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Index A Academic research, 69, 98-99, 197-198, 199 Accidents and accident prevention, 31-32 Additives, asphalt, 13 Advanced Coal Liquefaction R&D Facility, 93 Advanced Mitsubishi Synthesis Gas to Gasoline, 88 Air pollution, see Environment and pollution Air Products and Chemicals, 88 Air transport, 13 Akzo Chemie, 197 Alabama, 16, 141-143 Wilsonville coal liquefaction project, 93,94,95,96, 128, 187 Alaska, 16, 77, 91, 141 Alberta Oil Sands and Tar Research Authority, 73 Alcohol fuel, see Ethanol; Methanol Alternative fuel sources, 2, 3, 39, 123 cost factors, 40-56, 146-177 environmental impacts, 1, 5, 6, 7, 14, 19, 105-114, 116, 122-123, 127 see also specific fuels 213 American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 25-27 Ammonia, 63, 68 Amoco, 13, 76, 90, 93, 184, 197 ARCO Oil and Gas Company, 102, 103, 199 Aromatic hydrocarbons, 94 Ash, 62, 95, 101 Asphalt, see Bitumen Asphalt residue treatment, 67, 180 Australia, 51-52, 93-94 Automobiles alternative-fuel vehicle demonstra- tions, 105 catalytic converters, 107-108 compressed natural gas as fuel, 42, 45, 53, 54-56, 107-109, 110, 111-113, 119, 150 electric, 13 emissions, 105-114, 122-123, 127 methanol as fuel, 49, 50-51, 53-54, 55-56, 149, 150 multifuel, 53-54, 107, 112, 149 operating costs, 49, 50-51, 53-55 B Benzene, 94 Biological conversion, natural gas, 199

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214 Biomass energy, 4, 8, 114, 123, 126, 128-129 DOE programs, 17, 65, 66, 126, 128-129 environmental factors, 113-114, 128 gasification, 65, 66 resource base, 17, 128, 138, 145 wood, ,14 45, 111 Bitumen, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 120 asphalt additive, 13 asphalt residue treatment, 67, 180 resources, 16, 70, 141-143 see also Tar and tar sands Brazil, 143 British Petroleum, 90 C California, 16, 61, 91, 104, 105, 106, 110, 141, 143, 197-198, 199 California Air Resources Board, 105 Canada, 70, 71, 73, 76, 128, 143, 197 Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, 97-98 Cancer, 94 Capital investments, 2, 45, 48, 49, 51, 52,68,88,95,118,123, 146-147, 150, 151-154 Carbon dioxide, 4, 8, 15, 111- 114, 118, 122-123, 127, 128 coal-oil coprocessing, 99 heavy oil, 69, 128, 178-181 oil shale, 78, 82~3, 127 synthesis gas, 60, 62, 65, 66 Carbon monoxide, 106, 119 Catalysis and catalytic cracking, 66-67, 68 auto catalytic converters, 107-108 coal gasification, 62 coal liquefaction, 93-94, 127 coal-oil coprocessing, 98, 100 Fischer-Tropsch process, 57, 89-90, 91, 92, 120, 123, 129 fluid catalytic cracking, 66-67, 68, 179-180 heavy oil, 68, 179-180 natural gas, 102, 198-199 INDEX oxychlorination, 198 R&D, 186 synthesis gas, 87-88, 90 Ceramics, 61, 184 Chemical processes coal-oil coprocessing, 98-99, 127 heavy oil, 69 oil and gas recovery, 30-31, 35-36 oil shales, 85-86 photochemical oxidation, 107-108, 110-111 tar sands, 3, 44 see also specific processes Chem Systems, Inc., 88 Chevron, 82, 98, 184 Chlorofluorocarbons, 15, 111 Clean Air Act, 105-106 Climate and weather air quality models, 107, 110-111 photochemical oxidation, 107-108, 110-111 