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thority. Similar to California, West Virginia DOT Regional Commission (ARC), and CAC--a not-for- stated in the survey that they encouraged their MPOs profit travel options program. The Framework guided to incorporate TDM into their activities. the expansion of TDM services in Georgia and con- tinues to serve as a living document that is meant to be revised and updated according to the needs of the What Are Some Implementation Steps region. or Tips for State DOTs? Based on our research, we identified several Match Your TDM Message strategies for starting or improving a statewide TDM to Your TDM Challenges approach. Not all of these will apply to all states and While there are a number of common messages their circumstances, but they can be improvements that are often promoted within TDM programs, there to consider. is no cookie-cutter approach to understanding TDM motivating forces and creating the right TDM mes- Create a Department-level Strategic Plan for TDM saging. Each state has its own unique geography and Developing a strategic plan for TDM helps sets transportation challenges. TDM initiatives represent the stage for more formal adoption of TDM strategies an opportunity to tailor messaging to address these department-wide. These sorts of strategic plans can unique challenges and concerns. In Georgia, air qual- guide the goals and policies of a DOT pursuing TDM ity has been a very important issue, because of non- strategies, and help to formalize the process. A strate- attainment area status. As a result, GDOT's marketing gic plan typically includes goals, objectives, strategies, materials stress that challenge, focusing on what At- and performance metrics. NJDOT is currently devel- lantans can do to improve air quality. At MassDOT, oping a TDM Strategic Plan to capitalize on relatively the focus is on traffic congestion through MassRIDES, new topics in TDM, such as school-age outreach and emphasizing the travel time lost and quality-of-life assistance to disabled populations.26 Some other items degradation. At UDOT, new programs are pitching for consideration in the strategic plan include looking energy conservation, because this message appeals at ways to improve access to transit for seniors, reach- to the residents of Utah. In New Jersey, the mes- ing out to underserved areas in the counties (such as sage is further refined within each TMA, tailoring more rural areas), and improving bicycle and pedes- each TMA's workplan to the specific local needs. trian safety.27 Over the next year, NJDOT staff, as well As a fundamental component of the NJDOT TMA as external stakeholders from NJ Transit, metropolitan program, this approach allows for marketing to planning organizations, and businesses, will discuss be targeted based on development context issues how best to help NJDOT determine how and where to (i.e., urban, suburban, and rural). Although many of invest its TDM funds.28 By linking in department these motivating forces are similar, it is important goals and evaluation metrics, the strategic plan will to make sure the TDM messages match the concerns assist the department in making decisions for the state of residents; these concerns may differ by state and about which strategies to pursue.29 the various conditions of individual metropolitan Other states, like GDOT, engaged a multi-agency areas or sub-areas. stakeholder group to develop a strategic plan, called A Framework for Cooperation to Reduce Traffic Leverage Smaller, Targeted Practices as First Steps Congestion and Improve Air Quality, which essen- Around the country, the foundations of strong tially functions as the DOT's TDM strategic plan. TDM programs have been built around small pilot The Framework was designed by a variety of organi- initiatives and small successes. DOTs often start zations, including GDOT, Georgia Environmental TDM programs modestly, and then build and tweak. Protection Division (EPD), Georgia Regional Trans- Some DOTs use TMAs and/or TDM organizations as portation Authority (GRTA), nine TMAs, the Atlanta incubators for TDM strategies. Some even provide annual funding for innovative programs to stimulate outside-of-the-box thinking. Many of the programs 26 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. started with simple vanpool or employer outreach 27 Phone interview with Lori Diggins, Consultant, 10/21/2009. programs, such as New Jersey's nascent employer 28 Phone interview with Lori Diggins, Consultant, 10/21/2009. trip reduction program growing into its TMA pro- 29 Phone interview with Lori Diggins, Consultant, 10/21/2009. gram today. Others are using targeted campaigns to 11

