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8 CHAPTER 2 Literature Review Overview tion projects often take on a very segmented approach going from planning to design to permit approvals by a multitude The literature search revealed many articles, theses, and of various agencies prior to construction. The lack of a seam- dissertations, which provided the research team with a start- less continuity in a project burdens the overall process and ing point of what information was already documented. raises the final cost of completing the project. An improved While certain subject areas had extensive information about delivery process that addresses all the phases and constraints topics such as designbuild, fast-track construction, project of a project is required to allow for quicker delivery of projects. management, and environmental streamlining, other areas Items in this section focus primarily on project-level how-to were not so well documented, such as the impact of organiza- methods and innovations. They may include planning, engi- tional structures on project delivery, risk management and use, neering, administrative, program implementation, or other and application of performance measures. Other topics--such types of process details. Particular attention is given to proj- as buildoperatetransfer (BOT) models/projects, Enter- ect events and the application of techniques that intend to prise Resource Planning (ERP) systems, and constructabil- enhance the performance of various tasks to ultimately accel- ity reviews--consistently revealed published articles that erate project delivery. could provide insight to accelerating projects from a broader perspective. The literature search was categorized into four broad Acceleration through Improved areas that would facilitate the research efforts: (a) acceler- Program Structures ation through improved delivery processes; (b) acceleration through improved program structures; (c) acceleration through Many DOTs across the United States are structured in func- internal and external relationships and partnerships; and tional units, areas of specialization (e.g., planning, engineer- (d) acceleration through organizational issues. ing, construction, environmental, maintenance, accounting, community outreach) that provide services to internal units and external clients. Each unit also has its own internal pro- Acceleration through Improved cesses that serve to "move things along" within the unit. Part Delivery Processes of the concern is that these units function independently. If The delivery of a project can be accelerated through vari- information is needed from another unit, requests are trans- ous means. One of the most commonly known processes is mitted up to the unit head who then communicates it to the the designbuild delivery of projects. Certainly the design other unit head. Projects are slowed down because the prior- build process has proven to accelerate the completion of ity of one group may not necessarily be the priority of another projects much quicker than traditional methods. However, group. This independence limits the project's ability to move other undocumented methods may exist that relate to the seamlessly from one phase to the next. Improved program expedited delivery of projects. Some of these methods may structures may allow a project to advance quickly through the not be so popular or may require greater risk. It may be the pipeline of planning, design, and construction. Re-engineering case that such methods are only applied to a very specific part and reorganizing DOT operations and programs within a of the project and hence do not yield an appreciative decrease structure may be a step to reduce the amount of time preced- in schedule. Previous research also indicates that transporta- ing project delivery. Items in this section focus primarily on