see also Greenhouse effect Coal, 119, 121-122, 125-127 commercial applications, 61-62, 63, 73, 92, 96-97, 126, 200 consumption, 15 coprocessing with oil, 7, 97-100, 127, 188-190 cost factors, 7, 44, 60-62, 64-65, 91-92, 93, 94, 95-96, 99-100, 121-122, 127 DOE programs, 7, 8, 61, 63-65, 93, 95, 96-98, 100-102, 121, 126-127, 129 environmental factors, 61-62, 63, 65, 92, 94, 99, 101 gasification, 3, 13, 44, 58-62, 63, 65, 89, 120, 122, 200 liquefaction, 3, 4, 7, 11, 12, 44, 45, 61, 64-65, 92-97, 99-100, 115, 120, 121-122, 127, 188 methanol production, 44~5, 91 prices, 42, 92, 93 pyrolysis, 64, 100-102, 129, 191-196 R&D, 7, 11 resources, 16, 17, 92, 126, 145

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INDEX underground gasification, 3, 44, 63, 65, 91-92 Coke and coking coal pyrolysis, 64, 100-102, 129, 191-196 heavy oil, 66-67, 68, 69, 178-179 tar, 74 Colorado, 17, 76 Commercial applications, 5, 116-117, 123, 125, 133 asphalt additives, 13 auto engines, 111; catalytic convert- ers, 107-108 coal gasification, 61-62, 63, 73, 200 coal, general, 126 coal liquefaction, 92, 96-97 coprocessing, 188-190 heavy oil, 66-67, 178-182 methanol-to-gasoline, 88-89 natural gas-to-liquids F-T facility, 89-90 oil shale, 11, 13, 76-79, 86-87, 126, 143, 183-184 RD&D, 13, 97, 121, 185-187 synthesis gas, 89-90 tar, 71-74 Compressed natural gas (CNG), 1, 3, 119 cost factors, 40, 41~2, 45, 53, 54-56, 108-109, 150 environmental factors, 107-109, 110, 111-113 Consumers and consumption, 2, 119 coal, 15 natural gas, 15, 145 oil, 13, 14, 139 Controlled Retracting Injection Point technology, 63 Cool Water demonstration project, 61 Coprocessing, 7, 62, 64-65, 97-100, 127, 188-190 Cost factors, 1, 3-4, 5, 6, 116, 117, 120, 149 alternative fuels production, general, 40-56, 146-177 auto operating, 49, 50-51, 53-55 coal gasification, 60-62, 64, 91-92, 122 215 coal liquefaction, 7, 44, 61, 6~65, 92, 93, 94, 95-96, 99-100, 121-122, 127 coal-oil coprocessing, 99-100 coal pyrolysis, 101 compressed natural gas, 4Q, 41-42, 45, 53, 54-56, 108-109, 150 crude oil, 121 discount rate, 150-152, 156-172 environmental factors, 106, 118 ethanol, 45, 53 gasoline, 149 heavy oil, 68 methanol, 40, 42, 43, ,1~1 45, 48-52, 53-56, 90-91, 120, 149, 154, 175-177 methodology, 20, 40-53, 146-177 natural gas, 48, 58, 168-177 natural gas liquids, 27, 103-104 oil, enhanced recovery, 34, 118 oil shale, 44, 80, 83-84, 86-87, 121, 126 R&D and, 56 synthesis gas, 90-91 tar sands, 44, 71, 75, 76 see also Capital investments; Price factors Cracking fluid, 66-67, 68, 179-180 hydra, 67, 100 thermal, 67, 100 see also Catalysis and catalytic cracking Crude oil, 10, 139-141 cost, 121 prices, 15, 18, 46-48, 56, 58, 147-149 production, 6, 13-14, 15, 22, 28-31, 32-33, 37, 126 see also Tar and tar sands D Department of Energy (DOE), 4, 5-9, 17, 20, 116, 117, 123-129, 134 biomass resources, 17, 65, 66, 126, 128-129

