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9 program-level methods and innovations associated with inte- between a project that takes a normal course and a project grating project processes to support broader organizational that is accelerated. These items include organizational theory objectives. Visioning, management of material, fiscal and and learning strategies for enhancing project performance human resources, management of risks, training, simulation through development of cultural dynamics responsive to sce- techniques, environmental factors, and regulatory priorities narios involving multiple projects, decision trade-offs, the use are examples of program areas where integration may accel- of incentives, senior management perspectives, and theories erate project delivery. of practice. Acceleration through Internal and External Defining Project and Program Relationships and Partnerships Project One element of a project as it moves through the different States have a clear understanding of what a transporta- phases is stakeholder involvement. Both internal and exter- tion project means to them. A transportation project is a set nal stakeholders have some concern regarding the way a proj- of distinct activities, tasks, processes, or initiatives that result in ect progresses. These partnerships become key elements that a product or service and has a finite timeline. The end product can either hinder a project from advancing or stimulate a proj- ect to be accelerated. These relationships are also an important may be a bridge, highway, railroad, tunnel, dam, or airport. aspect of the funding arrangements for a project or program. Undertakings like these can be classified as large (or mega- Similarly, an influential stakeholder or agency could effec- project) investments. But in today's environment, smaller tively champion the project from beginning to end. Program- projects, such as those involving maintenance, minor repairs, matic agreements have also been used as a tool to streamline resurfacing, and similar types of engineering and planning the environmental permitting process. Studying these rela- projects, have been taking center stage. tionships and different types of partnering agreements will A project may also be undertaken to provide a service. provide insight as to how a project can be completed rapidly. Research-type projects often lead to a state offering a new These items include information about key relationships at service or implementing a new program. For example, a DOT various contextual levels pertaining to areas such as contract- may find through surveys and empirical data that passenger ing, scheduling, community relations, project team members, safety can be increased if it creates a greater awareness of the political partners, and administrative processes. Through trust importance of wearing seatbelts. A study project may find that building and effective communication, as well as resource customers feel safer and more secure because of the roadside sharing, project delivery may be accelerated. emergency service that some DOTs provide. Projects may be viewed as piecemeal systems; however, this approach fails to tie projects to the overall strategies of the Acceleration through Organizational Issues organization. The specific goals of individual projects may fall that Are Not Project Specific short of balancing with the organization's culture and mission. In many instances, projects are accelerated because of ex- This is where programs fill the gap. treme circumstances, such as rehabilitations after a hurricane or repairs of structures after a collapse. Agencies prioritize a Program project and it is propelled through all phases until it is com- pleted. Crisis management invokes a different set of princi- The definition of a program varies among the state DOTs ples by which engineers and designers are guided to complete that were studied. To many, it meant a collection of similar- tasks. These organizational issues can be studied to uncover type projects grouped together. To others, a program was an what aspects of the process lead to an accelerated project. endeavor to deliver a range of improvements. For instance, a Similarly, such projects have a higher risk factor that DOTs state implements a program to improve the condition of their are willing to accept as a project takes shape and begins to bridges, increase the pavement condition or ride quality, move forward. Although crisis management and related items reduce congestion in construction zones, or reduce traffic- will not be the focus of this category, methods and practices related fatalities through a guiderail installation program. that surfaced during the crisis and were continued and weaved A broader approach to defining the difference between a into existing programs, even after the crisis was under con- project and a program is that a project delivers outputs while trol, can be identified. Other factors such as management a program delivers outcomes (2). Programs seek to deliver styles and methodologies of project managers, team member long-term improvements and are aligned to an organization's organization, and political support may make the difference strategic goals.