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83 APPENDIX G Annotated Bibliography A Decision Tool for Identifying the Prospects and Opportunities for Short Sea Shipping. M. Yonge, Maritime Transport and Logistics Advisors, LLC, United States, and L. Henesey, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlshamn, Sweden. Presented at 85th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., January 25, 2006. Available at http://advanced maritimetechnology.aticorp.org/short-sea-shipping/06-0423.pdf as of June 30, 2009. This paper addresses the results of a project commissioned by the Canaveral Port Authority to gain additional information and analysis to consider how SSS should be included in its strate- gic plans. It identifies a list of critical decision factors that may support or impede the initiation of a SSS service at that port. A National Short Sea Shipping Initiative. Testimony of Anastassis Margaronis, Santa Maria Shipowning & Trading, Inc., before the House Committee on Coast Guard and Maritime Trans- portation, Washington, D.C., February 15, 2007. Available at http://www.santamariashipping.com/ short_shipping_initiative_02-07.html as of June 30, 2009. This statement provides some insight into what could be done to spark more shipbuilding in the United States. Title XI and possible legislative action are both mentioned. America's Deep Blue Highway: How Coastal Shipping Could Reduce Traffic Congestion, Lower Pollution, and Bolster National Security. Institute for Global Maritime Studies in cooper- ation with the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, Medford, MA, September 2008. Available at http://www.igms.org/docs/americas_deep_blue_highway_IGMS_report_ sept_2008.pdf as of June 30, 2009. This is a very detailed analysis of coastal shipping. It provides a description of coastal ship- ping as it currently exists and discusses U.S. coastal shipping policies. It goes into consider- able detail in describing the potential environmental, national security, and economic benefits of coastal shipping. The authors present 10 recommendations for public and private sector decision-makers. A study appendix contains a national list of prospective coastal shipping ports. Another appendix summarizes previous coastal shipping studies. Appendix 3 summarizes recent legislative activity regarding short sea shipping. Analysis of the Potential Market for Short Sea Shipping Services over the Ports of Fall River and New Bedford. Prepared for Massachusetts Department of Business and Technology and Sea- port Advisory Council by Reeve & Associates, Yarmouthport, MA, with Global Insight and KKO and Associates, March 29, 2006. Available at http://advancedmaritimetechnology.aticorp.org/ short-sea-shipping/fall%20river%20and%20new%20bedford.pdf as of June 30, 2009. This report assesses the market potential for SSS operations (coastal shipping) to connect the ports of Fall River and New Bedford (ports of Bristol County) with other U.S. ports that would provide a new mode of transportation for freight that is currently moving over the highway. The authors conclude that there is a strong probability of success for such services. They explain the factors they believe would contribute to success, but also identify several obstacles. The authors

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84 also conclude that the reason several prior ventures have failed is due to high costs on both the vessel and port side and slow acceptance of this alternative transport mode. Additionally, most of these earlier short sea initiatives were carried out prior to the current conflux of highway con- gestion, driver shortages, and high fuel costs that are creating a more favorable environment for short-sea shipping transport alternatives. A Shipbuilder's Assessment of America's Marine Highways. General Dynamics NASSCO, San Diego, CA, July 30, 2006. This document summarizes the current state of America's marine highways from NASSCO's perspective. It identifies several obstacles and proposes strategies to overcome them. The authors make a couple of interesting points not specifically emphasized elsewhere, such as (1) Jones Act vessels are more expensive, but their actual "cost penalty" is only about 7% to 9% and this could be reduced through some standardization of design, and (2) it would be better to initiate a service with several small vessels than just one or two large ones, primarily due to redundancy of equipment and frequency of service. They also state that contrary to expectations, the cost of labor in the United States is not a prohibitive factor in the overall cost of a U.S.-built vessel. The United States ranks third or fourth in the hourly cost of labor compared to other key shipbuild- ing nations. When compared to world-class shipyards, the key differential in shipbuilding cost is volume. A Survey of Short Sea Shipping and Its Prospects in the USA. Anastassios N. Perakis and Athanasios Denisis, Department of Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Maritime Policy & Management, Vol. 35, No. 6, December 2008. Available at http://americasmarinehighways.com/userfiles/MPM-PerakisDenisis-SSSsurvey.pdf as of June 30, 2009. There are obstacles, administrative barriers, and challenges to the success of SSS in both North America and Europe that should be addressed. Several successful operations on both sides of the Atlantic make a strong case in favor of SSS. SSS can develop customized and technologically advanced solutions that will further integrate it into the intermodal transportation chain and will improve its image among shippers as a mode that can provide reliable door-to-door transportation. This paper reviews several studies on the subject and discusses the latest developments on SSS in the United States and in Europe. It also addresses the major issues and benefits of SSS and examines the prospects for potential short sea operations in the United States. Atlantic Canada Short Sea Shipping Background Study. Prepared for Transport Canada by MariNova Consulting Ltd., Halifax, NS, Canada and Dr. Mary R. Brooks, Dalhousie Univer- sity, Halifax, NS, Canada, 2003. Available at http://www.tc.gc.ca/pol/en/acf/shortseaS/workshop/ Atlantic_Canada_SSS.pdf as of June 30, 2009. This study presents a detailed analysis of relevant domestic and international coastal marine services and regulatory impediments relating to the introduction of additional SSS on the East Coast. It summarizes recent developments in SSS from a corporate and strategic perspective in Atlantic Canada, Europe, and the United States. A description of recent developments in terms of technology also is included. The authors identify regulatory impediments relating to the introduc- tion of additional SSS on the East Coast. They also summarize crosscutting issues to be addressed as Canada moves forward toward an SSS agenda. Bi-State Domestic Freight Ferries Study. A.L.C. de Cerreno, M. E. Robins, P. Woods, A. Strauss-Wieder, and R. Yeung, Rudin Center for Transportation Policy & Management, New York University, Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York, September 2006. Available at http://wagner.nyu.edu/rudincenter/files/domesticFreightFerries.pdf as of June 30, 2009. This study is a detailed analysis of the feasibility of freight ferries as an alternative for domestic truck freight movements that cross the Hudson River via existing bridges and tunnels. It focuses on intra-harbor ferries that would carry domestic freight that would otherwise be transported by truck over the roadway network. In addition, this study concentrates on the key factors that have spurred freight ferry markets and use in other locations, rather than trying to identify specific

