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10 CHAPTER 2 Research Approach The primary objectives of this study can be defined as truck or rail, but this includes international shipments as follows: well as domestic, and is heavily weighted in the outbound direction. (5) This presents minimal market opportunities.) Understand the constraints on the development of NAMH Bulk commodities that are not commonly containerized and their severity, or carried in highway trailers but would (and already do) Investigate alternative measures to address constraints, move by water in large bulk ships or barges. This would "Ground truth" both the constraints and potential miti- exclude such commodities as ores, coal, crude oil, and gation measures, and minerals. Identify realistic courses of action that can be implemented. Movements that are part of a rotation that crosses the ocean (e.g., pendulum services). In some cases, these rotations call One of the first tasks in assessing NAMH or SSS is to estab- at several Canadian and U.S. ports and are competition to lish a reasonable definition for "North American Marine the development of a healthy NAMH option, especially in Highways." This research uses the following definition for the current environment where the major carriers are prac- "short sea shipping" adopted by the Society of Naval Architects tically desperate to attract cargo of any kind. and Marine Engineers (SNAME) Panel O-36: Movements of freight by a company-owned vessel fleet that is not for hire to the general public. These shipments use Freight service operations carrying either containerized or privately owned facilities at either the origin or destination trailerized cargoes (or empties) via the coastal waters and river (typically the origin) and do not offer their services to third systems . . . and in particular those services where there is a true "intermodal choice" to be made by the shipper between moving parties. Therefore, the development of these services is units by water and using one or more land-based alternatives strictly tied to the needs and financial condition of one given (i.e. highway and/or rail). (1) company. Coastwise movements and inland waterway movements In order to understand NAMH and what can be done to are included in SNAME and most other definitions currently support their development, the authors have divided the sub- in use. Since the primary desired outcome of this study is to ject matter into the following seven topics: determine what, if anything, can be done to develop NAMH to a greater degree, it is prudent to exclude the following from Ventures (both successful and unsuccessful) since 1990, the scope of the analysis: Shipper requirements, Vessel considerations, Operations between the lower 48 states and other U.S. states Legislation aimed at encouraging NAMH, and territories (e.g., Alaska, Hawaii, Guam, and Puerto The European experience, Rico). With the exception of air, there is no alternative to Obstacles to further development of NAMH, and marine transport in these trade routes; therefore, there is no Miscellaneous important considerations. opportunity to divert cargo from another mode. (According to FHWA's Freight Analysis Framework for 2002, 12.6% of The geographic characteristics of a given service region the freight that crossed Alaska's state borders was carried by affect the issues with which current and potential NAMH

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11 operators must grapple. Therefore, this analysis establishes and then analyze them in the light of the opinions expressed the following service regions: by individuals intimately familiar with the issues involved. These activities included the following: Canadian domestic, West Coast (including United States-Canada), Extensive literature review, Gulf of Mexico, Interviews with stakeholders with diverse interests and Great Lakes, East Coast (including United States-Canada), and geographical locations (see Appendix A for interviewee Inland waterways. characteristics), Review of legislative activity and discussions with congres- The research effort involved several distinct activities. These sional committee staffers, and activities were designed to cover a broad spectrum of issues Project panel review.