue treatment. bbl. Barrelers). Bcf. Billion cubic feet. Bitumen. Also known as asphalt; found in tar sands deposits in Utah and elsewhere. Btu. British thermal unit. Bunker flow process. Process for hydrotreating residium. CANMET. Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology. CARB. California Air Resources Board. Ci. Number of carbon atoms in a hydrocarbon molecule where i is the number; for example, Ct-C3 refers to molecules with one to three carbon atoms, the lighter gaseous components of a product. Catalytic cracking. Cracking process in which a catalyst is used to facili- tate the reaction. CFCs. Chlorofluorocarbons. COED. FMC's char oil energy development process. CNG. Compressed natural gas. 201

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202 GLOSSARY Coke. Hard solid residue left after coal has undergone carbonization and has its volatile matter (oils and gases) removed. Cracking. Process by which hydrocarbons are decomposed by thermal or catalytic means to produce lower-boiling fractions suitable for chemi- cal feedstock or gasoline. DCF. Discounted cash flow. Distillate fuel. General term used to describe fuels obtained by the frac- tional distillation of crude petroleum. DOE. U.S. Department of Energy. Ebullating bed reactor. In this design the upward linear velocity of hydro- gen and hydrocarbons is sufficiently high to expand the bed of cata- lyst particles and induce a continuous random motion. EDS. Exxon donor solvent process for the liquefaction of coal in which a solvent is hydrogenated, mixed with coal to form a slurry, and then fed to a liquefaction reactor. EIA. Energy Information Administration. Endothermic. Characterized by or formed with the absorption of heat. EOR. Enhanced oil recovery; method to increase ultimate oil production beyond that achieved by primary and secondary methods. Exothermic. Characterized or formed with evolution of heat. FCC. Fluid catalytic cracking. Fischer assay. Standardized test that measures the amount of liquid oil that can be obtained from ordinary pyrolysis processes. F-T. Fischer-Tropsch. Fischer-Tropsch process. Catalytic conversion of synthesis gas into a range of hydrocarbons. Fluidized Bed processes. Processes that rely on the tendency of finely divided solids to float in a low-velocity gas or liquid stream and be- have as a fluid. Heteroatom. An atom other than carbon in the ring of a heterocyclic compound. H-Oil. Ebullating bed, catalytic hydrocracking process developed by Hydro- carbon Research, Inc. HRI. Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. HTGR. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Hycon process. Process for hydrotreating residuum. Hydrocracking. Catalytic cracking of higher petroleum fractions in the presence of hydrogen to produce fractions with a lower boiling point. IGCC. Integrated gasification combined cycle. Isomerization. Process in which a straight-chain hydrocarbon is converted into its branched-chain analog.

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GLOSSARY 203 LC-f~lning. Ebullating bed, catalytic hydrocracking process developed by Lummus Company. LLNL. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Mcf. Thousand cubic feet. MDS. Middle distillate synthesis. METC. Morgantown Energy Technology Center. M]. Megajoule. MIS. Modified in situ. MMbbl. Million barrels. MMBtu. Million British thermal units. MMS. Minerals Management Survey. MOOD. Mobil olefins to gasoline and diesel process. mpg. Miles per gallon. MTG. Mobil methanol to gasoline process. MTO. Methanol to olefins process. Naptha. Sometimes known as "heavy gasoline" or light distillate feed- stock, it is the petroleum fraction boiling in the 70 to 200C range. NG. Natural gas. NOR. Oxides of nitrogen. NPC. National Petroleum Council. Oil shale. Carbonaceous rock containing a high-molecular-weight polymer called kerogen that can produce oil when heated to pyrolysis tempera- tures. Olefin. Alternative name for alkenes, aliphatic hydrocarbons whose mole- cules contain a double bond and have the general formula CnH2n; ole- fins are more reactive than paraffins (aLkanes), have high octane num- bers, and are therefore blended into motor gasolines. O&M. Operation and maintenance. OOIP. Original oil in place. OPEC. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Partial oxidation. Net effect of a number of component reactions that occur in a flame supplie~d with less than stoichiometric oxygen. PERF. Petroleum Environmental Research Forum. PGC. Potential Gas Committee. Pyrolysis. Thermal decomposition of a chemical compound or mixture of compounds. RAPAD. Research Association of Petroleum Alternative Development. R&D. Research and Development. RD&D. Research, development, and demonstration. RDS. Residuum (resid) desulfurization. RDS/VRDS. Residuum or vacuum residuum desulfurization.

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204 GLOSSARY REDOX process. ARCO process for direct methane conversion. Reforming. General term for a number of secondary refining processes. It is used to increase the proportion of particular constituents in a distil- late, to introduce a compound that is absent, or to improve the ignition quality. Reserves. Amount of a resource believed to be economically recoverable with existing technology. RHCs. Reactive hydrocarbons. Sasol. South African Coal, Oil, and Gas Corporation; coal conversion plant in operation at Sasolburg; coal is gasified by the Lurgi process and then converted to liquid hydrocarbons through the Fisher-Tropsch process. scf. Standard cubic foot. SMDS. Shell middle distillate synthesis. SO. Oxides of sulfur. x Synthesis gas. Mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen and other liquid and gaseous products. SCT. Short contact time. SRC. Solvent-refined coal. Tar. Heavy, dark liquid residues obtained from petroleum refining, also called bitumen; the hydrocarbon deposits in tar sands. Tcf. Trillion cubic feet. Thermal cracking. Subjection of heavy distillate and residues to high temperatures and pressures to produce gasoline and gas oil; visbreak- ing and delayed coking are thermal cracking processes. TIGAS. Topsoe Integrated Gasoline Synthesis. UCG. Underground coal gasification. USGS. U.S. Geological Survey. Vacuum residue. Residue left behind after vacuum distillation; consists of the heaviest fuel oils and bitumens. VHTR. Very high temperature reactor. VOC. Volatile organic carbon. WRI. Western Research Institute.