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15 can begin or resume. In contrast, in Utah, which has an aver- very effective in states such as Maryland in accelerating age of 31 persons per square mile, the DOT has been successful project startup and therefore ultimate completion. The risk in acquiring rights of entry to properties so that construction with designbuild is that construction might be started can proceed while the acquisition and negotiation processes before all of the environmental permits and/or approvals continue. have been granted. The Maryland State Highway Admin- istration (SHA) has enjoyed success with its designbuild Environmental Concerns program and spends approximately 10 to 15 percent of its construction dollars for designbuild contracting methods. One acceleration method used by the Texas DOT (TxDOT) A + B contracting (biparameter bidding)--Includes built- during designbuild of a highway through a sensitive habitat in financial incentive for the contractor to complete a job area was to purchase in advance tracts of mitigation land out- on or ahead of schedule, as well as disincentives for not fin- side of the alignment. This land provided the TxDOT with a ishing on time. surplus "bank" of sensitive habitat acreage to mitigate any Construction managergeneral contractor (CMGC)-- negative impacts that might be created during construction Improves on the benefits of designbuild by bringing a con- of a highway, eliminating the need to shut down construction tractor to the table early in the design process. Pioneered and acquire mitigation parcels piecemeal as sensitive land was by UDOT, this method realized a time savings of 18 months encountered. TxDOT also has advanced the design process on on a recent bridge project because it allowed fabrication of a project while the environmental review was still under way. steel girders to begin while the project was still in the design Admittedly, this was taking a risk, but it was worth the time phase. Design was completed in parallel with the long lead saved when the project was so much farther along in design at time associated with ordering steel. the time environmental approval was granted. Evergreen contracts--On-call or task-order agreements North Carolina and Maryland are able to accelerate the with professional service consultants eliminate having to environmental review process by partnering with their re- go through the entire procurement process in the event spective department of environmental protection to fund that they are required on individual projects. Texas uses employees dedicated to reviewing DOT projects. these types of contracts on a regular basis. Maryland places a great emphasis on its environment. Its Comprehensive development agreements (CDA)--Agree- spends almost 45 percent of its capital program on preserving ments between a state and a consortium of contractors. the environment. However, acceleration of projects is achieved Texas uses CDAs to perform all or portions of a given proj- through creating interagency work groups that meet on an ect's design, construction, operation, and maintenance. as-needed basis. Maine also recognizes the need to protect its environment through programs that help reduce emissions The research also revealed acceleration of construction by using cleaner fuels, reduce the statewide VMT, and make taking place through: balanced decisions for communities that are impacted by trans- portation projects. Roll-in of prefabricated bridges--where land is available Some of the projects undertaken by UDOT are exempt for staging, a bridge can be demolished and a prefabri- from the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review process because they are entirely state funded and require no cated bridge can be rolled in and operational on the same federal permits. For such projects, UDOT has its own environ- day (usually executed on a weekend night). This method mental review process that generally goes much more quickly of construction has been used in New Jersey in areas where than a NEPA review--one year, as compared to two or three railroads are involved and the state has a very limited win- years for NEPA. dow where passenger service can be shut down. Use of new products and materials--Almost all states were experimenting with new types of products and materials Final Design and Construction that are available. Materials that provide better bonding, The research revealed various forms of innovative faster curing times, greater load-carrying capacities, ease contracting: of construction, etc. are being used to accelerate the pace of construction. States are making strides in terms of try- Designbuild--Allows construction to begin prior to com- ing new products that will provide them with better qual- pletion of final design. This parallel processing has been ity and extend the life cycle of the facility.