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152 References 1. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 19902008, 16. Risk and Exposure Assessment to Support the Review of the NO2 Pri- EPA 430-R-10-006 (Washington, D.C., U.S. Environmental Pro- mary National Ambient Air Quality Standard, EPA-452/R-08- tection Agency, April 2010). 008a (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2. See National Emissions Inventory (NEI) Air Pollutant Emissions November 2008). Trends Data, http://www.epa.gov/ttnchie1/trends 17. Risk and Exposure Assessment to Support the Review of the SO2 Pri- 3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the U.S. Transportation Sector, mary National Ambient Air Quality Standards: Second Draft, 19902003 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection EPA-452/P-09-003 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Pro- Agency, 2006), http://www.epa.gov/otaq/climate/420r06003.pdf tection Agency, March 2009). 4. See http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/188polls.html 18. Multiple Air Toxics Exposure Study in the South Coast Air Basin 5. See the full list at http://www.epa.gov/otaq/regs/toxics/420b06 (MATES III) Final Report (Diamond Bar, CA: South Coast Air 002.xls Quality Management District, September 2008) http://www.aqmd. 6. Recommended Approaches to Communicating Air Toxics Issues and gov/prdas/matesIII/matesIII.html Transportation Project-Related Analyses in NEPA Documents. Pre- 19. Final Report: Puget Sound Air Toxics Evaluation (Seattle, WA: Puget pared for NCHRP Project 25-25 Task 18 (Fairfax, VA: ICF Con- Sound Clean Air Agency, October 2003) http://www.pscleanair. sulting, March 2007) http://www.trb.org/NotesDocs/25-25(18)_ org/airq/basics/airtoxics.aspx FR.pdf 20. Portland Air Toxics Assessment (Portland, OR: Oregon Depart- 7. "Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey--Discontinued" (Washington, ment of Environmental Quality, 2006) http://www.deq.state.or. D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau) http://www.census.gov/svsd/www/vius/ us/aq/toxics/pata.htm products.html 21. Morandi, M., T. Stock, et al., Houston Exposure to Air Toxics 8. Sierra Research Inc. and Larry Caretto, Revised Inventory Guid- Study (HEATS) (Houston, TX: Texas Council on Environmen- ance for Locomotive Emissions, SR2004-06-01 (Forest Park, GA: tal Quality, October 2009) http://www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/mleland/ Southeastern State Air Resources Managers, Inc., 2004), http:// Webpages/HEATS.htm www.metro4-sesarm.org/pubs/railroad/FinalGuidance.pdf 22. EPA, "Control of Hazardous Air Pollutants from Mobile Sources," 9. Current Methodologies in Preparing Mobile Source Port-Related final rule (the 2007 "MSAT rules"), 40 CFR Parts 59, 80, 85, and Emission Inventories, Final Report (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Envi- 86, Federal Register 72, no. 37 (February 26, 2007): 84288476. ronmental Protection Agency, April 2009). 23. Oregon Department of Air Quality, "Portland Air Toxics Assess- 10. Current Methodologies in Preparing Mobile Source Port-Related ment," http://www.deq.state.or.us/aq/toxics/pata.htm Emission Inventories, Draft Report (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Envi- 24. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 40 CFR part 1508.5. ronmental Protection Agency, March 2009). 25. Sonoma Technology, Inc. Transportation-Related Air Toxics: Case 11. See Lukachko, S. P. and Waitz, I. A., "Effects of Engine Aging on Study Materials Related to US 95 in Nevada (Washington, D.C.: Aircraft NOx Emissions," ASME 97-GT-386. Presented at ASME/ U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Admin- IGTI Turbo Expo, Orlando, FL, June 1997. istration, undated but circa 2004) http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ 12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the U.S. Transportation Sector: environment/airtoxic/casesty2.htm 19902003, EPA420-R-06-003 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environ- 26. Burbank, Cynthia, Interim Guidance on Air Toxic Analysis in mental Protection Agency, March 2006), http://www.epa.gov/ NEPA Documents, memorandum from Associate Administrator otaq/climate/420r06003summary.htm for Planning, Environment and Realty Cynthia Burbank to 13. Davies, John, Cristiano Faanha, and Joseph Aamidor, "Green- division administrators (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of house Gas Emissions from U.S. Freight Sources: Using Activity Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, February 3, Data to Interpret Trends and Reduce Uncertainty." Presented at 2006) http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/airtoxic/020306 the 87th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, guidmem.htm Washington, D.C., January 2008. 27. Los Angeles International Airport, Proposed Master Plan Improve- 14. Global Warming Solutions Act, Assembly Bill 32, California Health ments, Final Environmental Impact Report. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. and Safety Code (HSC), 3850038598. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, 15. See http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/natamain/index.html April 2004) http://www.laxmasterplan.org/pub_final_eir_v1_5.cfm