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85 routes or locations. The most important conclusion of the study is that a freight ferry would not provide the time and/or cost savings necessary to attract general freight movement given current, "tolerable" levels of congestion and shippers' preference for single-line (all highway) service. Thus, without public policy intervention and leadership, it is unlikely that a ferry market for trucks will readily develop on its own. Charleston as an S3 Port. Presentation by John E. Cameron, TradeWorthy, Inc. at America's Marine Highways Workshop, Charleston Technology Institute, Charleston, SC, October 2123, 2008. Available at http://advancedmaritimetechnology.aticorp.org/short-sea-shipping/nsrp- pdmt-americas-marine-highways-workshop-october-2008/John%20Cameron%20Operators% 20Panel.pdf as of June 30, 2009. This presentation mentions several marine highway ventures currently operating in Charleston that have been successful so far. They include a lightering service that takes coal and scrap from ocean carriers to barges that in turn move the cargo 5 mi farther inland to power and steel plants. The port also receives refined product and chemical raw material from "hub" ports elsewhere. Additionally, the port receives aviation fuel from deep draft vessels and moves it by barge to military installations. Some outbound military hardware shipments also arrive by barge. The presentation mentions challenges faced by Charleston and other East Coast ports in develop- ing coastal shipments. Columbia Snake River System and Oregon Coastal Cargo Ports Marine Transportation System Study, Appendix C: Short Sea Shipping in the Columbia/Snake River System. Prepared for the Center for Economic Development Education and Research by Pacific Northwest Water- ways Association, Portland, OR, June 2005. Available at http://advancedmaritimetechnology. aticorp.org/short-sea-shipping/columbia%20snake%20river.pdf as of June 30, 2009. This paper discusses the reasons for success of container services on the Columbia/Snake River System. Three major factors are identified: cooperation, commodity mix, and geography. Ports, barge lines, shippers, and steamship lines were all committed to making the concept successful. Freight was low value, non time-sensitive cargo that could afford the extra couple days of tran- sit time in exchange for the lower transportation cost. Further, the cargo was concentrated in very close proximity to the river system. The paper also describes how geography played a role. The paper examines three possibilities for further expansion: feeder service for containerized cargo currently moving in domestic and international trade, shifting current domestic cargo movements from road and rail to water, and the generation of new domestic cargo movements utilizing the economic efficiencies of coastwise SSS. CREATES3. Ships and Shipping, Vol. 7 No. 7, Baird Publications, Southbank, Australia, April 2007, p. 20. This article describes a research project funded by the European Commission that brings together some of the leading companies in SSS and ship design with the aim of developing a new generation of short sea vessels utilizing advanced design and manufacturing techniques. Cross Border Shortsea Shipping Study. Prepared for Transport Canada by Cambridge Sys- tematics, Inc., Oakland, CA with Moffatt & Nichol Engineers, May 2004. Available at http:// resources.wcog.org/border/sss_phase1report.pdf as of June 30, 2009. The study focuses on the U.S.-Canada Cascade Gateway Region in the Northwest. It summa- rizes the existing SSS services (both domestic and cross-border) that may provide a building block in the development of any future services and describes how legal, regulatory, institutional, operational, and economic factors will affect success of a future service. It notes a number of fac- tors that have contributed to the decline of cross-border services. It discusses various vessel types that could be used. The authors conclude that cabotage rules (Coasting Trade Act in Canada and Jones Act in United States) do not seem to play a significant role in cross-border short sea ser- vices; neither do port infrastructure constraints. Cross Harbor Freight Movement Major Investment Study. Prepared by Edwards and Kelcey Engineers, Inc., for New York City Economic Development Corporation, New York, May 2000. Available at http://www.crossharborstudy.com/finalrep.pdf as of July 7, 2009.

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86 The purpose of this study was to develop a strategy for improving the region's movement of goods across New York Harbor. During the first year of the MIS, 15 conceptual alternatives and implementation strategies were identified. Through an extensive screening process, these strategies were narrowed to three alternatives that then underwent rigorous analysis, including (1) Transportation Systems Management (TSM)/railcar float system--an alternative that com- bines improved railcar barge service with new rail barges and transfer bridges; (2) rail freight tun- nel between Staten Island, NY, and Brooklyn; and (3) rail freight tunnel between Jersey City, NJ, and Brooklyn. Each alternative was analyzed with respect to freight market diversion to rail, benefits, capital and operating costs, benefit-cost, and financing. Driving Factors and Potential Impacts of Future Increases in Short Sea/Inland Waterway's Share of Total Freight Movements. Commission Briefing Paper 4B-09. Prepared by Reeve & Associates, Yarmouthport, MA, for National Surface Transportation Policy and Revenue Study Commission, January 11, 2007. Available at http://transportationfortomorrow.org/final_report/ pdf/volume_3/technical_issue_papers/paper4b_09.pdf as of June 30, 2009. This paper focuses on the diversion of traffic from highways to coastal shipping. It states that the marine highways' main advantage is cost competitiveness. A number of truckload operators were reported as saying that the slower speeds would not be a strong disadvantage for significant volumes of freight given the cost differential. A key constraint is the high cost of U.S. shipbuild- ing for Jones Act vessels. These vessels would be unemployable in other services, thereby creating additional risk. Feasibility Assessment of Short Sea Shipping to Service the Pacific Coast. Prepared by TranSystems/Manalytics International, San Francisco, CA, CDI Marine Company, Severna Park, MD, Matthew P. Tedesco, Seattle, WA, and Westar Transport, Selma, CA for Center for the Com- mercial Deployment of Transportation Technologies, Long Beach, CA, December 2006. Avail- able at http://advancedmaritimetechnology.aticorp.org/short-sea-shipping/CCDOTT%20WEST %20COAST%20PHASE%20I%20PM%20REPORT.pdf as of August 28, 2009. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the preliminary market, economic, and techni- cal feasibility of a commercial short sea service on the Pacific Coast that handles domestic and international (feeder) freight moving between major transportation hubs and population cen- ters. The effort also addresses the potential emissions of SSS compared to traditional trucking and the military applications of short sea service and vessels, including their scope for contribut- ing to military deployment requirements. Feeder Port: Bi-State Port is East Coast Hub for All-Water Container Feeder Services. Via Port of New York-New Jersey, New York, Vol. 39, No. 6, June 1987. This article provides excellent background on the Northeast services provided by McAllister Brothers and Hale Container Line in the 1980s. Financing with the Maritime Administration's Capital Construction Fund. H. Clayton Cook, Seward & Kissel LLP, Washington, D.C. Marine Money International, Stamford, CT, October 2007, pp. 4756. Available at http://www.sewkis.com/files/Publication/cd9ed626-1de1-410e-a62f-4331 fa0eb081/Presentation/PublicationAttachment/c8fb1ad3-c60a-488c-97a2-049e55e92967/200710_ HClaytonCook.pdf as of June 30, 2009. This article shows how the Capital Construction Fund could help businesses needing to finance the construction of new vessels. It cites statistics on the use of the CCF and Title XI programs since WWII. It also discusses changes to CCF included in HR 3221. This bill was later incorporated into HR 6, which was later passed into law. Four Corridor Case Studies of Short-Sea Shipping Services: Short-Sea Shipping Business Case Analysis. Submitted to U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of the Secretary, by Global Insight, Lexington, MA, in Association with Reeve & Associates, August 15, 2006. Avail- able at http://advancedmaritimetechnology.aticorp.org/short-sea-shipping/DOT_SSS_final_ report_v2_11.pdf as of June 30, 2009. This study evaluates four potential traffic lanes as business case studies for the SSS concept in order to identify the potential for market viability of such services, as well as any key challenges