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216 coal, 126-127 coal gasification, 61, 63-65 coal liquefaction, 7, 64, 65, 93, 95, 96-97, 121 coal-oil coprocessing, 7, 98, 100, 127 coal pyrolysis, 8, 64, 101-102, 129 conversion technologies, 20, 64-65 environmental R&D, 7, 110-111, 122-123 heavy oil, 8, 65, 68-69, 128 Efficiency methane, 8-9, 129 methanol, 8, 104, 129 oil and natural gas, 6, 8-9, 38, 65, 104, 125-126, 128, 129 oil shale, 9, 82, 84-86, 126-127, 129, 183 spending, 11-12, 38, 123-124 synthesis gas, 8, 61, 63, 64-66, 88, 90, 92, 120 tar, 7, 8, 75-76, 128 Department of the Interior, 25-27 Diesel fuel, 3, 13 environmental impacts, 108-109 methanol conversion, 88-89 Diseases and disorders, 94, 109-110 Distillate fuel, 94 middle distillate synthesis, 42, 44, 48, 90 Distribution issues, alternative fuels, 53, 55-56, 91, 104, 149-150 Dow Chemical, 13, 90 E Ebullating bed reactor, 67, 181 Economic factors, 2-3, 120, 133 alternative fuels, 40-57 biomass, 145 coal-oil coprocessing, 99, 100, 127 coal processes, general, 65-66 coal pyrolysis, 101 funding, government, 6-9, 93-94, 96, 125-127; see also Depart- ment of Energy natural gas, 23, 103-104 oil and gas, 23, 32-33 oil shale, 65-66, 77, 84-85 INDEX planning, 18, 151 royalties, 42 synthesis gas, 58-60, 64-65, 90-92 tar sands, 75 see also Capital investments; Commercial applications; Consumers and consumption; Cost factors; Price factors; Production and productivity; Resource base methanol- vs. gasoline-fueled autos, 49, 50-51, 53-56, 149 natural gas technology, 144 Equipment, oil rigs, 34 see also Capital investments Electric power, 2, 6, 119 coal gasification, 61 conversion technologies and, 65, 89 methanol, 89 tar, 74, 75 for transportation, 13 Electric Power Research Institute, 95 Electrolysis, 4 End-use factors, 7, 53-55 Energy Information Administration (EIA), 14, 18, 38, 148-149 Enhanced oil recovery, 29-30, 33, 33-34, 35-36, 37, 118 Environmental Protection Agency, 105, 107, 110, 127 Environment and pollution, 1, 5, 6, 7, 14, 19, 105-114, 116, 122-123, 127 ash, 62, 95, 101 biomass energy, 113-114, 128 carbon monoxide, 106, 119 coal gasification, 61-62, 63, 65 coal liquefaction, 92, 94 coal-oil coprocessing, 99 coal pyrolysis, 101 compressed natural gas, 107-109, 110, 111-113 cost and, 106, 118 DOE programs, 7, 110-111, 122-123 formaldehyde, 107, 108, 110 heavy oil, 67, 68, 69, 128

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INDEX methanol, 107, 108, 109-110 oil and natural gas production, 31-32 oil shale, 78-79, 82-83 ozone, 105, 106, 107, 110, 111 photochemical oxidation, 107-108, 110-111 regulations and standards, 2, 19, 105-108, 122 tar sands, 73, 74-75, 76, 128 urban areas, 5, 13, 14, 104, 105, 106, 110, 122 volatile organic compounds, 105 see also Carbon dioxide; Climate and weather; Greenhouse effect; Nitrogen and nitrogen oxides; Sulfur Ethanol, 45, 53 Ethylene, 198-199 Exploration, 2 defined, 185 oil and natural gas, 23-24, 31, 32, 37 oil shale, 84 Exports and imports, see Imports and exports Exxon, 11, 90, 199 Exxon Valdez, 31 F Federal government alternative-fuel vehicle demonstra- tions, 105 Australia, 51-52, 93-94 funding, 6-9, 93-94, 96, 125-127 Germany, Federal Republic of, 94 Japan, 93-94 laws, 105-106 oil shale ownership, 84 regulations and standards, 2, 19, 105-108, 122 spending, 11-12, 38, 93-94, 96, 123-124 taxes, 116, 118 see also