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The survey was not conclusive about the TDM research team evaluated and analyzed the nature of budgets and staff, primarily because 39 percent of the programs described in the survey in order to nar- respondents did not know about the budget and row the selection of states for further study. In se- 45 percent of respondents either did not know the lecting case study recommendations, the team used number of full-time employees or indicated that the the following evaluation factors: status of the state question was not applicable. Of those that were DOT as a champion of TDM programs, variation in aware of their budget amount (23 states/32 percent), the state DOT's role and program structure, variation most spend either $100,000 to $500,000 (16 percent in geographic area, variation in population, variation of those states) or $1 to $5 million (16 percent of those in population density/urban context, willingness of states) annually. A list of these states is available the state DOT staff to participate in case study inter- in Appendix A (not published herein). The greatest views, and accessibility of additional information number of state DOTs (15) also indicated that they online. had between one and five TDM employees (full- The researchers then followed a structured case time equivalents), approximately 39 percent. Nine study process, including general research review and state DOTs (24 percent) responded that they were un- a minimum of two 30-minute phone interviews, one aware of an exact number, primarily because the TDM of which was with the state DOT contact. Some top- work is spread across so many regions. These results ics covered during the phone interview included: imply that there is often no clear, standard position · Role of the State--includes greater detail about for TDM at the state level. the state's role in TDM, the history of the role, The three state DOTs that did not identify a role the initial and current challenges, and any in TDM explained that their states are too rural, so changes planned for the program. congestion is not a serious enough problem to jus- · Program Organization--including greater de- tify additional staffing or funding to address TDM at tail about the program organization, especially the state level. regarding inter-agency and public/private co- Seventeen state DOTs with a role in TDM re- operation, the funding amount and sources, and ported that the state is considering changing its role performance results to date. toward TDM (approximately 45 percent of those with · Notable Practices and Lessons Learned-- a role in TDM). The large number of state DOTs including greater detail on the notable prac- already actively considering a change in role indi- tices, benefits and disadvantages of program cates that states are interested in learning more about design, challenges to the program's success, opportunities, benefits, and options for programs, and recommendations for other states. whether they are decentralized or statewide. The state DOTs interested in changing their role are Arizona, The following is a discussion of the five state California, Connecticut, Georgia, Indiana, Iowa, DOTs identified for further review as case studies: Louisiana, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Georgia, Utah, and New York, Ohio, South Carolina, Utah, Virginia, California. Washington, and West Virginia. Nearly all survey respondents provided detailed Massachusetts Department responses for each open-ended question, allowing of Transportation (MassDOT) for a unique perspective on each state DOT's pro- grams. The research team used these additional de- As in many other states, traffic congestion in tails to recommend case studies for development, as Massachusetts has been getting worsevehicles described in the next section. miles traveled have increased nearly 200 percent over the last 20 years with lanes only up 120 percent.42 While there has been very little population growth CHAPTER 5 CASE STUDIES The results of the survey helped the researchers to identify possible case study candidates for more 42The State of the Commonwealth's Transportation System in-depth research. After compiling the survey results, Power Point, 4/30/2009, http://youmovemassachusetts.org/ the team conducted additional web research to sup- reform_stateofcommtranspsystem_043009.pdf, p. 2, accessed plement the information provided in the survey. The 11/18/2009. 15
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since 2000, older residents as a percentage will grow began in the late 1970s with a statewide travel options rapidly, presenting a new challenge to travel needs.43 program, the Caravan for Commuters vanpool pro- The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is also facing gram.48 This program was created in response to the underfunding issues, with a projected $15 to $19 bil- energy crises of that time; now it is expanding toward lion in transportation expense over the next 20 years greater employer outreach and public information/ and very little ability to increase infrastructure.44 education. However, major capacity expansion is difficult Currently, the Commonwealth manages, designs, because of the property requirements, environmental and implements a statewide travel