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87 to that success being achieved, and the steps that may be taken to overcome any such obstacles. The commercial feasibility of a SSS operation for each of the corridors was evaluated on the basis of potential costs and benefits from a number of perspectives including transportation cost, tran- sit times, schedule reliability, required investment and foregone investment in other modal facil- ities and infrastructure, environmental impact, job creation, and national security issues. Freight Transportation, Short Sea Shipping Option Shows Importance of Systematic Approach to Public Investment Decisions. Report No. GAO-05-768. U.S. Government Account- ability Office, Washington, D.C., July 2005. Available at http://advancedmaritimetechnology. aticorp.org/short-sea-shipping/SSS%20Options%20-%20GAO%20Report.pdf as of July 7, 2009. This report describes (1) why SSS is being considered and factors affecting its viability, (2) the department's role in the development of this option, and (3) issues that should be considered by public transportation decision makers when making investment decisions about this option or other types of projects for addressing freight mobility challenges. This report is based on a review of pertinent studies, federal activities, and an examination of two new SSS operations. Gateways, Corridors and Competitiveness: An Evaluation of Trans-European Networks and Lessons for Canada. Paper presented by Roger Vickerman, Centre for European, Regional and Transport Economics, University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom, at Canada's Asia-Pacific Gateway and Corridor Initiative, Vancouver, BC, Canada, May 24, 2007. Avail- able at http://www.gateway-corridor.com/roundconfpapers/documents/Vickerman_Roger_ Vancouver.pdf as of June 30, 2009. In this paper, the author analyzes the Trans-European Networks (TEN) Program to see if it has accomplished its stated objectives and then looks at how lessons learned could be applied to Canada. The author concludes that, overall, these projects are not producing the economic ben- efit to users and shippers that was expected. He points out that although the TEN has principally been about investment in new capacity, measures to improve the performance of the existing network could be equally as important. The author applies concepts gleaned from the analysis of the TEN Program that could be relevant to Canada. Greater Vancouver Short-Sea Container Shipping Study Pre-Feasibility Report. Novacorp International, Vancouver, BC, Canada, in association with JWD Group, January 2005. Available at http://www.gvgc.org/pdf/GVGC_Executive_Summary_SSS_PreFeasibility_Report_Final.pdf as of June 30, 2009. The main objective of this study was to determine the likely commercial viability of an SSS network connecting the lower Canadian mainland's container terminals with remote short sea terminals and nearby container businesses along the Fraser River. It provides several important conclusions, including that intra-regional short sea container shipping in Greater Vancouver offers promising, commercially viable, private sector opportunities; it is critical for short sea con- tainer terminals to be strategically located close to (or have sufficient land to establish) a variety of container industry facilities and businesses and to have, on-site or nearby, rail inter-modal capability; and the levels of freight required to secure sufficient base, container transfer volume commitments are relatively low and are achievable. Great Lakes Marine Transportation System. White Paper Prepared for the Midwest Freight Corridor Study, Richard D. Stewart, Great Lakes Maritime Research Institute, Superior, WI, April 12, 2006. Available at http://wupcenter.mtu.edu/education/great_lakes_maritime/lessons/ Grt-Lks-Maritime_Transportation_System_Report_Stewart.pdf as of June 30, 2009. This paper provides a good overview of the Great Lakes Marine Transportation System. It con- tains an historical perspective of the system and a comprehensive description of the current sys- tem. It discusses both the physical and non-physical challenges to optimizing the system. The paper also offers some possible opportunities for optimizing the system. Green Ships Can Fight Global Warming. Stas Margaronis, Santa Maria Shipping LLC, Santa Rosa, CA, 2008. Available at http://www.greenships.org/greenships.pdf as of June 30, 2009. This is primarily a promotional piece for SSS, but it provides good insights into technological and financial needs of U.S. shipyards.

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88 Harbor Maintenance Funding. John F. Frittelli, Congressional Research Service, Washington, D.C., January 13, 2004. This report provides a history of the Harbor Maintenance Tax, an assessment of the current sit- uation, the impact of large containerships, alternative funding options, and issues for Congress to address. High Speed Ferry and Coastwise Vessels: Assessment of a New York/Boston service. Prepared by National Ports and Waterways Institute, University of New Orleans, for Center for the Com- mercial Deployment of Transportation Technologies (CCDoTT), Long Beach, CA, May 2003. Available at http://advancedmaritimetechnology.aticorp.org/short-sea-shipping/NY_Boston_ Final.pdf as of June 30, 2009. As it assesses the feasibility of a New York/Boston coastwise service, this study describes the desired characteristics of the terminals that would handle this freight. It analyzes transit time and service frequency requirements. The study also identifies and evaluates the Columbia Coastal New York/Boston Service and the New York Barging Initiative. It also includes quite a bit of dis- cussion on vessel characteristics and potential utilization by the military. In Search of the Link between Ship Size and Operations. Christa Sys, Ghent University, Tweekerkenstraat, Gent, Belgium. Transportation Planning and Technology, Taylor & Francis Lim- ited, Reading, Berkshire, United Kingdom, Vol. 31, No. 4, August 2008, pp. 435463. Available at http://pdfserve.informaworld.com/672437_751309485_901811710.pdf as of June 30, 2009. The paper assesses the link between ship size and operations, given current discussions about the increase in container vessel scale. It finds that (1) ship size and operations are linked; (2) opti- mal ship size depends on transport segment (deep-sea vs. short sea shipping), terminal type (transshipment terminals vs. other terminals), trade lane (east-west vs. north-south trades) and technology; and (3) a ship optimal for one trade can be suboptimal for another. It specifically discusses "intraregional" (SSS) trade. Letter to President's Advisory Panel on Federal Tax Reform. American Association of Port Authorities, Alexandria, VA, April 4, 2005. Available at http://www.aapa-ports.org/files/PDFs/ AAPAletter_advisorypanel_taxreform.pdf as of June 30, 2009. This letter from AAPA to the Advisory Panel describes the Harbor Maintenance Tax and how much domestic cargoes contribute to the Harbor Maintenance Fund. The letter advocates the exemption of domestic shipping from the HMT. Markets for Short-Sea Shipping in the United States. Remarks by John G. Reeve, Reeve & Asso- ciates, Yarmouthport, MA, at NSRP PDMT Short Sea Shipping Workshop, Orlando, FL, April 1920, 2007. Available at http://advancedmaritimetechnology.aticorp.org/short-sea-shipping/ nsrp-pdmt-short-sea-shipping-workshop-april-19-20-2007-presentations/2A_Reeve_Markets.pdf as of June 30, 2009. This presentation discusses domestic freight flows in a general sense. It discusses the issues of traffic density, scheduling, and vessel strings. It proposes the "best" vessel type for the develop- ment of coastal traffic. It presents a comparison of marine highway costs versus truck and rail for the North Atlantic/South Atlantic and Gulf Coast/North Atlantic corridors. It closes by emphasizing the high cost of building vessels in U.S. shipyards. Motorways of the Sea Port Requirements: The Viewpoint of Port Authorities. Ana C. Paixao Casaca, Amarraes e Servios Maritimos, ESPRIM - Centro de Acostagens, Lda, Lisboa, Portu- gal. International Journal of Logistics: Research and Applications, Taylor & Francis, London, UK, Vol. 11, No.4, August 2008, pp. 279-294. Available at http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/ ftinterfacecontent=a791807242fulltext=713240930, as of June 30, 2009. The European Commission sees Motorways of the Sea as a floating infrastructure capable of consolidating freight along certain trade routes where ports are special interfaces characterized by particular features. To identify these features, an investigation was carried out by means of an e-mail survey questionnaire. The findings show the viewpoint of port authorities regarding this matter and suggest a list of 21 prerequisites that ports can use to assess their potential as a Motor- way of the Sea interface. In addition, they can be used by governmental bodies when deciding whether to financially support Motorways of the Sea interface projects.

