Click for next page ( 206


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 205
References and Bibliography Alson, J., J. Adler, and T. Baines. 1989. The Motor Vehicle Emission Characteristics and Air Quality Impacts of Methanol and Compressed Natural Gas. In Alternative Transportation Fuels: An Environmental and Energy Solution, D. Sperling, ed. Westport, Conn.: Quorum Book/Greenwood Press. American Petroleum Institute (API). 1989. Monthly Statistical Report, Vol. 13, No. 5 (May). Washington, D.C. American Petroleum Institute (API). 1986. API Basic Petroleum Data Book: Petroleum Industry Statistics, Vol. 6, Section 2, Table 3c; Section 4, Table 2c. Washington, D.C. American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). 1989a. Position Paper on U.S. Oil Resources. Explorer, Vol. 10, No. 9, Tulsa, Okla. American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). 1989b. Position Paper on U.S. Natural Gas Resources. Explorer, Vol. 10, No. 9, Tulsa, Okla. Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc., and Airco Energy Company, Inc. 1981. The Breckenridge Project Initial Effort, Reports I through X. DOE/OR/ 20717. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Bechtel, Inc. 1989. Western States Enhanced Oil Shale Recovery Pro- gram Shale Oil Production Facilities. Conceptual Design Studies Report (August). Bechtel Job Number 20227. Bergius, F. 1913. German Patent 301.231. Beyaert, B. K., S. K. Hoekman, A. J. Jessel, J. S. Welstand, R. D. White, and J. E. Woycheese. 1989. An Overview of Methanol Fuel Environ- mental, Health and Safety Issues. Symposium on Alternative Trans- portation Fuels for the 1990s and Beyond. Philadelphia, Pa.: Ameri- can Institute of Chemical Engineers. 205

OCR for page 205
206 REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY Brown, A., and B. M. Stewart. 1978. Water Management for Oil Shale Mining and Retorting in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado. Elev- enth Oil Shale Symposium Proceedings, sponsored by Colorado School of Mines and Laramie Energy Research Center, Golden, Colo. Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG). 1988. An Assessment of the Natural Gas Resource Base of the United States. Report of Investigations No. 179, University of Texas, Austin. California Fuel Methanol Study. 1989. Available from Chevron USA, Inc., Strategic Planning and Business Evaluation, San Francisco, Califor- nia. Carter, W. P. L., et al. 1986. Effects of Methanol Substitution on Multi-day Air Pollution Episodes. Statewide Air Pollution Research Center, University of California at Riverside. Under Contract to California Air Resources Board, APB-86: meth 86. Cena, R. J., and R. G. Mallon. 1986. Results and Interpretation of Rapid- Pyrolysis Experiments Using the LLNL Solid-Recycle Oil Shale Re- tort. Nineteenth Colorado Oil Shale Proceedings, Colorado School of Mines (August). Cena, R. J., C. B. Thorsness, and J. A. Britten. 1988. Assessment of the CRIP Process for Underground Coal Gasification: The Rocky Moun- tain I Test. Presented at the AIChE Summer National Meeting, Den- ver, Colo., August 22-24. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory No. UCRL 98929. Coal and Synfuels Technology. 1989a. Arlington, Va.: Pasha Publications, p. 5 (February 6~. Coal and Synfuels Technology. 1989b. Arlington, Va.: Pasha Publications, p. 3. Considine, D. M. (ed.) 1977. Energy Technology Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill. DeSlate, E. 1984. Technical and Economic Assessment of the Occidental Coal Flash Pyrolysis Process. Document AP 3786 (December). Palo Alto, Calif: Electric Power Research Institute. DeLuchi, M. 1989. Greenhouse Gases from Alternate Fuel Vehicles. Final Report, June 10. Argonne, Ill.: Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory. DeLuchi, M. 1988. Hydrogen Vehicle: An Evaluation of Fuel Storage, Performance, Safety, Environmental Impacts, and Cost. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 14~2~: ~ 1- 130. DeLuchi, M., R. A. Johnston, and D. Sperling. 198Sa. Transportation Fuels and the Greenhouse Effect. Transportation Research Record 1175: 33-44. DeLuchi, M., R. A. Johnston, and D. Sperling. 1988b. Methanol vs. Natu- ral Gas Vehicles: A Comparison of Resource Supply, Performance, Emissions, Fuel Storage, Safety, Costs, and Transitions. SAE Techni-