Department of Energy; Department of the Interior; Environmental Protection Agency 217 Fischer assay, 77 Fischer-Tropsch process, 57, 89-90, 91, 92, 120, 123, 129 Fluid catalytic cracking, 66-67, 6B, 179-180 Formaldehyde, 107, 108, 110 Fossil fuels cost factors, 3 - R&D, 11 see also specific fuels France, 97 Fuel properties coal, liquefied, 94, 96 coal-oil coprocessing, 99 coal pyrolysis, 101 heavy oil, 67~8 oil shale, Funding, government, ~9, 93-94, 96, 125-127 see also Department of Energy G Gas and gasification, biomass, 65, 66 coal gasification, 3, 13, 44, 58-62, 63, 65, 89, 120, 122, 200 underground coal gasification, 3, 44, 63, 65, 91-92 see also Carbon dioxide; Com- pressed natural gas; Hydrogen; Natural gas; Nitrogen and nitrogen oxides; Synthesis gas Gasoline, 3, 13, 46, 149 coal to, 94, 95 methanol to, process, 43, 48, 57, 88-89, 91, 103, 123, 149 multifuel engines, 107 natural gas to, 3, 89 prices, 46, 149 Geokinetics, 184 Geological Survey, 26, 27 Geology and geophysics advanced monitoring, 37 modeling, 23, 25, 35 oil and gas, 21-24, 31 oil shale, 7~78

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218 tar sands, 69-70 see also Exploration; Resource base Germany, Federal Republic of, 88, 94, 97, 98 Government, see Federal government; State government Greenhouse effect, 1-2, 4, 15, 19, 111-114, 116, 122 Gulf-Badger, 90 Gulf Research and Development, 63, 184 H Health issues, see Diseases and disorders; Environment and pollution Heavy metals, 67, 68, 98, 128, 190 Heavy oil commercial applications, 66-67, 178-182 coprocessing with coal, 7, 97-100, 127, 188-190 DOE programs, 8, 65, 68-69, 128 environmental factors, 67, 68, 69, 128 resources, 16, 117-119, 141-142 High-temperature processes, see Coke and coking; Pyrolysis; Retorting; Law Thermal processes Historical perspectives coal liquefaction, 92 coal pyrolysis, 100 crude oil vs. refined gasoline, prices, 46 hydrogen production, 60-61 oil and gas resources, 24-25 Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., 89 Hydrocracking, 67, 100 Hydrogen, 57-63, 66, 67, 69; 94, 113, 119, 120, 123, 126, 128, 180-182 I ICE Resources, Inc., 19, 25-27 Idemitsu Kosan, 198 Imports and exports, 2, 10, 11, 13-14, 103-104, 115, 118 INDEX Integrated gasification combined cycle, 89 Intellectual property, 118-119 International Energy Agency, 97 International perspective coal liquefaction, 97 Greenhouse effect, global coopera- tion, 15 hydrocarbon resource base, 138-145 invesunent, 2, 118 natural gas, 58, 91, 103-104 see also Imports and exports; specific countries Iron and iron oxide, 62-63, 82 Italy, 97 J Japan, 63, 68-69, 93-94, 97, 198, 199 K Kentucky, 16, 93, 143, 190 Kerogen, 77-78, 85 Kerr-McGee, 13, 98 L Clean Air Act, 105-106 intellectual property, 118-119 regulations and standards, 2, 19, 105-108, 122 taxes, 116, 118 Lawrence Livermore National Labora- tory, 82, 184 Leasing, 32 Licenses, 118-119 Liquefied natural gas, 27-28, 89, 139, 140 M Malaysia, 90 Methane, see Natural gas Methanol, 1, 3 - , 8, 89, 120, 129, 150 coal to, 63