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89 Motorways of the Sea. James D. Frost, MariNova Consulting, Halifax, NS, Canada. Great Lakes Seaway Review, Vol. 34, No. 3, Jan/Mar 2006, pp. 5556. This article summarizes a study done to analyze the possibility of moving international con- tainer cargo between the Port of Halifax and southwestern Ontario. The study concludes that even though there is considerable interest in SSS from a marketing perspective, with existing rail rates between Halifax and Toronto, a short sea service based purely on international cargo, is not financially viable since the largest customers of CN also pay the lowest rates to the railway. It also concludes that SSS does not offer enough frequency for domestic shipments. The article sum- marizes policy and regulatory matters that need to be addressed. NAFTA and Short Sea Shipping Corridors. Mary R. Brooks, Atlantic Institute for Market Studies Commentary, Halifax, NS, Canada, November 2005. Available at http://www.aims.ca/ library/AtlanticaBrooks.pdf as of June 30, 2009. This article summarizes current and potential marine services within NAFTA and lists key reg- ulatory barriers to short sea NAFTA corridor development. Operational Development of Marine Highways to Serve the Pacific Coast. Paper presented by D. Bagnell, C. Saunders, R. Silva, and M. P. Tedesco, at Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., January 2009. This paper examines market volumes, service times, vessel characteristics, and economics for marine highways serving the Pacific Coast. The authors conclude that current truck rates are not high enough for marine highways to compete on the basis of cost in short next-day turnaround markets such as northern to southern California. Marine highways are viable for longer routes such as California to the Pacific Northwest, where truck rates are higher and both distance and trucking hours of service regulations permit vessels to be time competitive at slower speeds. Operator's Perspective. Remarks by T. Presti, National Shipping of America, San Francisco, CA, at the NSRP PDMT Short Sea Shipping Workshop, Orlando, FL, April 1920, 2007. Avail- able at http://advancedmaritimetechnology.aticorp.org/short-sea-shipping/nsrp-pdmt-short- sea-shipping-workshop-april-19-20-2007-presentations/3B_Presti_Operator_Perspective.pdf as of July 1, 2009. This presentation describes the attempts of National Shipping of America to establish a ser- vice between Freeport, TX, and Chester, PA. It describes the obstacles faced by shippers using rail or truck services between these two markets and how NSA's service can overcome them. It also describes the "sales points" it is using to promote its service and gives a detailed description of the vessel NSA plans to use. Potential Impact of Short Sea Shipping in the Southern California Region. Prepared for METRANS by Hanh Dam Le-Griffin and James E. Moore II, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, February 2006. Available at http://advancedmaritimetechnology.aticorp.org/short- sea-shipping/04-04_Final_southern%20california.pdf as of July 27, 2009. This study evaluates the potential of SSS in the context of the West Coast. This evaluation finds that SSS could be a viable strategy within a regional port system. It identifies opportunities for redirecting empty container flows to secondary ports, as well as with international movements to and from the manufacturing areas on the U.S.-Mexico border. The use of Ro/Ro vessels was determined to be suitable for initial operations. Potential Policies and Incentives to Encourage Movement of Containerized Freight on Texas Inland Waterways. Report 0-5937-1. C. James Kruse, and Curtis A. Morgan, Texas Trans- portation Institute, Texas A&M University, and Nathan Hutson, Center for Transportation Research, University of Texas for Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, TX, March 2009. Available at http://tti.tamu.edu/documents/0-5937-1.pdf as of July 7, 2009. This report is designed to answer three basic questions: (1) Why is the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) interested in moving more cargo by water? (2) What are the potential benefits of moving more cargo by water? (3) What specific steps can TxDOT or the State of Texas take to encourage more waterborne freight movements? In this report, the authors describe the need for increased utilization of marine freight options, look at the challenges involved, and describe the potential benefits of increasing the utilization of marine freight options. The authors

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90 provide a summary of relevant programs in Europe and the activities of other gulf states. The report recommends several steps TxDOT could pursue in the short term to encourage more waterborne shipments along the coast. Several appendices provide detailed background material on federal issues, legislation, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and the role of waterborne freight in Texas. Potential Short Sea Shipping Market for the West Coast. Remarks by Bill Kruse, TranSystems/ Manalytics International, San Francisco, CA at NSRP PDMT Short Sea Shipping Workshop, Orlando, FL, April 19-20, 2007. Available at http://advancedmaritimetechnology.aticorp.org/short- sea-shipping/nsrp-pdmt-short-sea-shipping-workshop-april-19-20-2007-presentations/2B_ Kruse_Markets.pdf as of July 1, 2009. These remarks discuss a study of shippers and intermediaries regarding their perceptions on SSS. Listed are the barriers that were identified and what might be done to encourage more SSS is mentioned. Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council Establishing the Second "Marco Polo" Programme for the Granting of Community Financial Assistance to Improve the Environmental Performance of the Freight Transport System ("Marco Polo II") (COM/2004/0478 final--COD 2004/0157). European Parliament, August 6, 2009. Available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexplus!prod!DocNumber&lg= EN&type_doc=COMfinal&an_doc=2004&nu_doc=0478 as of January 4, 2010. Relying on the proven mechanisms of the current Marco Polo Program, the commission pro- poses two new types of action: Motorways of the Sea and Traffic Avoidance. The objective is to reduce international road freight. Marco Polo II also enlarges the scope of the program to all neighbors of the European Union. It stresses the role of rail freight and clarifies the scope for cer- tain infrastructure measures. Based on an independent ex-ante evaluation, the commission pro- poses an overall budgetary envelope of 740 million EUR for the period 20072013, i.e., roughly 106 million EUR per year. This will shift more than 140 billion tonne-kilometres of freight off the road (equivalent to 7 million truck journeys of 1000 kilometres) and will reduce CO2 emis- sions by 8400 million kg. Putting Marine Highways on the Map. Presentation by Paul Bea, Coastwise Coalition/PHB Public Affairs, Washington, D.C., to Short Sea Shipping Symposium (UMass Dartmouth), March 2627, 2008. Available at http://www.umassd.edu/sustainability/bea.pdf as of July 1, 2009. This presentation puts forth several federal policy changes the Coastwise Coalition believes are important to the success of SSS. Reducing Freight Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the California Corridor: The Potential of Short Sea Shipping. Paper presented by B. Zou, M. Smirti, and M. Hansen, University of California at Berkley, at Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., January 