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153 28. O'Hare Modernization Final Environmental Impact Statement, tal Protection Agency, 2008) http://www.epa.gov/air/airtrends/ Appendix I, Hazardous Air Pollutant Discussion, Chicago, IL. 2007/report/trends_report_full.pdf (accessed April 2009). (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal 44. National Air Pollutant Emission Trends: 19001998, EPA-454/R-00- Aviation Administration, July 2005) ftp://public-ftp.agl.faa.gov/ 002 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD FEIS/Appendix I.pdf 2000) http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends/trends98/trends98.pdf 29. Philadelphia International Airport, Runway 17-35 Extension Proj- (accessed April 2009). ect, Draft Environmental Impact Statement (Washington, D.C.: 45. Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emissions Factors, "2005 U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Adminis- National Emissions Inventory Data & Documentation" (Washing- tration, October 2004) http://www.phlrunway17-35eis.com/ ton, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) http://www. 30. Ralph Iovinelli (AEE-300) e-mail to APP-600, Interim Aircraft- epa.gov/ttn/chief/net/2005inventory.html (accessed April 2009). HAPs Methodology--National Consistency (Washington, D.C.: 46. 2002 National Emission Inventory (NEI) Preparation Plan--Final U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Adminis- (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2004) tration, Office of Environment and Energy, September 26, 2005). ftp://ftp.epa.gov/EmisInventory/2002finalnei/general_information/ 31. Guidance Regarding Consideration of Global Climatic Change in 2002neiplan_081004final.pdf (accessed April 2009). Environmental Documents Prepared Pursuant to the National Envi- 47. Regulatory Impact Analysis: Control of Emissions of Air Pollution ronmental Policy Act (Washington, D.C.: Executive Office of the from Locomotive Engines and Marine Compression Ignition Engines President, Council on Environmental Quality, October 8, 1997). less than 30 Liters per Cylinder, EPA 420-R-08-001a (Washington, 32. Roseville Railyard Study (Sacramento, CA: California Air Resources D.C., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, April 2010) Board, October 2004) www.arb.ca.gov/diesel/documents/ 48. Documentation for Aircraft, Commercial Marine Vessel, Locomotive, rrstudy.htm and Other Nonroad Components for the National Emissions Inven- 33. ARB Health Risk Assessment Guidance for Railyard and Intermodal tory, Volume I--Methodology (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environ- Facilities (Sacramento, CA: California Air Resources Board, July mental Protection Agency, 2005) ftp://ftp.epa.gov/EmisInventory/ 2006) www.arb.ca.gov/railyard/hra/hra.htm 2002finalnei/documentation/mobile/2002nei_mobile_nonroad_ 34. ARB Rail Yard Emissions Inventory Methodology (Sacramento, CA: methods.pdf (accessed April 2009). California Air Resources Board, July 2006) www.arb.ca.gov/ 49. Draft Regulatory Impact Analysis: Control of Emissions from railyard/hra/hra.htm Compression-Ignition Marine Engines, EPA420-R-98-017 (Washing- 35. Smirti, Megan, Bo Zou, and Mark Hansen, "Greenhouse Gas ton, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, November 1998). Emissions Inventories in the Maritime Shipping and Aviation 50. Procedures for Emission Inventory Preparation, Volume IV: Mobile Sectors," University of California at Berkeley. Presented at the Sources, EPA-450/4-81-026d (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environ- 87th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, mental Protection Agency, 1989). Washington, D.C., January 13, 2008. 