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try out new marketing techniques such as Cash for Leverage the Value of "Feet on the Street" Commuters in Atlanta, which started as an experi- mental campaign. UDOT leveraged a 6-week com- The "feet on the street" are the people that are muter challenge to help launch its TravelWise brand going to carry TDM messaging to the communities. as a permanent TDM clearinghouse. They are the "sales force" that promotes travel options, builds partnerships, educates the public, and moti- Start or Support a Vanpool Program vates them to change travel behaviors. The "feet on the street" are the key to networking, and can help Vanpools are ideal TDM programs to initiate and identify champions among the public and business support, and perfect for suburban travelers with communities to take the message further and carry longer commutes of 15 miles or more. Vanpool leas- your cause. This allows for the program to become ing agents and providers are well versed in track- "viral," as the champions and partners help deliver ing participants and VMT reductions and can guide the TDM message and sustain the outreach strategies DOTs and TDM organizations in the ins and outs of through word-of-mouth, partner websites, speaking funding mechanisms. Vanpool programs are effective opportunities, and events and mailings. In many states, in that they reduce significant VMT while filling the such as New Jersey, TMAs function in this role. In gaps in public transit. In many cases, such as in New Georgia and Utah, it is a combination of local organi- Jersey and Utah, vanpools are the longest running zations (for example, TMAs and the transit authority). components of their well-established programs. In California, this component is completely controlled by the MPO. Vanpool Incentives Consolidate Ridematching with One Vendor If There Are Multiple Transportation Management Washington State DOT (WSDOT) funded a new Associations (TMAs) telework pilot project in Kitsap County, which Given scarce fiscal resources, having one ride- resulted in the creation of a comprehensive matching system is often more efficient than having online Telework Toolkit for employers and employees. The project also developed a multiple ridematching systems in the same area. Community Template to help local organizers MassDOT has recognized this and embraced a con- launch telework efforts in their area.30 Further- solidated ridematching system with the state's TMAs. more, WSDOT's subsidy of the statewide Van- Through the new MOU between MassDOT and pool Investment Program, established in 2003 MassCommute, the statewide association of TMAs, to guide vanpool program development and this partnership aims to streamline and improve co- manage vanpool grants, has helped transit agen- operation for TDM services in the Commonwealth, cies almost double their vanpool ridership.31 Part where a single statewide ridematching system is in- of the I-405 Kirkland Nickel Stage 1 Widening tegral.33 One purpose of this MOU is to eliminate the Project utilizes this TDM vanpool strategy, duplication of services and centralize those services which has reduced an estimated 65,500 to that are better provided at a state level.34 In addition, 101,100 annual one-way trips from March 2006 because of the MOU, instead of expending resources through October 2007.32 (both personnel and financial) in areas covered by the TMAs, these resources can be used to expand pro- grams that support mobility for an aging population, and to develop TDM programs related to special 30 Kitsap Telework Pilot Project, 2009 Report to the Legisla- events in the Commonwealth.35 ture, Washington State DOT, http://www.teleworktoolkit.com/ library/Telework_Project_Report.pdf, accessed 10/19/2009. 31 Status Report on Vanpool Grant Program, http://www.wsdot. 33 wa.gov/TDM/Vanpool/grantStatus.htm, accessed 10/9/2009. Memorandum of Understanding between the Executive Of- 32 Construction Traffic Mitigation Demand Management: 1-405 fice of Transportation and Public Works and Transportation Kirkland Nickel Stage 1, Washington State DOT, http://www. Management Associations, June 2008, provided via email by wsdot.wa.gov/NR/rdonlyres/778E3AE1-D8A7-436E-AFBB- Jim Cope, MassDOT, on 11/13/2009. 34 Follow-up phone call with Jim Cope, MassDOT, 11/18/2009. A307A3F6B4F4/58819/20090714_I405_Kirkland_TDM_ 35 Follow-up email from Andrea Leary, MassComute, 12/7/2009. Performance_Report.pdf, accessed 11/20/2009. 12