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65 APPENDIX C Tabulation of Shipper Requirements To succeed, a North American Marine Highway must pos- Fixed-day departure. (10) The result has been a shift away sess two major characteristics: from a focus on speedy transit times to more of a priority placed on cargo integrity, timeliness (not necessarily speed), It must provide a time/cost tradeoff that is competitive with and reliability. This phenomenon will tend to favor a cost- that of other modes (particularly trucking), and effective, reliable, NAMH service. (4) It must be reliable and as seamless as possible. (1, 2, 3, 11) Transit time and frequency of service are key factors. (10, 11, 14) Must minimize dwell time in port. (11) The most important attributes in a shipper's choice of mode In some cases, must compete with frequent train service. (4) are preference for remaining with the current service, travel In Canada, focus on import cargo. (4) In U.S., focus on time, and cost. (3, 14) domestic cargo. (2, 9) Specific requirements noted in the literature are as follows: Consider self-propelled vessels and frequent service to speed up deliveries. (12) Must think in terms of door-to-door deliveries and con- Major customers should be the truckers and intermodal sider the whole supply chain. (4) The ability of the trans- marketing companies. (2) portation system to provide reliable door-to-door services Being fast is not as critical as being reliable. (2, 13, 14) across continents, countries, and modes of transporta- There was a strong consensus that a NAMH service fully tion is becoming increasingly important to the private- integrated into the domestic transportation system must be sector freight industry. (5, 10) Shippers want an integrated set up for 48-ft and 53-ft trailers and/or containers (2, 9). transport package. (10, 14) Motor carriers tended to be more interested in using their Service would have to be at least weekly. (4) For domestic own equipment for a NAMH operation and consequently 53-foot truck service, second-day service is the lowest pos- looked at Ro/Ro trailer vessel operations as being more sible level. (6) Some studies indicate one-third of shippers attractive than Lo/Lo containership operations. (9) want daily service; another one-third want 23 times per Ground carriers interviewed frequently used domestic rail week. (7) Same-day service is technically impossible and intermodal service as a benchmark for cost and service com- should be left for trucks. Second-day delivery should be the parisons to a NAMH shipping alternative. (9) aim of intra-regional coastal service and is possible with both Marine carriers will have to provide marine containers. the high-speed and fast ferries. (8) Some (motor) carriers felt Motor carriers are generally willing to provide highway that daily frequency would be a requisite in high-volume trailers if used in a roll-on/roll-off vessel service, but not corridors, while others believed that two- to three-day ser- marine containers, seeing that as the role of the ocean car- vice frequency would be adequate, particularly in the early rier or perhaps a third-party provider. (9) stages of service development. (9) Frequency is a key vari- Customs clearance was perceived to be more difficult for able to many shippers. (11) Many interviewees indicated shipping than for trucking and this perception may be that in order to compete effectively with trucks, NAMH more of a barrier than expected. Efforts must be under- operations must offer regularly scheduled service. A min- taken to convince the Department of Homeland Security to imum requirement of container shippers was weekly. (5) reduce the advance notification requirements on NAFTA- Frequency of departures has a significant positive effect on originating shipments to terms more suitable to their geo- the allocation of cargo shipments toward the option pro- graphic proximity. (10) viding the greatest frequency. (13) Service must be complementary to trucking. (2)