51. J. Corbett et al., Estimation, Validation, and Forecasts of Regional 36. Sector Strategies Program. Current Methodologies in Preparing Commercial Marine Vessel Inventories, Final Report (Sacramento, Mobile Source Port-Related Emission Inventories, Final Report CA: California Air Resources Board and Montreal: Commission (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, April for Environmental Cooperation in North America, April 2007) 2009). http://www.arb.ca.gov/research/seca/jcfinal.pdf 37. Kim, B., I. A. Waitz, M. Vigilante, and R. Bassarab, ACRP Report 11: 52. Airport Activity Statistics of Certificated Air Carriers (Washington, Guidebook on Preparing Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transporta- Inventories (Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, tion Statistics, 2001). April 2009). 53. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 19902008, 38. See Davis, S. and S. Diegel, Transportation Energy Data Book: Edi- EPA 430-R-10-006 (Washington, D.C., U.S. Environmental Pro- tion 24. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL-6973), December tection Agency, April 2010), Table 3-1. 2004, pp. 426 to 427, citing studies conducted by FHWA in 54. Environ International Corporation, Evaluation of the U.S. EPA 1973, 1984, and 1997. MOBILE6 Highway Vehicle Emission Factor Model, CRC Project 39. Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas E-64 (Alpharetta, GA: Coordinating Research Council, Inc., Inventories (Geneva, Switzerland: Intergovernmental Panel on March 2004) http://www.crcao.org/publications/emissions/ Climate Change, 1997), Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty index.html Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (Geneva, 55. Modeling Mobile-Source Emissions (Washington, D.C.: Trans- Switzerland: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2000), portation Research Board, National Research Council, Com- 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories mittee to Review EPA's Mobile Source Emissions Factor (Geneva, Switzerland: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate (MOBILE) Model, Board of Environmental Studies and Toxi- Change, 2006). cology, 2000). 40. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 19902008, 56. Emission and Air Quality Modeling Tools for Near-Roadway Appli- EPA 430-R-10-006 (Washington, D.C., U.S. Environmental Pro- cations, EPA-600-R-09-001 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmen- tection Agency, April 2010), Tables 3-12, 3-13, 3-14. tal Protection Agency, 2008). 41. "Economic Data: Financial and Statistical Reports," (Washington, 57. Delucchi, M., Analysis of Particulate Matter Emission Factors in the D.C.: Surface Transportation Board) http://www.stb.dot.gov/stb/ PART5 Model (University of California at Davis, 2000). industry/econ_reports.html 58. Sierra Research, Evaluation of MOBILE Models: MOBILE6.1 42. "Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 List of Hazardous Air Pollu- (PM), MOBILE6.2 (Toxics), and MOBILE6/CNG (Washington, tants" (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) D.C.: American Association of State Highway and Transportation http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/orig189.html (accessed April 2009). Officials, 2004). 43. Latest Findings on National Air Quality, Status and Trends through 59. Fleet Characterization Data for MOBILE6: Development and Use of 2006, EPA-454/R-07-007 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmen- Age Distributions, Average Annual Mileage Accumulation Rates,

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154 and Projected Vehicle Counts for Use in MOBILE6, EPA420-R-01- 78. Sierra Research Inc. and Larry Caretto, Revised Inventory Guid- 047 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ance for Locomotive Emissions. (Forest Park, GA: Southeastern 2001). State Air Resources Managers Inc., 2004) http://www.metro4- 60. Technical Guidance on the Use of MOBILE6.2 for Emission Inven- sesarm.org/pubs/railroad/FinalGuidance.pdf tory Preparation, EPA420-R-04-013 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Envi- 79. Booze-Allen and Hamilton Inc., Report on Locomotive Emission ronmental Protection Agency, August 2004). Inventory: Locomotive Emissions by County (Sacramento, CA: Cal- 61. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Chassis Dynamometer Testing for Emissions ifornia Air Resources Board, 1992). Inventory, Air Quality Modeling, Source Apportionment and Air 80. Proposed Emission Reduction Plan for Ports and Goods Movement Toxics Emission Inventory, CRC Report No. EE55/59 (Alpharetta, in California, Technical Supplement on Emission Inventory (Sacra- GA: Coordinating Research Council, Inc., August 2007). mento, CA: California Air Resources Board, 2006). 