OCR for page 205
REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 207 cat Paper Series 881656. Warrendale, Pa.: Society of Automotive Engineers. Dickie, B., and M. Carrigy. 1977. Fuel from Tar Sands, In Energy Tech- nology Handbook, D. M. Considine, ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Duddy, J. E., J. B. McArthur, and J. B. McLean. 1986. HRI's Coal/Oil Coprocessing Program- Phase I. Proceedings, 11th Annual EPRI Contractor's Conference on Clean Liquid and Solid Fuels. Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute. Duddy, J. E., J. B. McLean, and T. O. Smith. 1989. Coal/Oil Coprocessing Program Update. Proceedings, 12th Annual EPRI Contractor's Con- ference on Fuel Science. Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute. Dunker, A. M. 1989. The Relative Reactivity of Emissions from Metha- nol-Fueled and Gasoline-Fueled Vehicles in Forming Ozone. Pre- sented to the Air and Waste Management Association, Anaheim, Calif. June 25-30. Ember, L. R., P. L. Layman, W. Lepkowski, and P. S. Zurer. 1986. Tend- ing the Global Commons. Chemical and Engineering News (Novem- ber 24~:14-64. Energy Information Administration (EIA). 1984. Annual Energy Review. DOE/EIA-0384~84~. Washington, D.C.: EIA. Energy Information Administration (EIA). 1987a. Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers. DOE/EIA-0206~87~. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Energy Information Administration (EIA). 1987b. International Energy Annual 1987. DOE/EIA-0219. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Energy Information Administration (EIA). 1988. International Energy Out- look 1987. DOE/EIA-0219, Table 25, p. 78 (October). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy. Energy Information Administration (EIA). 1989a. Annual Energy Outlook with Projections to 2000. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy. Energy Information Administration (EIA). 1989b. Annual Outlook for U.S. Coal. 1989. DOE/EIA-0333~89~. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Gov- ernment Printing Office. Energy Information Administration (EIA). 1989c. International Energy Outlook 1989: Projection to 2000. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govern- ment Printing office. Energy Information Administration (EIA). l989d. Monthly Energy Re- view (January). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Fant, B. T. 1973. How New Technology Can Reduce Process Costs. Paper presented at the 74th National AIChE Meeting, New Orleans, March 11-15.

OCR for page 205
208 REFERENCE:; AND BIBLIOGRAPHY Fluor Corporation. 1988. An Analysis of the Cold Flame Oxidation Route. Paper presented at Session 70b, Fuels and Chemicals from Natural Gas. AIChE Convention (Spring), New Orleans, La. Gessner, A. W., T. J. Hand, and J. M. Klara. 1988. Mild Gasification of Steam Conditioned Bituminous Coal in Fluidized Beds. Technical Note DOE/METC-88/4085. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy. Greene, M., A. Gupta, and W. Moon. 1986. American Chemical Society Division of Fuel Chem Prepr. 31~4~:208-215. Harris, J. N., A. G. Russell, and J. B. Milford. 1988. Air Quality Implica- tions of Methanol Fuel Utilization. Future Transportation Technology Conference and Exposition. SAE Technical Papers Series 881198. San Francisco, Calif. Hu, W. C. S., and R. C. Rex, Jr. 1988. Economics of HYTORT Processing for Six Eastern Oil Shales, Eastern Oil Shale Symposium, November 30-December 2, University of Kentucky, Institute of Mining and Min- erals Research, Lexington. Hubbert, M. K. 1962. Energy Resources: A Report to the Committee on Natural Resources. Publication 1000-D. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. Huber, D. A., Q. Lee, R. L. Thomas, K. Frye, and G. Rundins. 1986. American Chemical Society Division of Fuel Chem. Prepr. 31~4~: 227- 233. Interstate Oil Compact Commission (IOCC). 1982. Tar Sands, D. Ball, L. C. Marchant and A. Goldberg, eds., IOCC Monograph Series. Okla- homa City, Okla.: IOCC. Interstate Oil Compact Commission (IOCC). 1984. Major Tar Sand and Heavy Oil Deposits of the United States. Oklahoma City, Okla.: IOCC. Japan Chemical Week, Vol. 27, Issue No. 1359, p. 1, April 17, 1986. Johanson, E. S., and A. G. Comolli. 1978. PDU Run 5 Syncrude Mode Operation with Catalyst Addition and Withdrawal. DOE Report DF/ FE 2547- 19. Washington, D.C. Journal of Petroleum Technology, October, 1988. p. 1294. Kastens, M. L., L. I. Hirst, and C. C. Chaffee. 1949. Liquid fuels from coal. Ind. Eng. Chem. 41:870-~85. Kelly, J. F., and S. A. Fouda. 1984. CANMET Coprocessing: An Exten- sion of Coal Liquefaction and Heavy Oil Hydrocracking Technology. Proceedings, DOE Direct Liquefaction Contractors' Review Meeting, Albuquerque, N.M. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy. Khan, M. R., and T. M. Kurata. 1985. The Feasibility of Mild Gasification of Coal: Research Needs. Technical Note DOE/~TC-85/4019. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Deparunent of Energy. Klara, J. M., and T. J. Hand. 1989. Mild Gasification: A New Option. Presented at Alternative Energy '89, Tucson, Ariz. April 16- 18.

OCR for page 205
REFERE;NCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 209 Kuo, J. C. W. 1984. Gasification and Indirect Liquefaction. Chap. 5 in Science and Technology of Coal and Coal Utilization, B. R. Cooper and W. A. Ellingson, eds. New York: Plenum Press. Kuo, J. C. W. 1987. Evaluation of Direct Methane Conversion to Higher Hydrocarbons and Oxygenates. DOE-sponsored report contract no. DE-AC22-86PC90009. Mobil Research and Development Corpora- tion. Kuuskraa, V. A., 1985. Major Tar Sands and Heavy Oil Deposits of the United States. Proceedings of the Third UNITAR/UNDP International Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands, Long Beach, Calif. July 22-31. Edmonton, Canada: Alberta Oil Sands, Technology and De- velopment Authority. Kuuskraa, V., K. S. McFall, and M. L. Godec. 1989. U.S. Petroleum Re- sources and Natural Gas Reserves. Report prepared for the Commit- tee on Production Technologies for Liquid Transportation Fuels. Fairfax, Va.: ICE Resources, Inc. LeuLke, C. P., and M. J. Humbach. 1987. Continuous Bench-Scale Testing of Coprocessing. Proceedings, 12th Annual EPRI Contractor's Con- ference on Fuel Science. Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute. Lewis, A. E. 1980. Oil from Shale: The Potential, The Problems, and a Plan for Development. Energy 5:373-387. Long, W. D., L. L. N. Parker, and M. Dodd. 1986. Effects of Methanol Fuel Substitution on Multi-day Air Pollution Episodes. Riverside, Calif.: Statewide Air Pollution Research Center. Lumpkin, R. E. 1988. Recent Progress in the Direct Liquefaction of Coal. Science 239:873-877. McLean, J. B., and J. E. Duddy. 1986. American Chemical Society Divi- sion of Fuel Chemical Prepr. 31~4~: 169-180. Megill, R. E. 1989. Figures Recall the Industry's Crash. AAPG Explorer (June):32. Moses, D., and C. Saricks. 1987. A Review of Methanol Vehicles and Air Quality Impacts. SAE Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, November 2-5. National Alcohol Fuel Commission. 1981. Fuel Alcohol. Final Report, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. National Coal Association. 1986. Facts About Coal. Washington, D.C.: NCA. National Petroleum Council (NPC). 1988. Integrating R&D Efforts. Wash- ington, D.C.: NPC. National Research Council (NBC). 1977. Assessment of Technology for the Liquefaction of Coal. Ad Hoc Panel on Liquefaction of Coal, Committee on Processing and Utilization of Fossil Fuels, Commission on Sociotechnical Systems. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.