2009. Available at http://www.uctc.net/papers/856.pdf as of July 1, 2009. The authors claim that an SSS service on the West Coast is justifiable from both demand and operational perspectives. They state that reliability is key to the SSS's market penetration. The economic potential of SSS is dependent on carrier-based efforts, but government intervention can incentivize its development. Restructuring the Marine Transportation Industry: Global Overview of Sustainable Develop- ment Practices. C. Comtois, Centre for Research on Transportation, Universit de Montral, Mon- treal, QC, Canada, and B. Slack, Centre for Research on Transportation, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada, for Ministre des Transport Quebec, Montreal, QC, Canada, April 2007. Available at http://www.mtq.gouv.qc.ca/portal/page/portal/Librairie/Publications/en/ministere/ etudes/rtq0701.pdf as of July 1, 2009. The focus of this study is sustainable development practices, but one chapter focuses specifi- cally on short sea shipping. It describes the operational challenges confronting SSS as an indus- try. The authors include regulatory issues (tax, documentation, and tolls), intermodal integration, physical constraints, port issues, and economics from both private and public perspectives. The study includes an analysis of the potential of SSS for the Great LakesSt. Lawrence Seaway system.

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91 Short-Sea and Coastal Shipping Options Study: Final Report. Prepared for I-95 Corridor Coali- tion by Cambridge Systematics, Cambridge, MA, November 2005. Available at http://advanced maritimetechnology.aticorp.org/short-sea-shipping/SSS%20Study%20-%20I95%20Cooridor% 20Coalition.pdf as of July 1, 2009. This study presents a thorough analysis of the SSS marketplace on the East Coast. It details those ports that currently utilize SSS operations, describes the primary SSS operators, and describes the key issues that affect SSS operations in the region. The study also details the results of more than 40 interviews with SSS stakeholders within the I-95 Corridor Coalition region, incorporating gen- eral findings, current obstacles to SSS, the potential effects and impacts of increased SSS opera- tions, and the potential role of MPOs, DOTs, and port authorities in promoting SSS. Using FHWA data, it maps key flows to highlight the primary freight movements that are most applicable to SSS operations. Finally, it details conclusions about the potential for expanded SSS operations, and provides recommendations for potential next steps in supporting SSS activities and initiatives. Short Sea Developments in Europe: Lessons for Canada. Mary R. Brooks, Dalhousie Univer- sity, Halifax, NS, Canada, and James D. Frost, CPCS Transcom, Ottawa, ON, Canada. Working Paper No. 10 for North American Transportation Competitiveness Research Council, July 2009. Available at http://myweb.dal.ca/mrbrooks/TRC%20WP%2010.pdf as of September 10, 2009. This paper explores the European experience from two perspectives: (1) it looks at both public- and private-sector investment in new short sea services and in short sea service design and vessel deployment and (2) it discusses the regulatory environment and the EU-wide promotion programs put in place to support this investment from a public policy perspective. The paper closes with con- clusions that may be drawn for Canadian public policy developers. Short Sea Shipping: A Canadian Perspective. Mary R. Brooks, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada, and James D. Frost, MariNova Consulting Ltd., Halifax, NS, Canada. Maritime Policy & Management, Vol. 31, No. 4, OctoberDecember 2004, pp. 393407. Available at http://pdfserve. informaworld.com/325805_751309485_713724044.pdf as of July 1, 2009. This paper explores the key issues with respect to further development of SSS from a Canadian perspective. It looks at both Canadian domestic activity as well as cross-border trade with the United States. The paper concludes with questions that Canadian policymakers need to address. Short Sea Shipping in North America: Policy and Institutional Issues. Presentation by M.R. Brooks and J.R.F. Hodgson, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada, and J.D. Frost, MariNova Consulting Ltd., Halifax, NS, Canada, to North American Marine Conference, Vancouver, BC, April 19, 2006. Available at http://www.tc.gc.ca/policy/acf/shortseaS/namc2006/brooks.pdf as of July 1, 2009. Six policy issues are presented and discussed. Among the most pertinent to this NCFRP study are (1) U.S. Harbor Maintenance Tax, (2) modal differences in Customs notice requirements, and (3) resistance to modal switching. Short Sea Shipping in North America: Understanding the Requirements of Atlantic Canadian Shippers. M.R. Brooks and Valerie Trifts, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada. Maritime Policy & Management, Vol. 35, No. 2, April 2008, pp.145258. This paper builds a model to explain how shippers purchase freight transportation services and then, using that model, examines how they make choices between service options in order to pre- dict how they will likely make choices when faced with a new transport mode option--short sea shipping--which does not exist on the routes examined. Currently, shippers in the geographic mar- ket use trucks as their primary transport mode because shipping lines serving global markets do not proactively solicit the short sea business and rail shipments are very circuitous to this destination. Short Sea Shipping Market Study. J.D. Frost, D. Hawkins, P. Morin, and R. Hodgson, MariNova Consulting Ltd., Halifax, NS, Canada for Transport Canada, Transportation Development Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada, September 2005. Available at http://www.tc.gc.ca/innovation/tdc/projects/ marine/a/5563.htm as of July 1, 2009. This study was initially predicated on international container cargo moving between the Port of Halifax and southwestern Ontario. It concludes that a short sea service based purely

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92 on international cargo is not financially viable. Unfortunately, SSS does not offer domestic ship- pers enough frequency for domestic shipments. A major hurdle to overcome is that of providing uninterrupted service in winter. The report also discusses several Canadian policy and regulatory matters. The authors suggest routes that they believe have the highest probability of success for East Coast Canadian ports. Short Sea Shipping on the East Coast of North America: An Analysis of Opportunities and Issues. M.R. Brooks and J.R. Hodgson, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada, and J.D. Frost, MariNova Consulting Ltd., Halifax, NS, Canada, March 31, 2006. Available at http://advanced- maritimetechnology.aticorp.org/short-sea-shipping/ShortSeaShipping_dalhousie.pdf as of July 1, 2009. This study analyzes four key aspects of SSS: the demand for the service, shipper requirements, commercial potential, and the business and regulatory climate. It identifies four potential mar- kets, although the traffic flow is significantly imbalanced. It discusses what shippers want in terms of transit time, customs procedures, pricing, and the Harbor Maintenance Tax. It analyzes vessel requirements and notes the lack of availability of suitable vessels. It suggests that partnering with trucking interests would be an effective way to develop such a service. Finally, it addresses policy