62. Sierra Research, Development of Speed Correction Cycles, EPA 81. Freight in America--A New National Picture (Washington, D.C.: Report m6spd001 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Pro- U.S. Department of Transportation, 2006) http://www.bts.gov/ tection Agency, 1997) http://www.epa.gov/otaq/models/mobile6/ publications/freight_in_america/ m6spd001.pdf 82. Technical Highlights--Emission Factors for Locomotives, EPA420- 63. Redistribution of Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Vehicle Miles Traveled F-97-051 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection in California, EMFAC Modeling Change Technical Memo (Sacra- Agency, December 1997). mento, CA: California Air Resources Board, 2006) 83. Starcrest Consulting Group, LLC, Port of Los Angeles Air Emissions 64. Jack Faucett Associates, Heavy-Duty Truck Populations, Activity Inventory for Calendar Year 2005, September 2007. and Usage Patterns, Contract No. 93-306 (Sacramento, CA: Cali- 84. Starcrest Consulting Group, LLC, 2002 Baseline Emissions Inven- fornia Air Resources Board, July 1998) http://www.arb.ca.gov/ tory (Long Beach, CA: Port of Long Beach, March 2004). research/apr/past/93-306.pdf 85. Starcrest Consulting, LLC, Puget Sound Maritime Air Emissions 65. A Roadmap to MOVES2004, EPA420-S-05-002 (Washington, Inventory (Seattle, WA: Puget Sound Maritime Air Forum, April D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, March 2005). 2007). 66. Draft Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) 2009. Software 86. Locomotive Emission Standards, Regulatory Support Document Design and Reference Manual, EPA-420-B-09-007 (Washington, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, March 2009). 1998). 67. Impact on Air Quality of Intermodal Freight Movement, Freight 87. Procedures for Emission Inventory Preparation. Volume VI Mobile Transportation Emissions Estimates (Task 4), memorandum to Sources (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Diane Turchetta (FHWA) from ICF, October 15, 2004. Agency, 1992). 68. Highway Capacity Manual 2000 (Washington, D.C.: Transporta- 88. Sierra Research, Development of Railroad Emission Inventory tion Research Board, National Research Council, 2000). Methodologies (Forest Park, GA: Southeastern States Air Resource 69. Cambridge Systematics and Jack Faucett Associates, NCHRP Managers, June 2004). Report 298: Truck Trip Generation Data--A Synthesis of Highway 89. Regulatory Impact Analysis--Control of Emissions of Air Pollution Practice (Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, 2001). from Locomotive Engines and Marine Compression Ignition Engines 70. Jessup, E., K. Casavant, and C. Lawson, Truck Trip Data Collection Less than 30 Liters per Cylinder, EPA420-R-08-001a (Washington, Methods--Final Report, SPR 343 (Oregon Department of Trans- D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, May 2008). portation and Federal Highway Administration, February 2004). 90. Guidance for Quantifying and Using Long-Duration Switch Yard 71. ICF International, Comparative Evaluation of Rail and Truck Fuel Locomotive Idling Emission Reductions in State Implementation Efficiency on Competitive Corridors (Washington, D.C.: Federal Plans, EPA420-B-04-002 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmen- Railroad Administration, November 2009) http://www.fra.dot. tal Protection Agency, January 2004). gov/Downloads/Comparative_Evaluation_Rail_Truck_Fuel_ 91. Association of American Railroads, Compilation of Individual Efficiency.pdf Class I Railroad Annual Report(s) R-1, multiple years. 72. Manual for Railway Engineering (Washington, D.C.: American 92. Thesing, K., Mannino, A., and Edwards, A., Nine Ports in the 49th Railway Engineering Association, 1993). State: Commercial Marine Inventory for Alaska. Presented at the 73. Procedures for Emission Inventory Preparation, Volume IV: Mobile 15th International Emission Inventory Conference, New Orleans, Sources, EPA420-R-92-009 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environ- LA, May 1518, 2006, http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/conference/ mental Protection Agency, 1992). ei15/session1/thesing.pdf 74. Energy Information Administration, Distillate Fuel Oil and 93. Starcrest Consulting Group, LLC, Update to the Commercial Kerosene Sales by End Use (Washington, D.C.: Department of Marine Inventory for Texas to Review Emissions Factors, Consider Energy, 2009) http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_821use_ a Ton-Mile EI Method and Revise Emissions for the Beaumont-Port dcu_nus_a.htm (accessed May 2009). Arthur Non-Attainment Area (Houston, TX: Houston Advanced 75. Technical Highlights: Emission Factors for Locomotives, EPA420-F- Research Center, January 2004). 