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F''e' ~ An noodle neen eeeTeene Committee on Production Technologies for Liquid Transportation Fuels Energy Engineering Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1990

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National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special compe- tences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the further- ance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's pur- poses of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accord- ance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engi- neering communities. The council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert White are chairman and vice chaimman, respec- tively, of the National Research Council. This is a report of work supported by Contract DE-FG01-89FE61694/R between the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Academy of Sciences. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 90-60382 International Standard Book Number 0-309-04142-2 Cover photograph: COMSTOCK. Copyright @) 1990 by the National Academy of Sciences Printed in the United States of America

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COMMITTEE ON PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS JOHN P. LONGWELL (Chairman), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts WILLIAM FISHER (Vice Chairman), University of Texas, Austin, Texas SEYMOUR ALPERT, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California BRUCE BEYAERT, Chevron Corporation, San Francisco, California ROBERT HALL, Amoco Corporation, Chicago, Illinois ROBERT L. HIRSCH, ARCO Oil and Gas Company, Plano, Texas PAUL R. KASTEN, Oak Ridge, Tennessee FLYNT KENNEDY, Consolidation Coal Company, Library, Pennsylvania ROY KNAPP, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma IRVING LIMBS ON, Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, California ARTHUR E. LEWIS, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California PHILLIP S. MYERS, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin RONALD A. SILLS, Mobil Research and Development Corporation, Paulsboro, New Jersey DANIEL SPERL1NG, University of California, Davis, California JAMES LEE SWEENEY, Stanford University, Stanford, California JOHN M. WOODEN, Peabody Holding Company, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri Liaison Members with Energy Engineering Board DONALD B. ANTHONY, BP Exploration, Inc., Houston, Texas GLENN A. SCHURMAN, Chevron Corporation, San Francisco, California LEON STOCK, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois Staff JAMES J. ZUCCHETTO, Study Director, Committee on Production Technologies for Liquid Transportation Fuels MAHADEVAN (DEV) MANI, Associate Director, Energy Engineering Board MICHELLE E. SMITH, Administrative Assistant PHILOMINA MAMMEN, Administrative Assistant . . .

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ENERGY ENGINEERING BOARD JOHN A. TILLINGHAST (Chairman), Tiltec, Portsmouth, New Hampshire DONALD B. ANTHONY, BP Exploration, Inc., Houston, Texas RALPH C. CAVANAGH, Natural Resources Defense Council, San Francisco, California CHARLES F. GAY, Arco Solar, Inc., Camarillo, California WILLIAM R. GOULD, Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, California JOSEPH M. HENDRIE, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York WILLIAM W. HOGAN, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts ARTHUR E. HUMPHREY, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania BAINE P. KERR, Pennzoil Company, Houston, Texas HENRY R. LINDEN, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois THOMAS H. PIGFORD, University of California, Berkeley, California MAXINE L. SAVITZ, Garrett Ceramic Component Division, Torrance, California GLENN A. SCHURMAN, Chevron Corporation, San Francisco, California WESTON M. STACEY, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia LEON STOCK, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois GEORGE S. TOLLEY, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois DAVID C. WHITE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts RICHARD WILSON, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts BERTRAM WOLFE, General Electric Nuclear Energy, San Jose, California Technical Advisory Parzel HAROLD M. AGNEW, GA Technologies, Inc., Solana Beach, California FLOYD L. CULLER, JR.,* Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California KENT F. HANSEN,* Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts MILTON PIKARSKY,l The City College, New York, New York CHAUNCEY STARR, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California HERBERT H. WOODSON, University of Texas, Austin, Texas *Liaison members of the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems to the Energy Engineering Board. "Deceased June 1989.

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Staff ARCHIE L. WOOD, Director, Energy Engineering Board MAHADEVAN (DEV) MANI, Associate Director, Energy Engineering Board JAMES J. ZUCCHEl1O, Senior Program Officer KAMAL ARAJ, Senior Program Officer ROBERT COHEN, Senior Program Officer JUDITH A. AMRI, Administrative/Financial Assistant MARY C. PECHACEK, Administrative Secretary PHILOMINA MAMMEN, Administrative Secretary THERESA M. FISHER, Administrative Secretary Consultants Norm Halter George T. Lalos v