and regulatory issues. Short Sea Shipping Port Probability Study. Commissioned by Canaveral Port Authority. Prepared by Maritime Transport & Logistics Advisors, LLC, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, March 4, 2005. This study addresses the U.S. Department of Transportation's recent focus on the Marine Transportation System, SSS, and a national transportation policy that involves all modes of travel; the State of Florida's Strategic Intermodal System; and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey's Port Inland Distribution Network (PIDN), which was operating at the time of the study. The study includes the results of interviews of key transportation sectors and chapters on new technologies, geographic considerations, operational results, and new initiatives. Short Sea Shipping (S3) Roadmap. John Malone and Matthew P. Tedesco, Seattle, WA, Sep- tember 30, 2007. Available at http://advancedmaritimetechnology.aticorp.org/short-sea-shipping/ Final%20Roadmap.pdf as of July 1, 2009. This document is the final deliverable under the National Shipbuilding Research Program (NSRP) project entitled "Shipbuilding Opportunities in Short Sea Shipping." The document proposes investment areas and tasks to (1) engage U.S. shipbuilders in the advancement of SSS as a potential market, (2) provide benefit to U.S. commercial shipbuilding in general, and (3) pro- vide benefit to U.S. Navy ship construction programs. The analysis is limited to tasks that are within the scope and charter of the NSRP. Short Sea Shipping Workshop: Current State Document. Prepared for National Shipbuilding Research Program by John Malone and Matthew P. Tedesco, Seattle, WA, April 2007. Available at http://advancedmaritimetechnology.aticorp.org/short-sea-shipping/current_state_pdf.pdf as of July 1, 2009. This document was prepared as a discussion guide for the National Shipbuilding Research Program Short Sea Shipping Workshop held in Orlando in April 2007. Among the items dis- cussed are regulatory and legislative considerations directly related to the development of SSS. Short-Sea Vessel Service and Harbor Maintenance Tax. National Ports and Waterways Insti- tute, University of New Orleans, October 2005. Available at http://advancedmaritimetechnology. aticorp.org/short-sea-shipping/HMT.pdf as of July 1, 2009. This paper makes the case for the exemption of SSS services from the Harbor Maintenance Tax. It provides some in-depth analysis of the effect the HMT has on the cost structure of SSS services and looks at how much the proposed exemption would affect federal revenues. Statement of Collister Johnson, Jr. Statement by the Administrator, Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, Washington, D.C., before the Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation, Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, U.S. House of Rep- resentatives, February 15, 2007. Available at http://transportation.house.gov/Media/File/Coast% 20Guard/20070215/SLSDC%20SSS%20Johnson.doc as of July 1, 2009.

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93 These remarks focus on (among other things) the idea of reducing cross-border congestion and the concept of increasing Great Lakes cross-shipments. They specifically identify the bar- riers of the Harbor Maintenance Tax and U.S. Customs regulations as the two most signifi- cant obstacles. Study on Potential Hub-and-Spoke Container Transhipment Operations in Eastern Canada for Marine Movements of Freight (Short Sea Shipping). Prepared for Transport Canada by James Frost and Marc-Andr Roy, CPCS Transcom Limited, April 2007. Available at http://www.tc. gc.ca/policy/report/acf/tp14876/menu.htm as of September 10, 2009. The objectives of this study were to (1) improve the understanding of existing container hub- and-spoke operations and the factors contributing to their success, (2) situate regional SSS move- ments in the international hub-and-spoke container context, (3) identify and evaluate the success of existing and potential future SSS initiatives on the East Coast of Canada, including opportuni- ties at the design stage of freight movements, and (4) gauge the advantages, disadvantages, and perceptions of SSS on the East Coast of Canada. Testimony Regarding Maritime Administration Title XI Loan Guarantee Program. Testi- mony by H. Clayton Cook, Jr., Seward & Kissel LLP, Washington, D.C., before the Subcommittee on Seapower and Expeditionary Forces, Committee on Armed Services, U.S. House of Represen- tatives, March 15, 2007. Available at http://advancedmaritimetechnology.aticorp.org/short-sea- shipping/HAS%20031507%20FNL%20PKG%20%282%29.pdf as of July 1, 2009. This testimony explains the need for better long-term financing for the purchasers of U.S.-built vessels. It supports the Title XI program and offers a few modifications that, in the opinion of the author, would make the program more effective. The Abandoned Ocean: A History of United States Maritime Policy. A. Gibson and A. Donovan, University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, SC, 2000. This book provides background on the legal framework for domestic marine transportation in the United States and the domestic shipbuilding industry. It explains, in proper historical detail, the original rationale behind many of the policies that govern maritime policy in the United States and, as such, provides a framework for assessing the extent to which the basic conditions under- pinning those policies have changed. It also ties together changes in maritime policy with other modes of transportation as well as the confluence of military with commercial interests. The Competitiveness of Short Sea Shipping in Multimodal Logistics Supply Chains: Ser- vice Attributes. Ana C. Paixao Casaca and Peter B. Marlow, Transport and Shipping Research Group, Cardiff Business School, Cardiff, United Kingdom. Maritime Policy & Management, Vol. 32, No. 4, OctoberDecember 2005, pp. 363382 Available at http://pdfserve.informaworld.com/ 382436_751309485_727771787.pdf as of July 1, 2009. This paper identifies service attributes of short shipping operations that are most important to the success of such operations. It provides a good overview of current European logistics, the European SSS industry, and issues that are important to the success of SSS ventures. The Development of Short Sea Shipping in the United States. Comments submitted by S.P. Flott, Chairman, SeaBridge Inc., Arlington, VA, before the Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation, Committee on Transportation & Infrastructure, U.S. House of Representatives, February 15, 2007. Available at http://transportation.house.gov/hearings/ Testimony.aspx?TID=5460&NewsID=32 as of July 1, 2009. The comments describe the plans of Seabridge, Inc. to introduce high-speed, scheduled, long- haul roll-on/roll-off freight and passenger ferry services between major population centers along the East and Gulf Coasts, using an innovative vessel design and state-of-the-art port facilities. Also discussed is the idea of teaming with long-haul truckers to develop the service. The Development of Short Sea Shipping in the United States. Statement of Gregg M. Ward, Vice President, DetroitWindsor Truck Ferry, Detroit, MI, before the Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation, Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, U.S. House of Representatives, February 15, 2007. Available at http://transportation.house.gov/Media/File/ Coast%20Guard/20070215/Ward.pdf as of July 1, 2009.

