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14 return on investment. Performance indicators can be mea- less of the magnitude or nature of the project, this measure sured in numerous ways, each of which may suggest different can be taken for the current year and compared to the same problems and solutions. measure over past years. Further complicating the issue of performance measures are the methods and techniques used to report performance. Scoping and Community Involvement Formats such as scorecards, dashboards, and roll-up or drill- down features are used for both internal and external report- A critical aspect of accelerating programs is to determine ing but these all vary from state to state. Numerical targets early on that their components can be designed and constructed vary, as do baselines, benchmarks, and levels of data analysis. in the later phases. This aspect begins with scoping and main- Sufficient historical data does not exist for many states, so taining the established scope throughout the life of the project it is difficult to quantify whether changes in a process or a man- such that the purpose and need are met. Often, projects go off agement approach have led to significant positive impacts, and track in trying to meet the expectations of the stakeholders. if so, to what extent. Stakeholders are disappointed when the state cannot accom- Using performance measures is a strong trend that was modate or complete a project as per their requests. This dis- identified in the interviews. Equally important is the concept appointment creates distrust of the government and slows of transparency. Many states recognized that by becoming progress altogether. States, such as Missouri with its practical more transparent to the public, they would be able to impose design, are finding that a clear, concise, implementable scope slightly more inconvenience to the motoring public as long that is developed early in planning--and then maintained as they delivered what was promised, on the date promised. through permitting, design, and construction--clears the path Becoming transparent and informing the public by creating for an accelerated project delivery. Also, states are turning to an awareness of upcoming project schedules has allowed states management systems, asset management, and information to deliver projects more quickly and build credibility at the systems to provide clear and direct responses to the requests same time. Through the use of performance measures, DOTs of stakeholders and elected officials. have become more accountable internally as well. Early community involvement was viewed by all the DOTs Some of the state DOTs studied have a performance dash- studied as an aid in expediting projects. There was a general board accessible to the public on their website. Others, such consensus that time spent early on in the planning phase of a as the Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT), conduct project paid big dividends in the form of time saved later a Regional Program Dashboard Update, which provides an through the elimination or reduction of revisions and delays. internal look at where individual regions stand with their Some DOTs have adopted a public relations approach that projects as a whole. Maine has an internal system of tracking directs public attention during the sometimes difficult con- projects that move from green to yellow to red categories, each struction phase to a project's positive attributes, presenting of which defines the project and associated issues. Maryland any temporary negative impacts (closings, detours, etc.) in the DOT has published an Annual Attainment Report for seven light of the long-term benefit to the public. Again, the individ- years that includes dozens of charts and graphs that track the ual state's size and population density, and a road's daily traf- DOT's performance from year to year. The Missouri Depart- fic volumes and available alternate routes, are all determining ment of Transportation (MoDOT), which publishes Tracker factors in the range and degree of interruptions a given trans- on a quarterly basis, has been reporting on performance sta- portation facility--and its users--will tolerate. In some states, tistics since 1999. One Caltrans official aptly stated, "What the temporary closing of an interstate highway is a viable con- gets measured gets done." struction alternative; in other states, this would be unthinkable. Agencies that have implemented performance measures Both Caltrans and UDOT pointed out that even severe inter- have expended a great deal of time and effort to get to the point ruptions to traffic will be tolerated by a public if they are pro- where they feel they are measuring the right things. A difficulty vided with expectations and the agency delivers within the the researchers encountered in trying to draw conclusions promised time frame. from performance measures is that it is not possible at such an early stage to make comparisons between acceleration of past Property Impacts and recent/current projects. Another problem with compar- isons is the fact that no two projects--no matter how similar-- The impacts of projects and construction on adjacent prop- are surrounded by identical circumstances. Each project erties presented a range of difficulty levels to the various DOTs takes place in a unique physical, financial, social, and polit- interviewed. For New Jersey, with an average of 1,175 persons ical environment. per square mile, real estate is expensive and ROW acquisition There are, however, some measurements that can be taken holds a prominent place on the project schedule, to the point and compared with historic records, for example, the percent- of being on the critical path. If a property taking goes into age of listed projects that go out to bid in a given year. Regard- litigation, several years may transpire before construction