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INDEX cost factors, 40, 42, 43, 44 45, 48-52, 53-56, 90-91, 120, 149, 154, 175-177 DOE programs, 8, 104, 129 environmental factors. 107. 108. 109-110 Fischer-Tropsch process, 89-90, 120, 123, 129 to gasoline process, 43, 48, 57, 88-89, 91, 103, 120, 149 natural gas to, 45, 48~9, 58, 102, 197 to olefins process, 88-89 from synthesis gas, 87-90, 92, 129 Methodology, 20, 40-53, 146-177 Middle distillate synthesis, 42, 44, 48, 90 Middle East, 91, 92, 103, 133, 139, 145 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, 13, 18, 22 Minerals Management Survey, 26, 27 Mining coal, 92 oil shale, 76, 78-79, 86 tar sands, 71, 74-75, 76, 128 Miscible extraction methods, 30, 35 Mitsubishi Gas Chemical, 87-88 Mobil Oil, 88~9, 90, 103 Models and modeling air quality, 107, 11~111 geological reservoirs, 23, 25, 35 oil shale processes, 83 Morgantown Energy Technology Center, 65 Multifuel systems, 53-54, 107, 112, 149 N National Institutes of Health, 110, 127 National security, 13, 19 Naptha, 73, 89, 94 Natural gas, 8-9, 13, 15, 21-39, 62, 120, 125-126, 129 consumption, 15, 145 conversion processes, 58, 65, 102-104, 197-199 219 cost factors, 27, 48, 58, 103-104, 168-177 DOE programs, 8-9, 129 environmental factors, 31-32 gasoline produced from, 3, 89 liquids, 27-28, 89, 139, 140 methanol from, 45, 48-49, 58, 102, 197 prices, 3, 4, 14, 48, 66, 103,115 production, 6, 14, 28-31, 32-33, 115 resources, 16, 19, 21-25, 27-28, 115, 119-120, 138-139, 140, 144 145 synthesis gas and, 91, 200 see also Compressed natural gas New Paraho Shale Oil Company, 13 New Zealand, 88 Nitrogen and nitrogen oxides auto emissions, general, 106, 107, 110-112 coal-oil coprocessing, 190 compressed natural gas, 107-108 heavy oil, 67, 68, 69, 128 natural gas, 197 oil shale, 82 synthesis gas, 60 tar, 73, 74, 75, 76, 128 North Dakota, 61 o Occidental Petroleum, 13, 76, 79, 194 Occidental Research Corporation, 101, 183 Occupational health and safety, 94 Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy, 11 Office of Fossil Energy, 11, 12 Office of Program Analysis, 96 Ohio, 98 Oil, 21-39 coal-oil coprocessing, 7, 97-100, 127, 188-190 consumption, 13, 14, 139 enhanced oil recovery, 29-30, 33, 33-34, 35-36, 37, 118 environmental factors, 31-32

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220 prices, 3-4, 5-6, 13-15, 18, 22, 24, 39, 46Jt8, 56, 58, 60~1, 65-66, 115, 116, 117-118, 120, 123, 148-149 production, 6, 14, 28-31, 32-33 R&D, 11 residuum, 8, 128, 179-181 resources, 14, 15, 16, 19, 24-27, 33-34, 115, 117-119, 138, 139-141 see also Crude oil; Heavy oil; Tar and tar sands Oil shale, 76-87, 121-122, 120, 122, 129 commercial applications, 11, 13, 7~79, 86~7, 126, 143, 183-184 costs, 44, 80, 83-84, 86-87, 121, 126 DOE programs, 9, 82, 84-86, 126-127, 129, 183 environmental factors, 78-79, 82-83 pyrolysis, 44, 78 kerogen, 77-78, 85 R&D, 7, 9, 11, 82, 84-87, 115, 119, 126-127, 183-184 resources, 16, 17, 76, 126, 143 retorting, 11, 13, 78, 79-80, 80-84, 85, 87, 183-184 Olefins, methanol to, process, 88-89 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Counties, 13, 18, 22 Oxychlorination, 198 Oxygen and oxidation processes, 60, 61-62, 90, 102, 103, 197, 198-199 