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94 These remarks discuss the experience of the DetroitWindsor Truck Ferry. Mr. Ward makes the claim that the Harbor Maintenance Fee is the single most important barrier the operation faces. He also notes the double collection of agriculture and quarantine inspection fees from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal, and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). Other obstacles include Canadian customs policies, Canadian icebreaking fees, and the lack of transparency of hazardous materials crossing the DetroitWindsor bridge. He suggests specific measures Congress should investigate. The Development of Short Sea Shipping the United States: A dynamic Alternative. Thesis submitted by Peter H. Connor to the Department of Ocean Engineering, Massachusetts Insti- tute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004. Available at http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/33427 as of July 7, 2009. This paper takes a look at the current uses of SSS in the United States, as well as the system used in Europe. The technology associated with this concept is described and high-speed vessel design is investigated. Issues related to the integration of SSS are examined, including customer requirements, capital financing, and government policy. The Economics of Motorways of the Sea. Alfred J. Baird, Maritime Research Group, Napier University Transport Research Institute, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. Maritime Policy and Man- agement, Vol. 34, No. 4, August 2007, pp. 287310. Available at http://pdfserve.informaworld.com/ 32732_751309485_781383776.pdf as of July 1, 2009. There is a mismatch whereby transport policy throughout Europe accepts the continued state financing of roadway and railway infrastructure but not seaway infrastructure. The author argues that the seaway-equivalent infrastructure of roadways and railways is the deck of a ship. This argument is convincing for a number of reasons, not least because it is relatively easily demon- strated that the sea itself is anything but a free highway (if indeed it is a highway at all), whereas ports simply act as nodes, not as transport platforms. Acknowledgement of what actually com- prises seaway infrastructure could have far-reaching implications for the future attractiveness and competitiveness of maritime transport, and should result in more adequate policy mecha- nisms being introduced to help overcome market distortions and ensure a level playing field between sea and land transport. The Future of Intermodal Transportation in Memphis and the Mid-South Region (Confer- ence). Presentation by Craig Philip, CEO, Ingram Barge Company, November 9, 2007. Available at http://cifts.memphis.edu/12007_11-09_Ingram_Barge_Future_of_Intermodal_Transportation_ cep.ppt as of July 1, 2009. This presentation discusses the types of markets and commodities that are most suited for a new container-on-barge venture. Transit times and schedule reliability are presented as fac- tors the barge industry can deal with successfully. The presentation closes with several visuals of the work Ingram Barge has done in transporting containers of rubber from New Orleans to Paducah, KY. The Harbor Maintenance Tax & Congestion Relief. American Association of Port Authorities, Alexandria, VA, September 1, 2005. Available at http://www.aapa-ports.org/files/PDFs/HMT_ Coastwise_Paper_01Sept05.pdf as of July 1, 2009. This brief white paper advocates the exemption of domestic shipping from the Harbor Main- tenance Tax and provides some financial justification for doing so. The Impact of the Trans-European Transport Networks on the Development of Short Sea Shipping. Ana C. Paixao Casaca and Peter B. Marlow, Transport and Shipping Research Group, Cardiff Business School, Cardiff, United Kingdom. Maritime Economics & Logistics, Vol. 9, No. 4, December 2007, pp. 302323. Available at http://pdfserve.informaworld.com/680014_751309485_ 791807242.pdf as of July 1, 2009. This paper assesses the impact of the Trans-European Transport Networks (TEN-T) on SSS. To achieve this, the paper describes the SSS market segment, puts the TEN-T policy into a historical perspective, and carries out an assessment of the impact of the TEN-T on SSS. One interesting finding is that although capital has traditionally been seen as the main barrier to

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95 entering into this industry, shipping skills and industry knowledge are becoming the new bar- riers to overcome. The Jones Act: An Overview. John F. Frittelli, Congressional Research Service, Washington, D.C., July 8, 2003. This report provides a brief overview and history of the Jones Act. It discusses the arguments that both proponents and critics make regarding the Jones Act. The Present and Future of the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes Waterway: What are the issues? J.C. Lasserre, Professor, Universit Lumire Lyon 2, Lyon, France, for Transportation Development Centre, Safety and Security, Transport Canada, August 1997. Available at http://www.tc.gc.ca/ innovation/tdc/publication/pdf/13000/13085e.pdf as of July 1, 2009. Although not the focus of the paper, marine highways are mentioned in the paper and it pro- vides insight into the attempts of Manchester Lines to provide a marine highway service from Montreal. Towards a Short Sea Shipping Strategy. Presentation by Rick Bryant, British Columbia Cham- ber of Shipping, Vancouver, BC, Canada, to North American Marine Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, April 20, 2008. Available at http://www.tc.gc.ca/policy/acf/shortseaS/namc2006/bryant.pdf as of July 1, 2009. This presentation provides a list of recommendations the Chamber of Shipping believes should be advanced to promote SSS. Recommendations range from marketing to regulatory to taxation issues. Twin Ports Intermodal Freight Terminal Study: Evaluation of Shipper Requirements and Potential Cargo Required to Establish a Rail-Truck-Marine Intermodal Terminal in the Twin Ports of Superior, Wisconsin and Duluth, Minnesota. Richard D. Stewart, University of WisconsinSuperior; Robert J. Eger III, University of WisconsinMilwaukee; and Libby Ogard and Frank Harder, Tioga Group and Associates, Philadelphia, PA, July 15, 2003. Available at http://www.dot.state.mn.us/ofrw/PDF/Twin%20Ports%20Intmdl%20Terminal%20Study%20- %20FINAL.pdf as of July 1, 2009. This study examines the potential for an intermodal freight terminal in the metropolitan areas of Duluth, MN, and Superior, WI (Twin Ports). Geographic regions in the United States and Canada are assessed for potential intermodal cargo. Existing intermodal terminals in comparable metro- politan areas are examined and key success factors derived. Major shippers in the region are sur- veyed to determine freight volume, transportation requirements, and destinations of inbound and outbound freight. Intermodal marketing companies and other third-party providers are surveyed to determine their requirements for an intermodal freight terminal. Reebie (Transearch) freight flow data between 66 business economic areas (BEAs, which are areas designated by the Depart- ment of Commerce; each BEA typically represents a major economic center--e.g., there are six BEAs in Iowa) and the Twin Ports were analyzed for freight volume by mode, destinations, lanes, and load balance. The establishment of a Ro/Ro marine service with Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada, is examined as a feeder for an intermodal terminal. Operating railyards in the Twin Ports are cata- loged and evaluated as potential intermodal terminals. An overall determination of the Twin Port's suitability as an intermodal terminal is presented along with recommendations for implementation. U.S. Short Sea Shipping: Prospects and Opportunities. Submitted to Short Sea Shipping Coop- erative by G.A. Lombardo and C.Q. Guan, Center for Maritime Studies, United States Merchant Marine Academy, Kings Point, NY, and R.F. Mulligan, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC, November 1, 2004. Available at http://advancedmaritimetechnology.aticorp.org/short-sea- shipping/SSS%20Prospects%20and%20Opportunities%20-%20USMMA.pdf as of July 1, 2009. This study conducts an economic analysis of SSS, examining the cost of building a mono-hull Ro/Ro vessel and the resultant required freight rate for profitable operations. Informed stakehold- ers were surveyed about the internal and external factors affecting the operations of SSS services. An assessment of port terminal infrastructure needs is presented. Brief discussions of military appli- cations and public policy considerations are offered. One recommendation is for operators to form strategic alliances with trucking companies who could ship a portion of their cargoes via sea.