97-051 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 94. Moffatt & Nichol, 2005 Port of Charleston Baseline Air Emissions 1997). Inventory (Charleston, SC: South Carolina Ports, September 76. Bureau of Transportation Statistics, National Transportation 2008). Atlas Database CD-ROM (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of 95. Area and Non-Road Emissions Inventory for the Corpus Christi Transportation, 2006). Regional Airshed (Houston, TX: Air Consulting and Engineering 77. 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155 97. Richard Harkins, Great Lakes Marine Air Emissions--We're Differ- 118. Current Methodologies in Preparing Mobile Source Port-Related ent Up Here! (Cleveland, Ohio: Cleveland Port Authority, October Emission Inventories, Final Report, Table 1-1 (Washington, D.C.: 2006). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, April 2009). 98. Environ International Corporation, LADCO 2005 Commercial 119. "Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Locomotive Engines Marine Emissions (De Plains, IL: Lake Michigan Air Director Con- and Marine Compression-Ignition Engines Less Than 30 Liters sortium, March 2007). per Cylinder," Federal Register 73, no. 126 (June 30, 2008): 37096, 99. Starcrest Consulting Group, LLC, Port of Los Angeles Inventory of http://www.epa.gov/EPA-AIR/2008/June/Day-30/a7999a.htm Air Emissions--2006 (Los Angeles, CA: Port of Los Angeles, July 120. Rulemaking to Consider the Adoption of Proposed Regulations to 2008). Reduce Emissions from Diesel Engines on Commercial Harbor 100. Starcrest Consulting Group, LLC, Port of Long Beach Air Emissions Craft Operated within California Waters and 24 Nautical Miles of Inventory--2007 (Long Beach, CA: Port of Long Beach, January the California Baseline, http://www.arb.ca.gov/regact/2007/chc07/ 2009). chc07.htm 101. Starcrest Consulting Group, LLC, The Port Authority of New York 121. Commercial Marine Emissions Inventory for EPA Category 2 and 3 and New Jersey 2006 Baseline Multi-Facility Emissions Inventory of Compression Ignition Marine Engines in the United States and Con- Cargo Handling Equipment, Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles, Railroad tinental Waterways, EPA420-R-98-020 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Locomotives and Commercial Marine Vessels (New York, NY: Port Environmental Protection Agency, August 1998) http://www. Authority of New York and New Jersey, November 2008). epa.gov/otaq/regs/nonroad/marine/ci/fr/r98020.pdf 102. Environ International Corporation, Port of Oakland 2005 Seaport 122. "Final Regulatory Impact Analysis: Control of Emissions from Air Emissions Inventory (Oakland, CA: Port of Oakland, March Marine Diesel Engines, Chapter 5," EPA-420-R-99-026 (Wash- 2008). ington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Novem- 103. Bridgewater Group and CH2M Hill, Inc., Port of Portland Calen- ber 1999) http://www.epa.gov/otaq/regs/nonroad/marine/ci/ dar Year 2000 Baseline Air Emission Inventory (Portland, WA: Port fr/ria.pdf of Portland, April 2005). 123. See Starcrest Consulting Group, LLC, Puget Sound Maritime Air 104. Starcrest Consulting Group, LLC, Puget Sound Maritime Air Forum Maritime Air Emissions Inventory, April 2007; Entec UK Emissions Inventory (Seattle, WA: Puget Sound Maritime Air Limited, Quantification of Emissions from Ships Associated with Forum, April 2007). Ship Movements between Ports in the European Community, July 105. Starcrest Consulting Group, LLC, The Port of San Diego 2006 2002; NOx limits adopted by the International Maritime Organi- Emissions Inventory (San Diego, CA: Unified Port of San Diego, zation in Annex VI to the International Convention for Prevention March 2008). of Pollution from Ships (1997); and EPA, Final Regulatory Impact 106. Merchant Seaman Protection and Relief, 46 USCS Appx 688, Analysis: Control of Emissions from Marine Diesel Engines, EPA420- Title 46, Appendix. Shipping Chapter 18, 2002. R-99-026, November 1999. 107. ICF International, Inventory Contribution of U.S. Flagged Vessels, 124. Summary available at http://www.arb.ca.gov/ports/marinevess/ EPA-420-R-09-005 (Washington, D.C.: Environmental Protec- documents/chcfactsheet0508.pdf tion Agency, March 2009). 125. Appendix B: Emissions Estimation Methodology for Commercial Har- 108. See http://www.lrfairplay.com/Maritime_data/ships.html bor Craft Operating in California (Sacramento, CA: California Air 109. 2005 Oceangoing Ship Survey, Summary of Results (Sacramento, Resources Board, September 2007) http://www.arb.ca.gov/regact/ CA: California Air Resources Board, September 2005). 