photochemical oxidation, 107-108, 110-111 REDOX process, 102, 103, 199 Projections Ozone, 105, 106, 107, 110, 111 p Petroleum, see Oil Phillips Petroleum, 197, 199 Photochemical oxidation, 107-108, 110-111 INDEX Pipelines methanol, 91 oil shale, 78 Planning, 1, 4, 5-9, 17-19, 97, 115-129, 151 see also Department of Energy Pollution, see Environment and pollution Potential Gas Committee, 27 Price factors, 2, 3, 4, 5, 11, 120 coal, 42, 92, 93 gasoline vs. crude oil, 46, 149 methanol, 103 methodology, 41, 42-43, 46-53, 146, 147-148 natural gas, 3, 4, 14, 48, 66, 103, 115 oil and natural gas, 3-4, 5-6, 13-15, 18, 22,24, 39,46~8, 56, 58, 6~61, 65~6, 115, 116, 117-118, 120, 123, 148-149 tar, 75, 128 volatility, 2, 18, 22, 6~61, 123 Private sector 5, 11, 13 oil industry, 23, 38 R&D, 5, 11, 13 tar, 128 see also Commercial applications; , . specific companies Production and productivity, 2, 5 alternative fuels, costs, 4~56 coal and oil shale, 7 hydrogen, 57-63 oil and gas, 6, 13-14, 15, 22, 28-31, 32-33, 37, 115, 126 synthesis gas, 57-63 see also Efficiency; Resource base air quality, 14 methodology, 25-27, 41, 42-43, 4~53, 147-148 oil shale, 87 planning, 1, 4, 5-9, 17-19, 35-39, 97, 115-129, 151 prices, 18, 117 see also Greenhouse effect; Re- source base

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INDEX Pyrolysis, 3, 4, 8, 57, 199 coal, 64, 100-102, 129, 191-196 Fischer assay, 77 natural gas, 199 oil shale, 44, 78 tar sands, 3, 44 see also Coke and coking R REDOX process, 102, 103, 199 Regulations and standards, 2, 19, 105-108, 122 Research and development, 10-13, 17, 115-129, 133-134 academic research, 69, 98-99, 197-198, 199 auto engines, 53-54, 106-114 biomass, 4, 8, 65, 66, 126, 128-129 c apital cos ts and pi awning, 151 - 154 coal, 119, 125-127 coal gasification, 57-66, 200 coal liquefaction, 4, 64, 65, 92-94, 96-97, 115, 121-122 coal-oil coprocessing, 7, 97-100, 127, 188-190 coal pyrolysis, 8, 64, 100-102, 129, 191-196 commercial applications and, 116-177 conversion technologies, general, 20, 57-104, 197-199 cost of production and, 56 environmental issues, 105-114, 122-123 fossil fuels, general, 11 heavy oils, 68-69, 178-182 hydrogen production, 57-63 methodology, 20, 40-53, 146-177 natural gas, 58, 104, 125-127 oil and natural gas, 11, 35-39, 125-126 oil shale, 7, 9, 11, 82, 84-87, 115, 119, 126-127, 183-184 planning, 1, 4, 5-9, 17-19, 35-39, 97, 115-129, 151 synthesis gas, 57-66, 87-92 221 RD&D, 13, 97, 121, 185-187; see also Commercial applications tar sands, 4, 75-76 ~ends, 2, 3 see also Department of Energy; Exploration Research Association for Residual Oil Processing, 69 Research Association of Petroleum Alternative Development, 69 Resource base, 16, 138-145 biomass, 17, 128, 138, 145 coal, 16, 17, 92, 126, 145 enhanced oil recovery, 29-30, 33, 33-34, 35, 37, 118 estimate methods, 25-27 heavy oils, 16, 117-119, 141-142 hydrocarbons, 138-145 natural gas, 16, 19, 21-25, 27-28, 115, 119-120, 138-139, 140, 144-145 natural gas liquids, 27-28, 139, 140 oil, 14, 15, 16, 19, 24-27, 33-34, 115, 117-119, 138, 139-141 oil shale, 16, 17, 76, 126, 143 tar, 16, 70, 117-119, 141-143 see also Production aIld productivity Retorting kerogen, 78, 85 oil shale, 11, 13, 78, 79~0, 80-84, 85, 87, 183-184 tar sands, 71, 73, 75 Royalties, 42 S Saudi Arabia, 13 SPA Pacific, Inc., 20 Shell middle distillate synthesis, 42, 44, 48, 90, 103 Shell Oil, 13, 44, 90 Sohio, 199 South Africa, 89-90 Soviet Union, 63, 139, 141, 145 Standards and regulations, 2, 19, 105-108, 122 State government, 105, 106, 107 taxes, 116

