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NCFRP NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 4 Sponsored by the Research and Innovative Technology Representing Freight Administration in Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Models
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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of July 2010.
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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM NCFRP REPORT 4 Representing Freight in Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Models Louis Browning Cristiano Façanha Andrew Papson Jeff Ang-Olson Seth Hartley Ed Carr ICF INTERNATIONAL Fairfax, VA Subscriber Categories Aviation · Energy · Environment · Freight Transportation · Highways Marine Transportation · Motor Carriers · Railroads · Vehicles and Equipment Research sponsored by the Research and Innovative Technology Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org
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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT NCFRP REPORT 4 RESEARCH PROGRAM America's freight transportation system makes critical contributions Project NCFRP-16 to the nation's economy, security, and quality of life. The freight ISSN 1947-5659 transportation system in the United States is a complex, decentralized, ISBN 978-0-309-15481-9 and dynamic network of private and public entities, involving all Library of Congress Control Number 2010929939 modes of transportation--trucking, rail, waterways, air, and pipelines. © 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. In recent years, the demand for freight transportation service has been increasing fueled by growth in international trade; however, bottlenecks or congestion points in the system are exposing the COPYRIGHT INFORMATION inadequacies of current infrastructure and operations to meet the Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining growing demand for freight. Strategic operational and investment written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously decisions by governments at all levels will be necessary to maintain published or copyrighted material used herein. freight system performance, and will in turn require sound technical Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this guidance based on research. publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, The National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) is FMCSA, FTA, RITA, or PHMSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. a cooperative research program sponsored by the Research and It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not- Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) under Grant No. for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. DTOS59-06-G-00039 and administered by the Transportation Research Board (TRB). The program was authorized in 2005 with the passage of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). On September 6, 2006, a contract to NOTICE begin work was executed between RITA and The National Academies. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Freight The NCFRP will carry out applied research on problems facing the Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. freight industry that are not being adequately addressed by existing The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this research programs. report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Program guidance is provided by an Oversight Committee comprised The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to of a representative cross section of freight stakeholders appointed by procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. the National Research Council of The National Academies. The NCFRP Oversight Committee meets annually to formulate the research The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. funding levels and expected products. Research problem statements The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research recommending research needs for consideration by the Oversight Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Freight Research Program do not Committee are solicited annually, but may be submitted to TRB at any endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely time. Each selected project is assigned to a panel, appointed by TRB, because they are considered essential to the object of the report. which provides technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. Heavy emphasis is placed on including members representing the intended users of the research products. The NCFRP will produce a series of research reports and other products such as guidebooks for practitioners. Primary emphasis will be placed on disseminating NCFRP results to the intended end-users of the research: freight shippers and carriers, service providers, suppliers, and public officials. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America
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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCFRP REPORT 4 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer Charlotte Thomas, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor NCFRP PROJECT 16 PANEL Christina S. Casgar, San Diego Association of Governments, San Diego, CA (Chair) Eric Garshick, US Department of Veterans Affairs, West Roxbury, MA Virginia "Ginny" Hessenauer, Moraga, CA Robert G. Ireson, Air Quality Management Consulting, Greenbrae, CA Lynn Jonell Soporowski, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort, KY Mark Stehly, BNSF Railway Company, Ft. Worth, TX Thomas H. Wakeman, III, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ Gary L. Whicker, J.B. Hunt Transport, Inc., Lowell, AR William Chernicoff, RITA Liaison Michael M. Johnsen, FMCSA Liaison Diana J. Bauer, US Department of Energy Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison
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FOREWORD By William C. Rogers Staff Officer Transportation Research Board NCFRP Report 4: Representing Freight in Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Models pre- sents an evaluation of the current methods used to generate air emissions information from all freight transportation activities and discusses their suitability for purposes such as health and climate risk assessments, prioritization of emission reduction activities (e.g., through State Implementation Plans), and public education. The report is especially valuable for (1) its identification of the state of the practice, gaps, and strengths and limitations of current emissions data estimates and methods and (2) its conceptual model that offers a compre- hensive representation of freight activity by all transportation modes and relationships between modes. This report will better inform the near-term needs of public and private stakeholders regarding the quality of emissions data and guide future research that links freight activities with air emissions. An efficient and robust freight transportation system is essential to the continued eco- nomic well-being of the United States. Demand for freight transportation has been grow- ing rapidly, but that growth has conflicted with concerns about the health effects of air pol- lution and greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming. For instance, according to the Environmental Protection Agency, transportation-related activities account for 28% of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Further, as freight movement con- tinues to grow, its emissions will account for a greater share of the transportation sector's carbon footprint. Although there are known data limitations, including the lack of actual emissions measurements to validate model estimates, given concern over public health, decisionmakers at all levels of government are proceeding with efforts to regulate emissions, often through freight operations controls. Under NCFRP Project 16, ICF International was asked to 1. Describe the current state of practice for estimating freight air emissions; 2. Catalog existing data and data sources used to define categories of freight transportation- related air emissions; 3. Describe the strengths and limitations of current methods, models, and data; 4. Identify and assess alternative measurement techniques, data sources, and approaches that can enhance the utility and quality of emissions calculations for freight transporta- tion; 5. Develop a conceptual model for freight transportation activities that reflects current understanding and anticipated improvements in data and analytical methods relating freight transportation activity to emissions; and 6. Identify future opportunities for improving accuracy and reducing uncertainty in freight activity and emission data across all modes.
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CONTENTS 1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction and Research Summary 3 1.1 Objective 3 1.2 Report Organization 3 1.3 Study Framework 4 1.4 Pollutants of Concern 5 1.5 Application of Freight Emissions 5 1.6 Evaluation of Current Methods 14 1.7 Conceptual Model 15 1.8 Recommended Research Areas 16 Chapter 2 Application of Freight Emissions 16 2.1 National- and State-Scale Applications 18 2.2 Regional-Scale Applications 22 2.3 Project-Scale Applications 30 Chapter 3 Evaluation of Current Methods 30 3.1 General Methods 33 3.2 National Methods 45 3.3 Heavy-Duty Trucks 62 3.4 Rail 72 3.5 Waterborne/Ocean-Going Vessels 80 3.6 Waterborne/Harbor Craft 89 3.7 Cargo Handling Equipment 103 3.8 Air Transportation 109 3.9 Air Quality 116 Chapter 4 Conceptual Model 116 4.1 Model Overview and Uses 117 4.2 Freight Modeling 120 4.3 Model Scope and Structure 137 4.4 Case Study 141 Chapter 5 Recommended Research Areas 141 5.1 Improving the Allocation of National Transportation Emissions 143 5.2 Refining Road Project-Level Emission Estimates Methodologies 145 5.3 Improving Rail Activity Data for Emission Calculations 146 5.4 Improving Parameters and Methodologies for Estimating Marine Goods Movement Emissions 148 5.5 Improving Air Freight Emission Calculations 151 Appendix A Pedigree Matrix 152 References 158 Acronyms