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66 Time-sensitive shippers need good system to track/manage shop, Orlando, FL, April 1920, 2007. Available at http://advanced freight. (11) maritimetechnology.aticorp.org/short-sea-shipping/nsrp-pdmt- short-sea-shipping-workshop-april-19-20-2007-presentations/2B_ Service must be as easy to use as trucking. (11) Kruse_Markets.pdf as of July 1, 2009. Late cut-offs and early deliveries will be important to make 8. High Speed Ferry and Coastwise Vessels: Assessment of a New York/ the NAMH service competitive. (11) Boston Service, Center for the Commercial Deployment of Trans- portation Technologies, Long Beach, CA, May 2003. Available at One barge company takes exception to two aspects (at least http://advancedmaritimetechnology.aticorp.org/short-sea-shipping/ for inland shipments): This company believes that reliabil- NY_Boston_Final.pdf as of June 30, 2009. ity is a "red herring" and scheduled service is a myth and 9. Four Corridor Case Studies of Short-Sea Shipping Services: Short- unnecessary. (15) Sea Shipping Business Case Analysis, Office of the Secretary, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., August 15, 2006. Available at http://advancedmaritimetechnology.aticorp.org/ References For Appendix C short-sea-shipping/DOT_SSS_final_report_v2_11.pdf as of June 30, 2009. 1. Higginson, James K., "Great Lakes Short Sea Shipping and the 10. Brooks, M.R., J.R. Hodgson, and J.D. Frost, Short Sea Shipping on the Domestic Cargo-Carrying Fleet," Transportation Journal, Vol. 46, East Coast of North America: An Analysis of Opportunities and Issues, No. 1, Winter 2007, pp. 3850. Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada, March 31, 2006. Avail- 2. Reeve, J.G., "Markets for Short-Sea Shipping in the United States." able at http://advancedmaritimetechnology.aticorp.org/short- Presented at NSRP Short Sea Shipping Workshop, Orlando, FL, April sea-shipping/ShortSeaShipping_dalhousie.pdf as of July 1, 2009. 1920, 2007. Available at http://advancedmaritimetechnology. 11. Analysis of the Potential Market for Short Sea Shipping Services over aticorp.org/short-sea-shipping/nsrp-pdmt-short-sea-shipping- the Ports of Fall River and New Bedford, Massachusetts Depart- workshop-april-19-20-2007-presentations/2A_Reeve_Markets. pdf as of June 30, 2009. ment of Business and Technology and Seaport Advisory Coun- 3. Cross Harbor Freight Movement Major Investment Study, New York cil, Fairhaven, MA, March 29, 2006. Available at http://advanced City Economic Development Corporation, New York, May 2000. maritimetechnology.aticorp.org/short-sea-shipping/fall%20river Available at http://www.crossharborstudy.com/finalrep.pdf as of %20and%20new%20bedford.pdf as of June 30, 2009. July 7, 2009. 12. Fenimore, B., "Barge Ahead," Traffic World, July 26, 2004, pp. 3233. 4. Frost, J.D., D. Hawking, P. Morin, and R. Hodgson, Short Sea Ship- 13. Brooks, M.R. and V. Trifts, "Short Sea Shipping in North America: ping Market Study, Transport Canada, Transportation Develop- Understanding the Requirements of Atlantic Canadian Ship- ment Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada, September 2005. Available at pers," Maritime Policy & Management, Vol. 35, No. 2, April 2008, http://www.tc.gc.ca/innovation/tdc/projects/marine/a/5563.htm pp.145258. as of July 1, 2009. 14. Frost, J. and M.A. Roy, Study on Potential Hub-and-Spoke Container 5. Short-Sea and Coastal Shipping Options Study, Final Report, I-95 Transhipment Operations in Eastern Canada for Marine Movements Corridor Coalition, Rockville, MD, November 2005. Available at of Freight (Short Sea Shipping). Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON, http://advancedmaritimetechnology.aticorp.org/short-sea-shipping/ Canada, April 2007. Available at http://www.tc.gc.ca/policy/report/ SSS%20Study%20-%20I95%20Cooridor%20Coalition.pdf as of acf/tp14876/menu.htm as of September 10, 2009. July 1, 2009. 15. Philip, C., "The Future of Intermodal Transportation in Memphis 6. Mottley, R., "SCOOP Promotes Short-Sea Shipping," American and the Mid-South Region (Conference)." Presented at Univer- Shipper, Vol. 48, No. 12, December 2006, pp. 7880. sity of Memphis, Memphis, TN, November 9, 2007. Available at 7. Kruse, B., "Comments on Potential Short Sea Shipping Market http://cifts.memphis.edu/12007_11-09_Ingram_Barge_Future_of_ for the West Coast." Presented at NSRP Short Sea Shipping Work- Intermodal_Transportation_cep.ppt as of July 1, 2009.