OCR for page 205
210 REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY National Research Council (NRC). 1979. Hydrogen as a Fuel. Energy Engineering Board. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sci- ences. Nichols, R. J., E. L. Clinton, E. T. King, C. S. Smith, and R. J. Wineland. 1988. A View of Flexible Fuel Vehicle Aldehyde Emissions. SAE Paper 881200: Warrendale, Pa.: Nichols, R. J., and J. M. Norbeck. 1985. Assessment of Emissions from Methanol-fueled Vehicles: Implications for Ozone Air Quality. Pa- per presented at the 78th Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association, Detroit, Mich. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). 1987. Transportation Energy Data Book, Oak Ridge, Tenn.: ORNL. Ogden, J., and R. Williams. 1989. Hydrogen and the Revolution in Amor- phous Silicon Solar Cell Technology. Pu/CEES 231 (February 15~. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University, Center for Energy and Environ- mental Studies. Oil and Gas Journal. 1986. Fiscal 1985 Returns for OGJ 400 Mixed. (September 8~:55-90. Piper, E. M., and O. C. Ivo. 1986. The Petrosix Project in Brazil An Update. 19th Oil Shale Symposium Proceedings, August. Golden: Colorado School of Mines Press. Rahimi, P. M., S. A. Fouda, and J. F. Kelly. 1987. Effect of Coal Concen- tration on Product Distribution in CANMET Coprocessing. Proceed- ings, 12th Annual EPRI Contractors' Conference on Fuel Science. Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute. Reed, T. B., and M. S. Graboski. 1989. Methanol Production from Bio- mass and Municipal Waste: Process Design and Economics. Pre- sented to Committee on Liquid Transportation Fuels, National Re- search Council, Washington, D.C. (June 9, 1989~. Available from T. B. Reed, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado. Rhodes, D. E. 1985. Comparison of Coal and Bitumen-Coal Process Con- figurations. Proceedings, 10th Annual EPRI Contractors' Conference on Clean Liquid and Solid Fuels. Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute. Riva, J. P., Jr. 1987. Fossil Fuels. In Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. 19, pp. 588-612. Riva, J. P., Jr. 1988. Oil Distribution and Production Potential. Oil and Gas Journal 86~3~:58. Riva, J. P., Jr. 1989. Domestic National Gas Production. CRS Issue Brief, Congressional Research Service. The Library of Congress (May 2~. Russell, M. 1988. Tropospheric Ozone and Vehicular Emissions. ORNL/ TM-10908. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: ORNL. Schearer, S. H. 1973. Char Oil Energy Development Process. Chemical Engineering Progress. 69:~3~.

OCR for page 205
REFERENCES AND BIBllOGRAPHY 211 Schindler, H. D., 1989. Coal Liquefaction: A Research & Development Needs Assessment. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Of- fice of Energy Analysis, Office of Program Analysis. Report DOE/ ER-W00. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy. Schulman, B., and F. Biasca. 1989. Liquid Transportation Fuels from Natural Gas, Heavy Oil, Coal, Oil Shale and Tar Sands: Economics and Technology. Mountain View, Calif.: SPA Pacific, Inc. Schulman, B. L., et al. 1988. Assessment of Coprocessing of Coal and Residual Oil in the United States Refining Industry. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary of Fossil Energy, Report DOE/FE/60457-H3. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy. Schumacher, W. J.1989. The Economics of Alternative Fuels. SRI Inter- national Project No. 6998. Menlo Park, Calif.: SRI International. Shinn, J. H., et al. 1984. The Chevron Co-refining Process. Proceedings, 9th Annual EPRI Contractors' Conference on Coal Liquefaction. Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute. Sierra Research, Inc. 1989. Potential Emissions and Air Quality Effects of Alternative Fuels. SR 88-11-02. Sacramento, Calif.: SRI. Singleton, A. H. 1982. An Industrial Viewpoint of Synthetic Fuels. Pro- ceedings of the Eighth Underground Coal Conversion Symposium, August, Keystone, Colo., sponsored by the U.S. Department of En- ergy. Sparks, F. L. 1974. Water Prospects for the Emerging Oil Shale Industry. Proceedings of the Seventh Oil Shale Symposium, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colo., April 18-19. Sperling, D. 1988. New Transportation Fuels: A Strategic Approach to Technological Change. Berkeley: University of California Press. Sperling, D., and M. A. DeLuchi. 1989. Is Methanol the Transportation Fuel of the Future? Energy 14~8~:469-482. Tesche, T. W. 1988. Accuracy of Ozone Air Quality Models. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 114~4~. Tsaros, C. L., V. L. Arora, and K. Burnham. 1975. The Manufacture of Hydrogen from Coal. SAE Technical Paper 751095. Warrendale, Pa.: Society of Automotive Engineers. Unnasch, S., C. B. Moyer, and M. D. Jackson. 1986. Emission Control Options for Heavy-duty Engines. SAE Paper 861111, Warrendale, Pa.: Society of Automotive Engineers. U.S. Congress. 1987. U.S. Oil Production: The Effect of Low Oil Price. Office of Technology Assessment, OTA-E-348. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Congress. 1988a. Conference Report Accompanying Public Law 100- 446. U.S. Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appro- priations Act of Fiscal Year 1989. Washington, D.C.

OCR for page 205
212 REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY U.S. Congress. 1988b. Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. 100th Con- gress, 2nd Session. U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C., Report 100-929. U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). 1986. Feasibility of Establishing and Operating a Generic Oil Shale Test Facility. DOE/METC-86/6046, Morgantown, W. Va.: U.S. DOE. U.S. Department of Energy. 1988. Assessment of Costs and Benefits of Flexible and Alternative Fuel Use in the Transportation Sector. Wash- ington, D.C.: U.S. DOE. U.S. Department of Energy. 1989a. Fiscal Year 1990 Congressional Budget Request, Fossil Energy Research and Development, Vol. 4. Washing- ton, D.C. UeS. DOE e U.S. Department of Energy. 1989b. Energy Technologies and the Environ- ment; Environmental Information Handbook. Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. Washington, D.C.: U.S. DOE. U.S. Department of Energy, Western States Enhanced Oil Shale Recovery Program. 1989c. Modified-In-Situ (MIS) Oil Shale Project with Hot- Recycled Solid (HRS) Shale Retort. Washington, D.C.: U.S. DOE. U.S. Department of the Interior (USDOI). 1989. Estimates of Undiscov- ered Conventional Oil and Gas Resources in the United States A Part of the Nation's Endowment. Denver, Colo.: U.S. Geological Survey. Wang, Q., M. A. DeLuchi, and D. Sperling. 1989. Air Pollutant Emissions and Electric Vehicles. Research Report UCD-TRG-RR-89-1. Trans- portation Research Group, University of California, Davis. Whitehurst, D. D. 1978. A Primer on Chemistry and Constitution of Coal. Pp. 1-35 in Organic Chemistry of Coal, American Chemical Society Symposium Series No. 71. Washington, D.C.: ACS. Whitten, G. Z., N. Yonkow, and T. C. Myers. 1986. Photochemical Mod- elling of Methanol Use Scenarios in Philadelphia. EPA 460/3-86- 001. Ann Arbor, Mich.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Of- fice of Mobile Sources. Wootten, J. M., R. G. Duthie, R. A. Knight, M. Onischak, S. P. Babu, and W. G. Bair. 1988. Development of an Advanced, Continuous Mild Gasification Process for the Production of Co-products. Topical Re- port for the Period September 30, 1987-January 31, 1988, to U.S. Department of Energy. Work performed under Contract No. DE-AC21- 87MC24266. Yurko, W. J., and R. W. Luhning. 1988. AOSTRA Technology Develop- ment for Alberta Oil Sands and Heavy Oil. Proceedings of the Fourth UNITAR/UNDP Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands, No. 243. Edmonton, Canada: Alberta Oil Sands, Technology and Research Authority.