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222 STATOIL, 90 Sulfur coal-oil coprocessing, 190 coal pyrolysis, 101 heavy oil, 67, 68, 69, 128, 18~181 oil shale, 78, 82 synthesis gas, 65 tar, 70, 73, 74, 75, 128 Surface Coal Gasification Program, 102 Synthesis gas, 8, 45, 57-66, 87-92, 103, 119-120, 200 carbon dioxide and, 27, 103-104 catalysis, 27, 103-104 commercial applications, 89-90 cost factors, 90~91 DOE programs, 8, 61, 63, 6~66, 88, 90, 92, 120 economic factors, 58-60, 64-65, 90-92 Fischer-Tropsch process, 57, 89-90, 91, 92, 120, 123, 129 methanol from, 87-90, 92, 129 natural gas and, 91, 200 nitrogen oxides and, 60 sulfur and, 65 T Taiwan, 199 Tar and tar sands, 69-76, 117-119, 120 cost factors, 44, 71, 75, 76 DOE programs, 7, 8, 75-76, 128 environmental factors, 73, 74-75, 76, 128 prices, 72, 128 pyrolysis, 3, 44 resources, 16, 70, 117-119, 141-143 solvent extraction, 3, 42, 44, 71-72, 75, 76 see also Bitumen Taxes, 116, 118 Technological innovation transfer of, 6, 38, 118-119, 128 see also Alternative fuel sources; Commercial applications; Research and development Texaco, 13, 61 INDEX Texas, 16,88, 93, 143 Thermal processes coal gasification, 61-63, 65, 200 coal liquefaction, 92-94, 95 coal-oil coprocessing, 98 cracking, 67, 73, 90 enhanced oil recovery, 29-30, 3~37 high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, 200 natural gas conversion, 58 synthesis gas, methanol production, 87-90, 129 tar conversion, 73 see also Coke and coking; Green- house effect; Pyrolysis; Retorting Time factors, 5, 116 committee meeting schedule, 135-137 oil and gas production, 32-33 oil shale technology, 86-87 Toxicity, 109-110 Trade, see Imports and exports Transportation systems, specific air, 13 coal costs, 92 distribution of alternative fuels, 53, 55-56, 91, 104, 149-150 pipelines, 78, 91 problems, 13-1S see also Automobiles U Uhde Gmbh, 88 Underground coal gasification, 3, 44, 63, 65, 91-92 Union Carbide, 90, 198 Union Oil, 11 Union Rheinische Braunkohlen Kraftstoff AG, 88 United Kingdom, 90, 92, 94 Universities, see Academic research University of California, 197-198, 199 University of Houston, 199 University of Manitoba, 197 University of Michigan, 199 University of Pittsburg, 198

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Un~=si~ of Texan, 199 Un~=si~ of Tokyo, 198 urban eeas,5,13, 14, 104,10S, 106, 110,122 Utah, 16,17, 74,76, 77, 82 V Vacuum Iesidue, 180-181 Veba 011,98 Venezuela 70,139,143 Visored` 7& &\ 141 Volatile organs confounds, 105 Washburn Sum, 9~ 92 Wage polygon, see Env~onmnent and porn Weary, ~~e Obnam and gears Western Reseech InsOmm,76 Wood and wood produc~,44-4S, 111 Wyoming', 17, 76, 77

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