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96 Periodical References AMPAC Opens West Coast Feeder Service with High Hopes, B. Johnson, Container News, February 1980. At the Cross Roads, C.G. Raymond, Horizon Lines, Inc., Marine Log, July 2008. Barge Ahead, B. Fenimore, Traffic World, July 26, 2004. Barge Operators Seek Preemption, Traffic World, Vol. 269, No. 15, April 4, 2005. Barging to Bridgeport, Traffic World, Vol. 269, No. 26, June 27, 2005. Big Things on the Horizon? J. Keefe, Marine Executive, February 2008. Breaking into the Jones Act, C. Gillis, American Shipper, Vol. 50, No. 9, September 2008. Building Bridges: Will citizens support infrastructure development? Gulf Shipper, September 10, 2007. Cabotage Ups and Downs, M. Fabey, Traffic World, December 4, 2000. Continuing to Advance, B. McKeil, Great Lakes Seaway Review, Vol. 35, No. 1, July/Sept. 2006. CSX Expecting to Discover Profitable Sailing with One-Stop Shipping, Globe and Mail, May 11, 1987. Double-Stacking to Alaska, Cargo Systems International, Vol. 14, No. 1, January 1987. Falling Short? D.K. Dupont, Work Boat, pp. 4042, June 2007. Fla. Rep. Proposes Tax Relief to Benefit Short-Sea Shippers, T. Reddy, Transport Topics No. 3650, American Trucking Association, August 1, 2005. Great Lakes May Get New Tug-Barge System, Globe and Mail, April 3, 1980. Great Lakes Short Sea Shipping and the Domestic Cargo-Carrying Fleet, J.K. Higginson and T. Dumitrascu, Transportation Journal, Vol. 46, No. 1, Winter 2007. Halifax, Seaway Talk Short Sea. T. Peters, Journal of Commerce Online, March 10, 2009. Highway Congestion? Think Water! K. Wykle, Defense Transportation Journal, Vol. 61, No. 5, September 2005. Intermodalism: More on Short Sea Shipping. D. Letteney, World Wide Shipping, Vol. 67, No. 5, July 2004, pp. 1011. Lake Vessels Are Not Dead Yet, Globe and Mail, May 3, 1980. Marine Highway Gets $750k Boost, Record, San Joaquin, CA, August 15, 2009. Marketing Barge Feeder Service Is a Tough Job, American Shipper, No. 11, November 1987. Missing the Boat, Journal of Commerce, Vol. 5, No. 43, October 25, 2004. Modern Tonnage, J.I. Pung, Great Lakes Seaway Review, Vol. 35, No. 3, January/March 2007. Moran Container Services Suspends Operation, American Shipper, Vol. 27, No. 10, October 1985. Nanaimo Prepares Port for Containers, Globe and Mail, September 4, 1984. P&O Lured by Rhine's Siren Song: Tempus, Times (London), February 23, 1989. Pushing for Short Sea, A. Natter, Traffic World, Vol. 271, No. 28, July 16, 2007. Roadblock? R.G. Edmonson, Journal of Commerce, May 03, 2004. Rollin' on the River, John Reid Blackwell, Richmond-Times-Dispatch, December 8, 2008. Ro-Ro Ontario Gets New Site for Service Terminal at N.Y., Globe and Mail, July 17, 1980. SCOOP Promotes Short-Sea Shipping, R. Mottley, American Shipper, March 2004. Seabridge Believes in Ferries, C. Dupin, American Shipper, Vol. 48, No. 12, December 2006. Shakeout in Container Barge Feeder Service, American Shipper, Vol. 30, No. 3, March 1988. Ships for Inland Waterways, BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, October 23, 1981. Short Haul, P. Glass, Work Boat, December 2004. Shortsea Shortchanged? Z. Double, Containerisation International, 2004. Short Sea on Horizon, P.T. Leach and W.B. Cassity, Traffic World, Vol. 271, No. 40, October 8, 2007. Short Shrift for Short-Sea? Traffic World, Vol. 270, No. 30, July 24, 2006. Special Report: Jones Act Trades, Marine Digest, July 2001. Trailer Bridge Plans NY/Florida Service, American Shipper, July 1997.

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97 Truck Line Begins Container-Barge Service: Port East Transfer Expands Transportation Services to Northeast Coast Waterways, Container News, Vol. 20, No. 5, May 1985. Truckers Getting Their Feet Wet in Quest for Cheaper Transport, Globe and Mail, April 19, 1985. U.S. Harbor Maintenance Tax: A Bad Idea Whose Time has Passed? R.K. Skalberg, Transporta- tion Journal, Vol. 46, No. 3, June 22, 2007. Using Barges to Revive a Rail Route, New York Times, May 4, 1986. West Coast Lumber Barges Return, American Shipper, Vol. 29, No. 1, January 1987.