options program impacts, and costs of capital investment in the trans- called MassRIDES, which focuses on state-level portation system.45 TDM marketing and services (e.g., ridematching, Massachusetts Department of Transportation's employer outreach, vanpool support). MassRIDES' (MassDOT's) roots in travel demand management statewide efforts are complemented by MassCom- mute's work as an independent group of TMAs. Gen- erally, the TMAs in MassCommute provide TDM ser- vices in specific geographic areas. For those areas not Key Information covered by a TMA, MassRIDES provides services.49 See Figure 2. Annual Funding: $3.5 million (80 percent Con- gestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement [CMAQ], 20 percent state match from state transportation fund)46 Lead Department at the DOT: Office of Trans- MassDOT portation Planning Number of Full-Time Employees: 17 staff (in- cluding contractors but excluding TMA staff)47 Other Major Partners: WalkBoston, Mass- Bike, MassCommute (the state association of TMAs) Contact for More Information: MassRIDES MOU MassCommute James Cope Massachusetts DOT Office of Transportation Planning Phone: (617) 973-7043 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: http://www.commute.com/ TMAs 43 Massachusetts EOT Long Range Transportation Plan, 2006, http://www.eot.state.ma.us/default.asp?pgid=content/longplan Index&sid=level2, p. 5, accessed 10/9/2009. Figure 2 Organization chart of TDM services in 44 Governor's Press Release on Comprehensive Transporta- Massachusetts.50 tion Reform, February 20, 2009 http://www.mass.gov/?page ID=gov3terminal&L=3&L0=Home&L1=Media+Center&L2= Speeches&sid=Agov3&b=terminalcontent&f=text_2009-02- 20_trans&csid=Agov3, accessed 10/8/2009. 48 Phone interview with Jim Cope, MassDOT, 10/9/2009. 45 Follow-up email from Jim Cope, MassDOT, 12/15/2009. 49 Phone interview with Matt Grymek, MASCO TMA, 46 Follow-up phone call with Jim Cope, MassDOT, 11/18/2009. 11/18/2009. 47 Phone interview with Jim Cope, MassDOT, 10/9/2009. 50 Developed based on conversations with Jim Cope, MassDOT. 16
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Coordination between the Commonwealth, Transportation, the consolidation of different state MassRIDES, and MassCommute is affected by agencies and various divisions with EOT, and the an MOU that was executed in 2008 between the creation of a dedicated transportation fund.52 The Executive Office of Transportation (EOT)--now goal of the reorganization is to address fiscal chal- MassDOT, and MassCommute. This memorandum lenges, simplify bureaucracy, and improve trans- aims to streamline and improve cooperation for TDM portation services.53 services in the Commonwealth. Within the MOU, These changes should have beneficial impacts the Commonwealth and MassCommute agreed that on the delivery of TDM services in Massachusetts, they will: and complement the existing MassRIDES statewide · Promote a single, statewide ridematching travel options program managed by MassDOT. One purpose of this MOU is to eliminate the duplication system. · Encourage new and existing MassRIDES part- of services and centralize those services that are bet- ter provided at the state level.54 Together, they have ners located in TMA areas to join TMAs. · Cross-promote and invite one another to events also committed to consider establishing new TMAs in targeted under-served areas.55 for employer outreach. · Shift MassRIDES emergency ride home part- MassRIDES ners in TMA areas to TMA GRH services. · Host an annual promotional event.51 MassRIDES is a statewide travel options pro- gram that provides information for commuters and employers on ways to reduce commuting costs and improve air quality.56 The goal of the program is TDM Services Offered to help employers and commuters find alternative through MassRIDES modes in order to reduce traffic congestion and pol- lution.57 The program is operated by 17 staff mem- · Local, technical assistance to employers bers under a contract to MassDOT that is overseen · Ridematching services by the MassDOT Office of Transportation's Sustain- · Emergency ride home services able Transportation unit.58 To maintain a statewide · Marketing and promotional materials on TDM presence, MassRIDES has its main office at the Mass- · Safe Routes to School DOT headquarters, as well as branch offices in the · Management of some TMA contracts Berkshires in western Massachusetts and Cape Cod in · Coordination and collaboration with southeastern Massachusetts.59 MassRIDES is funded MassCommute TMAs · Vanpool assistance 52 Governor's Press Release on Comprehensive Transporta- tion Reform, February 20, 2009, http://www.mass.gov/?page ID=gov3terminal&L=3&L0=Home&L1=Media+Center&L2= The relationships between these TDM actors (the Speeches&sid=Agov3&b=terminalcontent&f=text_2009-02- Commonwealth, MassRIDES, MassCommute, and 20_trans&csid=Agov3, accessed 10/8/2009. the TMAs) are also expected to be influenced by a 53 Reform and Renew, You Move Massachusetts, http://youmove new state transportation overhaul. In February 2009, massachusetts.org/reform.html, accessed 10/8/2009. Governor Patrick issued a comprehensive reform 54 Follow-up phone call with Jim Cope, MassDOT, 11/18/2009. plan to improve the organization of the transporta- 55 Memorandum of Understanding between the Executive Office tion system. The relevant components of the plan in- of Transportation and Public Works and Transportation Man- clude the creation of a consolidated Department of agement Associations, June 2008, provided via email by Jim Cope, MassDOT on 11/13/2009. 56 MassRIDES webpage, http://www.commute.com/about. shtml, accessed 10/8/2009. 51 57 MassRIDES webpage, http://www.commute.com/about. Memorandum of Understanding between the Executive Office of Transportation and Public Works and Transportation Man- shtml, accessed 10/8/2009. 58 Phone interview with Jim Cope, MassDOT, 10/9/2009. agement Associations, June 2008, provided via email by Jim 59 Phone interview with Jim Cope, MassDOT, 10/9/2009. Cope, MassDOT on 11/13/2009. 17
