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148 calculation of national and regional marine emissions should the report and provide supporting concurrence and/or recom- be updated to reflect--not only changes in equipment type mendations for additional data gathering as needed. and number--but also changes in age distribution and usage (load factor) of CHE, H/C, and OGV at the port. This will result in a more comprehensive National Emission Inventory (NEI) Task 6: Prepare Final Report for the marine freight sector. Prepare a final report providing results of the entire research effort. Description of Tasks Task descriptions are intended to provide a framework Funding Requirements for conducting the research. NCFRP is seeking the insights A funding level of $250,000 is allocated to this research. of proposers on how best to achieve the research objective. The contract will be completed within 18 months of acceptance Proposers are expected to describe research plans that can of proposal, including 1 month for review and approval of the realistically be accomplished within the constraints of available interim report and 3 months for review and contractor revi- funds and contract time. Proposals must present the proposers' sion of the final report. It is anticipated that the research will current thinking in sufficient detail to demonstrate their under- not require fieldwork, laboratory testing, or travel in addition standing of the issues and the soundness of their approach to to meetings with the project panel. meeting the research objective. 5.5 Improving Air Freight Task 1: Conduct Kick-Off Call Emission Calculations Conduct a conference call with the panel within 30 days after Background contract initiation to discuss the revised work plan developed in response to the panel review of the research plan in the Demand for air freight transportation is projected to return agency's original proposal. to strong growth in North America in the near future. OAG Aviation projects an annual growth rate of 5.6% per year by 2011 and an overall international 10-year annual average Task 2: Conduct Literature Review growth rate of 6.1% over the period from 2008 to 2017. Conduct a literature review and analysis to determine Although increased fuel efficiency from new aircraft will appropriate emission factors, load factors, duty cycles, and partially mitigate increased air freight emissions, it is not other parameters to represent the current fleet of engines used expected to fully offset greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) and in CHE, H/C, and main, auxiliary, and boiler engines for OGV, will have minimal reductions on particulate matter and NOx and compare them to currently accepted factors. emissions. Current methods used to estimate air transportation emissions have focused on passenger aircraft because they are the major share of air transportation emissions. However, Task 3: Develop Activity Methodology with the projected growth in air freight, the contribution Develop methodologies to estimate OGV, H/C, and CHE of air freight needs to be more clearly determined, especially activities missing from current data sets. Once available, in light of the mixed-mode use of aircraft to move both pas- evaluate MOVES for performance in the marine sector. sengers and air cargo. Further, limited data exists on emission indices for air freight aircraft as well as air freight perform- ance data. Task 4: Update Emission Inventories Current tools used to assess environmental impacts from Update local scale marine freight emission inventories with air transportation are FAA's AEDT/EDMS. The focus to date best-practice data and methodologies. Develop enhanced port has been with passenger aircraft, and default values have been matching routine and update national marine-freight emission developed with this as the basis. However, these default values inventory. may not always be appropriate for air cargo aircraft. Continued growth at major airports and regional hubs are leading to increased congestion and the use of alternative/secondary Task 5: Provide Interim Report regional airports to avoid delays. This may include movement Provide an interim report to panel members summarizing to airports mainly servicing air cargo needs. Nearby commu- the findings from Tasks 2 and 3. Panel members would review nities may be impacted, particularly as these operations may

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149 have significant activity during the nighttime period. Research funds and contract time. Proposals must present the proposers' is needed to clearly evaluate air freight emissions consistent current thinking in sufficient detail to demonstrate their under- with the knowledge level of air passenger aircraft as well as to standing of the issues and the soundness of their approach to develop a consistent scheme for allocating emissions associated meeting the research objective. with mixed air freight and air passenger operations. Better assignment of air passenger and air freight emissions will Task 1: Conduct Kick-Off Call enable decision makers to make informed decisions about the impacts from future airport expansions for both air passenger Conduct a conference call with the panel within 30 days after and air cargo operations. contract initiation to discuss the revised work plan developed in The research will need to be incorporated into FAA models response to the panel review of the research plan in the agency's because these are used to evaluate air quality impact assessments original proposal. as required in state implementation