2007/chc07/appb.pdf 110. Starcrest Consulting Group, LLC, Port of Los Angeles Baseline Air 126. See http://www.arb.ca.gov/diesel/documents/harborcraft.htm Emissions Inventory--2001 (Port of Los Angeles, July 2005). 127. Statewide Commercial Harbor Craft Survey, Final Report (Sacra- 111. Entec UK Limited, Quantification of Emissions from Ships Associ- mento, CA: California Air Resources Board, March 2004) ated with Ship Movements between Ports in the European Commu- http://www.arb.ca.gov/ports/marinevess/documents/hcsurvey nity (Brussels, Belgium: European Commission, July 2002). rep0304.pdf 112. D. Cooper and T. Gustafsson, Methodology for Calculating Emis- 128. Statewide Commercial Harbor Craft Survey, Final Report (Sacra- sions from Ships: 1. Update of Emission Factors (Uppsala, Sweden: mento, CA: California Air Resources Board, March 2004, Swedish Methodology for Environmental Data, February 2004). pp B-24B-25) http://www.arb.ca.gov/ports/marinevess/docu 113. Energy and Environmental Analysis Inc., Analysis of Commercial ments/hcsurveyrep0304.pdf Marine Vessels Emissions and Fuel Consumption Data, EPA420-R- 129. Starcrest Consulting Group, LLC, Houston-Galveston Area Vessel 00-002 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Emissions Inventory (HGAVEI) Study (Houston, TX: Texas Com- February 2000). mission on Environmental Quality, 2000). 114. ICF International, Current Methodologies in Preparing Mobile 130. Starcrest Consulting Group, LLC, Port of Long Beach Air Emissions Source Port-Related Emission Inventories (Washington, D.C.: Inventory--2005 (Long Beach, CA: Port of Long Beach, Septem- Environmental Protection Agency, April 2009). ber 2007). 115. ICF International, Commercial Marine Port Inventory Develop- 131. Starcrest Consulting Group, LLC, The New York, New Jersey, Long ment, 2002 and 2005 Inventories, EPA420-D-07-007 (Washington, Island Nonattainment Area Commercial Marine Vessel Emissions D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency, October 2007). Inventory (New York: Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, 116. ARCADIS, Commercial Marine Activity for Deep Sea Ports in the April 2003). United States, EPA420-R-99-020 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Envi- 132. Emissions Estimation Methodology for Commercial Harbor Craft ronmental Protection Agency, September 1999). Operating in California (Sacramento, CA: California Air Resources 117. ARCADIS, Commercial Marine Activity for Great Lake and Inland Board, September 2007). River Ports in the United States, EPA420-R-99-019 (Washington, 133. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterborne Commerce of the United D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, September 1999). States, http://www.iwr.usace.army.mil/ndc/data/dataclen.htm

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156 134. Calculation of Age Distribution in the NONROAD Model: Growth 155. Nonroad Engine Growth Estimates, EPA420-P-04-008, NR-008c and Scrappage, EPA420-P-04-007 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Envi- (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, revised ronmental Protection Agency, April 2004). April 2004). 135. See http://www.arb.ca.gov/msei/offroad/offroad.htm 156. Calculation of Age Distributions in the Nonroad Model: Growth and 136. Emission Estimation Methodology for Cargo Handling Equipment Scrappage. EPA420-P-04-007, NR-007b (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Operating at Ports and Intermodal Rail Yards in California, pre- Environmental Protection Agency, April 2004). sented at workgroup meeting, October 4, 2005, Sacramento, CA. 157. Summary and Analysis of Comments: Control of Emissions from 137. See inventory in Chapter 3 of Final Regulatory Analysis: Control Nonroad Diesel Engines, EPA420-R-04-008 (Washington, D.C.: of Emissions from Nonroad Diesel Engines, EPA420-R-04-007, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, May 2004). (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, May 158. Median Life, Annual Activity, and Load Factor Values for Nonroad 2004) http://www.epa.gov/nonroad-diesel/2004fr/420r04007.pdf Engine Emissions Modeling, EPA420-P-02-014, NR-005b (Wash- 138. Enforcement of the Mobile Cargo Handling Equipment Regulation at ington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, December Ports and Intermodal Rail Yards (Sacramento, CA: California Air 2002). Resources Board, February 2007) http://www.arb.ca.gov/enf/advs/ 159. Exhaust and Crankcase Emission Factors for Nonroad Engine advs361.pdf Modeling--Compression-Ignition, EPA420-P-04-009, NR-009c 139. 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