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through Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality and businesses.66 Staff members handle the outreach, Improvement (CMAQ), with the Commonwealth's meet with schools, provide technical assistance, and 20 percent match from the transportation fund.60 conduct surveys on behavior change.67 Centralized funding and management of MassRIDES Once schools have participated in the education is intended to minimize delay and maximize efficiency and encouragement program for a year, they are el- for administration of the contract.61 igible for an infrastructure assessment at no cost, in which a team conducts an inventory to identify new sidewalk facilities needed to improve safety. For in- stance, working with the MassDOT's planning and design consultant on the Jackson Street School in- MassRIDES 2008 Results62 frastructure assessment, MassRIDES helped the city of Northhampton to evaluate its needs, which in- · Generated 74 new partnerships with busi- cluded establishing a connecting ramp from Jackson nesses and community organizations Street to a bike trail, which is now used regularly for · Implemented 71 new programs (e.g., ride- students to bike to school.68 Over the past 5 years, matching, GRH) at partner worksites MassRIDES worked with 269 schools in 101com- · Maintained a ridematching database of over munities, reaching over 120,000 elementary and 15,400 travelers looking for options to driving middle school students and their parents.69 The team alone63 coordinates two annual Walk to School Days, re- · Manages a vanpool fleet, with a current cently conducted the third annual forum for schools ridership of 684 commuters in 57 vans, to share lessons learned, and provided safety train- achieving an annual VMT reduction of ing sessions.70 15,409,400 miles64 MassCommute and Transportation Management Associations (TMAs) MassCommute is a group of 11 private, non- The program includes a statewide ridematching profit TMAs. They are primarily clustered in eastern database, an employer outreach program, emergency Massachusetts, particularly in the Boston area. The ride home services, and regional marketing to promote group works together to leverage public and private alternative modes (see Figure 3). funds to increase the use of ridesharing and other One strong outreach effort focuses on their commuting alternatives that reduce traffic conges- Safe Routes to Schools program. Although this is tion and improve air quality across the state.71 The a federal program, MassDOT has created a uniquely TMAs that make up the MassCommute group in- strong program in connection with MassRIDES. clude five urban TMAs in Boston and Cambridge What makes it different from other Safe Routes to that serve a specific business area, as well as six School programs is that staff is operating it entirely suburban TMAs.72 The group represents nearly statewide.65 This program uses an approach very 300 employers and 25 cities. The services offered similar to the outreach approach used for employers by some of the TMAs include financial incentives 60 Follow-up phone call with Jim Cope, MassDOT, 11/18/2009. 61 66 Phone interview with Jim Cope, MassDOT, 10/9/2009. Phone interview with Jim Cope, MassDOT, 10/9/2009. 62 2008 MassRIDES Annual Report, provided via email by Jim 67 Phone interview with Jim Cope, MassDOT, 10/9/2009. Cope, MassDOT on 11/10/2009. 68 Phone interview with Jim Cope, MassDOT, 10/9/2009. 63 Commonwealth Conversations: Transportation, April 2009, 69 Follow-up email from Jim Cope, MassDOT, 12/15/2009. http://transportation.blog.state.ma.us/blog/2009/04/massrides. 70 2008 MassRIDES Annual Report, provided via email by Jim html, accessed 10/8/2009. Cope, MassDOT on 11/10/2009. 64 Commonwealth Conversations: Transportation, April 2009, 71 MassCommute Mission, http://www.masscommute.com/mass http://transportation.blog.state.ma.us/blog/2009/04/massrides. commute_mission.htm, accessed 10/8/2009. html, accessed 10/8/2009. 72 MassCommute TMA Directory, http://www.masscommute. 65 Phone interview with Jim Cope, MassDOT, 10/9/2009. com/tma_directory.htm, accessed 10/8/2009. 18
