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146 accuracy of emission estimates, (3) determine the most effective port sector emits 1.21.6 million metric tons (Tg) of PM10, ways to increase the cooperation between public agencies and 4.76.5 Tg of SOx, and 56.9 Tg of NOx annually. That is, private railroads, and (4) develop new methods for collecting approximately 15% and 5%8% of global NOx and SOx railroad data. emissions, respectively, are attributable to ocean-going ships, and approximately 60,000 annual cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths are related to PM emissions from marine Task 3: Compare Methods to Disaggregate shipping. However, all emission estimates from marine Rail Fuel Consumption Data shipping are uncertain. Many regional and local emission analyses rely on different Current best practices in preparing individual port emission methods to disaggregate rail fuel consumption data. Depend- inventories have advanced considerably since the first attempts ing on the chosen method, high levels of uncertainties are at quantifying national port-related emissions. Generally, there involved, and this task will determine how such methods are insufficient data to confidently and quantitatively assess can be improved through the collection of local and regional marine emission uncertainties. Although overall accuracy and data. The research should consider the tradeoffs between uncertainty associated with different methods and models to improved accuracy and additional resources needed to col- estimate freight emissions are not generally quantified, sources lect and report local and regional data. of these uncertainties have been identified. For example, emissions from OGVs are usually determined at and around ports only, as these are the entrances and clearances Task 4: Prepare Final Report of cargo into the regions of modeling interest, using informa- Compile the results from previous tasks in a clear and concise tion on number of calls at a particular port, engine power, load document that will serve as a support for future rail emissions factors, emission factors and time in like modes. These data are analyses. often incomplete or of insufficient quality. Although a wide range of commercial harbor craft (H/C) operate in the vicinity of ports, many of these vessels serve purposes other than just Funding Requirements direct goods movement and their activities and vessel param- eters are often unknown. The diversity of types, the number, A funding level of $100,000 is allocated to this research. and fleet parameters of CHE in use is related to the diversity and The contract will be completed within 12 months of acceptance amount of freight handled at a port. Even in cases where cargo of proposal. It is anticipated that the research will not require data are available, CHE data are often estimates. fieldwork, laboratory testing, or travel in addition to meetings Further uncertainty arises when aggregating marine freight with the project panel. emissions regionally or nationally. For example, emissions at a national scale are computed in EPA's National Emission 5.4 Improving Parameters Inventory (NEI) with a reliance on a combination of distinct and Methodologies for methodologies for each source category and aggregation to the Estimating Marine Goods county level. Furthermore, data in the 2002 and 2005 NEI are Movement Emissions based on an inventory of marine engines conducted in 1998. Emissions estimates appropriate at two scales--local and Background national--should be estimated and appropriately joined. To improve the emissions estimate from this critical sector Numerous issues arise in the calculation of emissions at and near marine transport and goods movement terminals. of the nation's freight transport infrastructure, these issues Emissions at these port areas include activity from ocean-going need to be addressed. vessels (OGVs), commercial and non-commercial harbor craft (H/C), and cargo handling equipment (CHE). Each mode has Objectives unique calculation methodologies and input data, as well as resulting uncertainties. The goal of the following objectives is to improve the esti- Emissions from marine goods movement are a significant mation of emissions from marine freight-related (OGV, H/C, share of the nation's total freight emissions. For example, the and CHE) activities near ports, and their impact on national EPA GHG Inventory estimated that 14% of the nation's 2005 emissions: total freight transportation-related CO2 emissions are due to domestic waterborne commerce alone. The share of other · OGV pollutants is likely to be higher given the relatively uncontrolled Develop updated and more accurate marine vessel emissions from this sector. At a global scale, the marine trans- emission factors and load factors,
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147 Improve information and emissions factors associated Better emissions input characteristics for other parameters with auxiliary engines, and also need to be developed. For OGV auxiliary engines and H/C, Improve emission factors for methane, nitrous oxide, there is little consistent information on the number and size and black carbon. of the engines on vessels. Information needs to be developed · H/C including number, load factors, types of operation, and fuel Improve input parameters for HC emission estimation, used. Current H/C load factors differ from one another by a especially emission factors and load factors. factor of two or more; this variance should be reduced by · CHE studies of H/C activity and engine load profiles. Separate pro- Develop updated emission parameters for CHE engines, files need to be developed for in-port versus inland river cargo especially emission factors and load factors, and movements. Duty cycles for nonroad engines should also be Develop idling emission factors for CHE and idling time examined more fully and selected to provide CHE-specific estimates. load factors. · National Scale Conduct updated marine inventory for future NEI publications. Objective 2: To Improve Modeling Methodologies for Port-Related Emissions The objective of this research statement is to address and There are numerous improvements that should be made to implement these recommended changes. To best achieve this activity and other emission modeling parameters for OGV, objective, the recommendations have been reorganized and H/C, and CHE. distilled here into three primary objectives based on theme Data on vessel activity should be improved. For OGVs, rather than source category. Each objective applies to several domestic ship movements within the United States are currently of the source categories active at ports. not reported except in detailed inventories. H/C movement data at ports and on rivers also are generally not well documented. Additional data is needed for CHE activity profiles, specifi- Objective 1: To Improve Emission Inputs for cally as used at ports and incorporating idle time. A suggested Marine and Port-Related Emissions method to estimate these activity data needs to be developed. Current OGV and H/C emission factors are still based Emission models should be improved to better estimate on limited test data and provide only a rough estimate of nonroad emissions. NONROAD will eventually be replaced emissions from newer vessels. Several new emissions test- by the MOVES model; it is unknown if OFFROAD will be ing programs funded by the California Air Resources Board, similarly updated. Both should be improved to specifically EPA, and Environment Canada, among others, have in- handle CHE, H/C, and OGV engines, although MOVES should volved OGVs, H/C, and CHE. These new data need to be be able to calculate emissions at smaller spatial scales than either reviewed and compared against currently accepted emission current model. Testing of the model is required once available. factors. Results of this current testing of emissions should be compiled. Objective 3: To Implement Advances to Update Specifically for OGVs, PM emission factors for slow- and Regional/National Scale Estimates medium-speed engines need further review, evaluation of for Port-Related Emissions impact of previous emission factors, development of emis- sion factors specifically for PM2.5, and advancement in the As advances are made in Objectives 1 and 2, they should be ability to relate PM and SOX emissions to fuel sulfur level. implemented to improve estimates in both local and regional/ Emission factors need to be improved for non CO2 GHGs, national scale emission inventories. Typically, detailed inven- including methane, nitrous oxide, and black (elemental) tories are made at the scale of individual ports and are scaled carbon. Improved emission factors also are needed for incin- to other areas to estimate regional and/or national emissions. erators and boilers. In addition, emissions at low loads need The advances in port emission inventory practices should be to be examined since emission factors tend to increase rapidly implemented first to improve local emission inventories. when engine load drops below 20% maximum continuous Simultaneously, national inventories should be updated rating (MCR). that will incorporate the advances from Objectives 1 and 2. As Current emission factors for CHE are based on limited test more ports complete detailed emission inventories, guidance data, often for on-road engines, and need to be updated to on port matching should be updated in order to better estimate represent emissions from the current fleet of CHE engines. emissions at small, poorly characterized ports. As this mapping Especially for CHE, emission factors should be developed that between more and less detailed ports is developed and more separate idling from active-engine emission factors. ports produce updated, detailed emission inventories, the