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NCFRP NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 5 Sponsored by the Research and Innovative Technology North American Administration Marine Highways

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of July 2010.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM NCFRP REPORT 5 North American Marine Highways C. James Kruse TEXAS TRANSPORTATION INSTITUTE Houston, TX AND Nathan Hutson CENTER FOR TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH Austin, TX Subscriber Categories Freight Transportation Marine Transportation Operations and Traffic Management Policy Terminals and Facilities Research sponsored by the Research and Innovative Technology Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT NCFRP REPORT 5 RESEARCH PROGRAM America's freight transportation system makes critical contributions Project NCFRP-17 to the nation's economy, security, and quality of life. The freight ISSN 1947-5659 transportation system in the United States is a complex, decentralized, ISBN 978-0-309-15489-5 and dynamic network of private and public entities, involving all Library of Congress Control Number 2010931770 modes of transportation--trucking, rail, waterways, air, and pipelines. 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. In recent years, the demand for freight transportation service has been increasing fueled by growth in international trade; however, bottlenecks or congestion points in the system are exposing the COPYRIGHT INFORMATION inadequacies of current infrastructure and operations to meet the Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining growing demand for freight. Strategic operational and investment written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously decisions by governments at all levels will be necessary to maintain published or copyrighted material used herein. freight system performance, and will in turn require sound technical Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this guidance based on research. publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, The National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) is FMCSA, FTA, RITA, or PHMSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. a cooperative research program sponsored by the Research and It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not- Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) under Grant No. for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. DTOS59-06-G-00039 and administered by the Transportation Research Board (TRB). The program was authorized in 2005 with the passage of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). On September 6, 2006, a contract to NOTICE begin work was executed between RITA and The National Academies. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Freight The NCFRP will carry out applied research on problems facing the Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. freight industry that are not being adequately addressed by existing The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this research programs. report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Program guidance is provided by an Oversight Committee comprised The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to of a representative cross section of freight stakeholders appointed by procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. the National Research Council of The National Academies. The NCFRP Oversight Committee meets annually to formulate the research The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. funding levels and expected products. Research problem statements The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research recommending research needs for consideration by the Oversight Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Freight Research Program do not Committee are solicited annually, but may be submitted to TRB at any endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely time. Each selected project is assigned to a panel, appointed by TRB, because they are considered essential to the object of the report. which provides technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. Heavy emphasis is placed on including members representing the intended users of the research products. The NCFRP will produce a series of research reports and other products such as guidebooks for practitioners. Primary emphasis will be placed on disseminating NCFRP results to the intended end-users of the research: freight shippers and carriers, service providers, suppliers, and public officials. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCFRP REPORT 5 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer Charlotte Thomas, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor NCFRP PROJECT 17 PANEL Rodney Gregory, Business Transformation Agency, Reston, VA (Chair) Michael S. Bomba, Alliance Transportation Group, Austin, TX Kristin Decas, New Bedford Harbor Development Commission, New Bedford, MA John K. DeCrosta, American President Lines Limited, Washington, DC A.N. "Tassos" Perakis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Brian G. Pfeifer, BEC Industries, Inc., Tallahassee, FL Craig Philip, Ingram Barge Company, Nashville, TN Roberta E. Weisbrod, Partnership for Sustainable Ports, LLP, Brooklyn, NY Michael Gordon, US Maritime Administration Liaison Joedy W. Cambridge, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCFRP Project 17 by the Center for Ports and Water- ways, Texas Transportation Institute (TTI), The Texas A&M University System. C. James Kruse, the Director of TTI's Center for Ports and Waterways, was the Project Director and Principal Investigator. Nathan Hutson of the University of Texas' Center for Transportation Research contributed to this report.

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FOREWORD By William C. Rogers Staff Officer Transportation Research Board NCFRP Report 5: North American Marine Highways presents an evaluation of the poten- tial for moving intermodal containers on chassis, non-containerized trailers, or rail cars on marine highways in North America. The report is especially valuable for its assessment of the conditions for feasibility; its analysis of the economic, technical, regulatory, and logisti- cal barriers inhibiting greater use of the marine highway system; and proposed solutions for barrier elimination. This report will enable public and private stakeholders to better under- stand the underlying reasons for the current underutilization of the marine highway system. The United States has an abundance of navigable rivers, lakes, canals, seaways, and coastal waterways. This marine highway system (often referred to as short sea shipping) is used to move billions of tons of freight each year; however, less than 4 percent of the Nation's domestic freight (by volume) moves by water, compared to 1957, when over 31 percent moved by water (National Transportation Statistics, Bureau of Transportation Sta- tistics). Greater use of the marine highway system capacity could reduce major choke points on highways and railroads, reduce fuel consumption, and reduce air pollution and green- house gas emissions. Under NCFRP Project 17, the Texas Transportation Institute was asked to (1) identify and analyze the successes and failures of past and existing North American marine highway operations; (2) identify and assess the impact of current barriers and constraints, as well as propose strategies to overcome them; (3) identify the necessary conditions for success and evaluate the feasibility of expanded North American marine operations; and (5) discuss public policy implications for marine highway shipping that could be used as a resource for the development of a national freight transportation policy, emphasizing existing multi- modal comparative analyses from a public and private capital investment perspective.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 1 Introduction 1 Findings 4 Conclusions 7 Chapter 1 Background 10 Chapter 2 Research Approach 12 Chapter 3 Findings and Applications 12 Ventures 13 Shipper Requirements 13 Vessel Issues 21 Legislation 22 The European Experience 25 Obstacles 33 Miscellaneous Considerations 35 Chapter 4 Conclusions and Suggested Research 35 Economic Framework 44 Planning and Operations 53 Potential Topics for Follow-on Research 55 References 57 APPENDIX A Table of Interviewee Characteristics 59 APPENDIX B Table of North American Marine Highway Ventures 65 APPENDIX C Tabulation of Shipper Requirements 67 APPENDIX D Compilation of Potential Obstacles to the Development of Marine Highways 75 APPENDIX E Marine Highways Legislation with Committee Referrals 81 APPENDIX F Quebec Province Assistance Program Aiming to Reduce or Avoid Greenhouse Gas Emissions 83 APPENDIX G Annotated Bibliography 98 APPENDIX H Acronyms Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.