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Preface The steady decline in the fraction of U.S. transportation fuels supplied from domestic resources coupled with the instability, price volatility, and increase in the gap between imports and exports resulted in a request by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for preparation of this report by the National Research Council (NRC). The objective of this study is to outline for DOE a broad R&D program aimed at producing liquid transportation fuels from domestic resources. (See Appendix A for statement of task.) In general, technologies are known for production from our major re- sources oil, gas, coal, western oil shale, tar sands, and biomass; however, the cost is higher than the current cost of imported petroleum. In all of these technologies for production and conversion, there are, however, sub- stantial opportunities for cost reductions. While predictions of the future price of imported oil are unreliable, there is sufficient probability that prices will rise to the level where the new technologies can be economically applied within the next 20 years and that an effective R&D program in this area constitutes an important assurance for future supply at minimum price. The committee focused, therefore, on the R&D needed for cost reduction within this 20-year time frame. Since the environmental problems caused by the use of transportation fuels are also of increasing importance, R&D on these problems was also considered to be an important part of the overall transportation fuel supply R&D pro- gram. Four meetings of the entire committee were held. One was combined with a 2-day workshop at which presentations were made by experts from government, industry, and academia and by committee members. These presentations made a major contribution to the background necessary for the report, and the efforts of all presenters are greatly appreciated (see . ~ Yt!

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. . . vu! PREFACE Appendix B). To assemble a full draft of the report, a fifth meeting was held by a subcommittee consisting of committee members William Fisher, Robert Hall, Roy Knapp, James Sweeney, and John Longwell and NRC staff members James Zucchetto and Dev Mani. The rapid pace at which this task was completed called for a high level of participation and ability to quickly resolve differences in the members' viewpoints. The report thus represents the combined views of individual members of the committee but not necessarily those of the organizations employing them. The committee's analysis was facilitated by the work of consultants. Veto Kuuskraa, Kathleen McFall, and Michael Godec of ICE Resources, Inc. (Fairfax, Virginia), summarized available information on U.S. reserves and resources of petroleum and natural gas. Bernard Schulman and Frank Biasca of SPA Pacific, Inc., performed a cost analysis of converting various feedstocks into transportation fuels. Their reports are available directly from the consultants. Of special importance were the contributions of James Zucchetto, Senior Program Officer, whose efforts in organizing the committee and its aciivi- ties were essential to the successful completion of this task. JOHN P. LONGWELL, Chairman Committee on Production Technologies for Liquid Transportation Fuels

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Contents EXECUTIVE SU M MARY ................... 1 INTRODUCTION..................................... Objective of the Study, 10 U.S. R&D for Liquid Fuels Production from Domestic Resources, 11 Current Concerns About Energy and the U.S. Transportation System, 13 Increasing the Use of Domestic Resources, 15 Planning Scenarios, 17 Organization of the Study and Report, 19 ...... 10 2 CONVENTIONAL PETROLEUM, ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY, AMID NAI{J1RAdL GAS 21 Remaining Domestic Oil and Gas Resources, 24 Production Technologies and Processes, 28 Upstream Oil and Gas Environmental Impacts, 31 Time and Investment Required for Increased Oil and Gas Production, 32 Loss of Reserve Growth and FOR Potential, 33 Technological Opportunities, 35 DOE Research Program, 38 Summary, 39 3 PRODUCTION COSTS FOR ALTERNATIVE LIQUID FUELS SOURCES. .e~e~eee~ee~eee~ee.eeeee.~.e.~..e.... Structure of the Analysis9 40 Cost Estimates for the Various Technologies, 43 Issues of Fuel Distribution and Use, 53 Conclusions, 56 Fix 40

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x 4 CONVERSION ~ CHE9OLOGIES ARID R& D OPPORTUNITIES ............................... Production of Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas, 57 Heavy Oil Conversion, 66 Tar Sands Recovery and Processing, 69 Oil Shale, 76 Syngas-Based Fuels, 87 Direct Coal Liquefaction, 92 Coal-Oil Coprocessing, 97 Coal Pyrolysis, 100 Direct Conversion of Natural Gas, 102 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS Air Quality, Health and Safety Effects, 105 Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 111 CONTENTS .... .... 57 ....105 6 MAJOR CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR R&D ON LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS 115 Overview, 115 Resources, 117 Environmental Considerations, 122 Major Conclusions and Recommendations, 123 APPENDIXES A. B. _ C. U.S. and World Resources of Hydrocarbons D. Cost Analysis Methods .................. E. Technologies for Converting Heavy Oil .... F. Retorting T - rh~lr~ai~c for Ail ~h~1P G. Statement of Task....................... Committee Meetings and Activities............. |~LV1WI16 I~IVlV5l~IV1 Hill ................. Research, Development, and Demonstration Definitions H. Coprocessing Technology ................ I. Technical Data for Coal Pyrolysis ......... J. Description of Technologies for Direct Conversion of .133 .135 138 146 178 183 ..185 188 191 Natural Gas 197 K. Temperature Characteristics of High-Temperature Gas Reactors . . 200 GLOSSARY . . . REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX ..... .... 205 ......... 213

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