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Figure 3 MassRIDES homepage. for carpools, vanpools, and transit; assistance with the rideshare regulation for Department of Environmen- "The MetroWest/495 TMA played a key role in tal Regulation; shuttle service; and ridematching.73 initiating the process that yielded the Southbor- TMAs in Massachusetts develop and promote alter- ough shuttle system, which connects the new native transportation programs that support their MBTA commuter rail station with businesses members' and communities' concerns regarding ac- in Marlborough and Westborough. The organi- cess and congestion, environmental/sustainability zation and the business leaders who financially goals, economic development, and land-use plan- support it are strong advocates for providing ning. To that end, core value-added services pro- alternatives to driving alone. Their commitment vided by TMAs for their members include GRH helps alleviate traffic congestion and improve programs, advocacy, sustainability programs, and a air quality."75 variety of cycling/ pedestrian programs, roundtables, -William J. Mauro, Former Mayor, and seminars.74 City of Marlborough 73 MassCommute TMA Services, http://www.masscommute. 75 com/tma_services.htm, accessed 10/8/2009. MassCommute Look Who's Talking about TMAs, http:// 74 Follow-up email from Andrea Leary, MassCommute, www.masscommute.com/masscommute_people.htm, accessed 12/7/2009. 10/8/2009. 19
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Most TMAs in MassCommute began with fund- allowing the state to reap the benefit of approximately ing from CMAQ and have become mostly self- $12 million annual in private investment to support sustaining based on private funding.76 One rela- TDM in the Commonwealth.83 tively new TMA, North Shore TMA, began with In addition to traditional TDM services, some funding provided by the Boston Region MPO's TMAs also provide assistance with the Massachu- Suburban Mobility Funding Program.77 TMAs in setts Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) MassCommute generate their own funding through rideshare reports, in which large employers are re- employer dues, shuttle operations, parking lots, quired to report how they will reduce congestion. In member dues, and other types of contracts.78 Mass- fact, the state has a rideshare regulation that requires Commute has raised a substantial amount in private many businesses with at least 250 commuters and investment.79 education facilities with 1,000 or more commuters The TMAs are mostly geographically focused, to develop plans and set goals for reducing the num- largely due to their history as employer-based orga- ber of times commuters drive alone to work or school nizations. Many of them still focus on employer out- by 25 percent.84 As part of this process, each organi- reach, but they are not restricted solely to employer zation must: activities. The format of each TMA depends on · Survey current commuter patterns, their members' needs and funding structure. For · Identify available commuting options, instance, the TMA known as CommuteWorks is · Set goals for reducing drive-alone trips, funded through MASCOT, a community improve- · Offer options and incentives for reducing drive- ment district. The community improvement district is alone trips, and formed by employers in the Longwood Medical and · Review how commuter patterns change as a Academic Area. MassCommute TMAs look for ways result. to improve and help one another.80 MassCommute hosts roundtables with public agencies, including Other State Activities Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, to dis- cuss new ideas in TDM.81 In addition to managing MassRIDES, MassDOT For some TMAs, using MassRIDES services has also contributes to other TDM activities. One way it increased efficiency, and so it is expected that the contributes is through the state's environmental re- MOU will continue to streamline TDM processes in view process for large projects, which may include a the Commonwealth. MassRIDES handles the ven- negotiated agreement that incorporates TDM, be- dors, which means that there is one less step for tween the developer and MassDOT to mitigate traf- the TMA.82 The MOU has been described as very fic impacts. These are quite common and a normal efficiency-driven--allowing the DOT and TMAs to part of the process. Currently, MassDOT is looking look for ways to work together in a non-competitive for ways to improve TDM integration into projects manner while avoiding duplication of services and and with the state's 511 traveler information service.85 Another area of promotion is through its park-and-ride program, which now includes 25 lots.86 MassDOT oversees the usage of the lots and has developed pro- 76 Phone interview with Andrea Leary, MassCommute, posals for expansion when necessary.87 11/20/2009. MassDOT also promotes TDM through its inter- 77 Phone interview with Andrea Leary, MassCommute, actions with MPOs. MassDOT has overseen the 11/20/2009. Boston Region MPO's Suburban Mobility and TDM 78 Phone interview with Matt Grymek, MASCO TMA, programs, funded at $650,000 per year through 11/18/2009. 79 Follow-up email from Andrea Leary, MassCommute, 12/7/2009. 80 Phone interview with Matt Grymek, MASCO TMA, 83 Follow-up email from Andrea Leary, MassComute, 12/7/2009. 11/18/2009. 84 Massachusetts Rideshare Program, Mass DEP, http://www. 81 Phone interview with Andrea Leary, MassCommute, mass.gov/dep/air/approvals/ridesh02.htm, accessed 10/8/2009. 11/20/2009. 85 Phone interview with Jim Cope, MassDOT, 10/9/2009. 82 Phone interview with Matt Grymek, MASCO TMA, 86 Phone interview with Jim Cope, MassDOT, 10/9/2009. 11/18/2009. 87 Phone interview with Jim Cope, MassDOT, 10/9/2009. 20