plans and environmental impact assessments. Coordination with FAA and EPA will be needed to ensure that the research results can be incorporated Task 2: Describe Current Methods into the modeling tools, both in terms of analysis of the results Describe the current method used to estimate air freight and the quality of information gathered. emissions as implemented in EDMS. This would include details on the underlying assumptions, data sets used to support these assumptions and the extent to which the assumptions are Objective justified, their relative importance, and the current limitations The objective of this research is to develop an improved with the method and supporting databases. basis for generating emissions associated with air freight trans- portation. The research should examine the current usage and Task 3: Identify Data Needs assignments made specific to air cargo freight within EDMS and the future AEDT modeling system. Some, but not all of the For those data set or underlying assumptions that were assignments would include: (1) aircraft/engine combinations, identified as critical to improving the characterization of air (2) assumptions and basis for takeoff weight, (3) glide slope freight emissions, provide recommendations on the additional angle, (4) time in mode, and (5) disaggregation of freight data needed to support development of a more robust data emissions for air passenger emissions. The research should set to better characterize freight emissions. This could include evaluate the appropriateness of the current assignment prac- both activity data as well as emission indices. tices, evaluate the limitations with the current approach, and provide recommendations for better assignments. Task 4: Provide Interim Report The proposed project comes at a critical time when research garnered from this study could be incorporated into the current Provide an interim report to panel members summarizing development of the AEDT 2.0 Modeling System. Current the findings from Task 2 and Task 3. Panel members would assignment practices for mixed-mode air freight and passenger review the report and provide supporting concurrence and/or mode are probably not representative of the air freight trans- recommendations for additional data gathering as needed. portation contribution. It is likely that emission reduction targets near airports will be needed at many of the nationwide Task 5: Conduct Additional Data Gathering airports as they are, or soon will be, located in air quality nonattainment areas due to the recently revised 24-hour Conduct additional data gathering as reached in discussion PM2.5 ambient air quality standard (65 g/m3 lowered to with panel members. This could include gathering existing 35 g/m3) and the newly proposed 1-hour NO2 standard of data sets for further analysis or additional data gathered between 80100 ppb to be finalized by January 2010. from field studies. Analyze the data for use in support of the EDMS/AEDT Modeling System. Description of Tasks Task 6: Develop Methodology Task descriptions are intended to provide a framework for Disaggregating Freight Emissions for conducting the research. NCFRP is seeking the insights of proposers on how best to achieve the research objective. Develop an improved methodology for disaggregating freight Proposers are expected to describe research plans that can emission fractions between air freight and air passengers when realistically be accomplished within the constraints of available a plane operates in mixed mode. Include characterizations of

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150 potential impacts on time in mode, engine performance, and will change aircraft operations such as takeoff weight, glide takeoff weight. slope, and emission indices, and the resulting likely change in air freight emissions. Task 7: Address Air Cargo Issues in AEDT Model Development Task 9: Prepare Final Report Currently, development of FAA's AEDT lacks participation Prepare a final report providing results of the entire research from the air freight community. This effort is being sponsored effort. by FAA using supporting contractors and the academic com- munity. External oversight and guidance are provided on a once Funding Requirements per year basis as part of the Design Review Group. Actively participate in at least one, and preferably two, stakeholder A funding level of $150,000 to $200,000 is allocated to this meetings as a representative of the air freight community to research. The contract will be completed within 18 to 24 months assure that issues relevant to air cargo transport are addressed of acceptance of proposal, including 1 month for review and as part of the model development process. approval of the interim report and 1 month for review and contractor revision of the final report. It is anticipated that the research will not require fieldwork, laboratory testing, or Task 8: Determine Impact of New Aircraft travel in addition to meetings with the project panel. Technology in Modeling Methodology The budget depends upon the additional data gathering New aircraft technology including very light jets (VLJs) and effort involved in Task 5. The low-end estimate assumes exist- unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) will be used increasingly ing data are available from the literature to support the analysis, in future air freight transportation, particularly UAVs, in an while the high-end estimate allows for the need to collect field effort to reduce labor costs. Identify how these technologies data in the case that published data are not available.