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identify examples of successful implementation and dents) indicated that their agencies play a role in TDM. support of TDM programs by state departments of The most commonly identified role (43 percent) was transportation (DOT) and to disseminate this infor- the use of TDM on project-level activities, such as mation to practitioners as a primer for states to use construction projects. The second and third most in implementing TDM programs. Key elements in- common TDM roles were to fund local organizations clude a survey of state DOTs to determine their role focused on TDM, such as local jurisdictions or Trans- in TDM programs and a set of case studies illustrat- portation Management Associations/Transportation ing the different roles that state DOTs can play to en- Management Organizations (TMAs/TMOs) (38 per- courage TDM. This report includes the following cent), and to provide technical assistance to local sections: TDM organizations (36 percent). It is also important · A summary of results and research findings to note that over one-half of the state DOTs that fund local organizations focused on TDM provide techni- from the nationwide survey and the five case cal assistance to them as well. Both of these roles are studies. decentralized approaches to TDM, illustrating that · A primer on TDM based on the research. the most common state DOT role, outside of project- · The results of the nationwide survey. based TDM, is a guiding/funding role to local orga- · A set of case studies, detailing the wide range of nizations. Seventeen state DOTs with a role in TDM ways that state DOTs encourage TDM services. reported that the state is considering changing its role This research will help states interested in incor- toward TDM (approximately 45 percent of those with porating TDM strategies into a variety of programs a role in TDM). The large number of state DOTs al- and plans to understand the potential roles of state ready actively considering a change in role indicates DOTs and the breadth and depth of TDM options. that states are interested in learning more about op- portunities, benefits, and options for programs. All respondents were asked to identify whether or CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY not the state DOT encouraged specific TDM-oriented OF RESEARCH FINDINGS activities (e.g., bicycling, congestion pricing). The This section includes a summary of the survey most common activities reported were carpooling, and the case studies, as the direct results of these re- bicycling, promotion of transit use, vanpooling, and search activities. The survey shows the breadth of walking (all reported by at least 33 states). The least state DOT activities regarding TDM, whereas the common activities reported were support for pay-as- case studies are in-depth and detailed investigations you-drive insurance, parking pricing and manage- into specific TDM activities. ment, and congestion or road pricing (all reported by five or fewer states). Survey Results The majority of state DOTs indicated that TDM responsibilities are located in the planning division Based on an extensive outreach effort, the research or planning department at the DOT. Other state team conducted a nationwide survey of state DOTs.3 DOTs either identified the public transportation di- The underlying aim of the survey was to identify na- vision or indicated that TDM is spread across mul- tional trends regarding the roles that state DOTs play tiple divisions. The remaining agencies reported that with TDM and to evaluate the breadth of their TDM- TDM is located in the operations division, project related activities. The research team secured responses development department, or at another state agency. from 42 states, equaling an 82 percent response rate.4 The few state DOTs that did not identify a role in Thirty-nine state DOTs (over 90 percent of respon- TDM explained that their states are too rural, so con- gestion is not a serious enough problem to justify ad- 3 Through this outreach strategy, the team was able to identify ditional staffing or funding to address TDM at the and confirm contacts for 49 states and the District of Columbia. state level. While the research team was unable to confirm a contact in Texas, the team did send the survey to potential contacts, but Case Studies did not receive a response. 4 For the purposes of this survey, the total potential survey re- The results of the survey helped the researchers sponse is 51 (50 states plus the District of Columbia). to identify possible case study candidates for more 2
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in-depth research. The purpose of the case studies cooperative relationship with the association of TMAs was to examine several different examples of state to ensure coordination toward common goals. This DOTs' roles in TDM. A large part of this task was continued coordination between the state DOT and to understand what the challenges and benefits the TMAs can help to improve all TDM programs were to the specific types of TDM approaches at the statewide. statewide level. The research team evaluated and analyzed the nature of the programs described in the New Jersey survey in order to narrow the selection of states for Through a cooperative relationship with eight further study, based on geography and the type of TMAs, New Jersey DOT (NJDOT) manages a state DOT role in TDM. Using these criteria, the re- statewide TDM program that provides localized search team identified five state DOTs for further support for all counties in the state. The TMAs tai- review as case studies. Table 1 illustrates the diver- lor their messages to their service areas, but all im- sity of the case studies, following a summary of plement two DOT programs--Smart Workplaces each case study. for Commuters and Carpooling Makes Sense. With an annual budget of $10 million, $9 million of which Massachusetts is designated for the TMA program, NJDOT guides Massachusetts Department of Transportation the TMA workplans to align with the department's (MassDOT) was restructured this year according TDM goals. Those goals are to develop new strate- to the governor's transportation reform plan, and it gies, incentives, and pilot programs to reduce vehi- manages a $3.5 million statewide travel options cle miles traveled (VMT) and improve air quality, program, MassRIDES. MassRIDES recently estab- and to expand the state's park-and-ride system to en- lished a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with courage more multimodal trips. Both of these goals MassCommute, the private association of TMAs, to will be broadened as NJDOT completes its first de- avoid duplication and streamline TDM services in partment-wide TDM Strategic Plan next year. New the Commonwealth. Consequently, the TMAs and Jersey's program has benefitted from its formal de- MassRIDES will soon be using a single ridematch- finition of TDM goals, which helps to establish an ing system, and will cross-promote one another dur- agency-wide consensus that TDM strategies ought ing outreach. Though MassDOT does not control the to be incorporated into projects and planning within TMA work plans, MassDOT has been able to form a the department. Table 1 Summary of case studies U.S. Nature of State's State DOT State Region TDM Challenge TDM Program Role Massachusetts Northeast Congestion coupled with limited Statewide travel options Centralized expansion ability program and central TDM clearinghouse New Jersey Northeast Congestion in a high density TMA program with full Centralized state state coverage Georgia Southeast Congestion and air quality with Employer Services Mixed very little transit access Organizations Utah Mountain Congestion, air quality and Marketing and grassroots Mixed West energy reduction community outreach California West Congestion attributed to non- Metropolitan Planning Decentralized work travel, as well as land use Organization (MPO)- challenges in a large, diverse based authority state with dramatically different transportation options 3
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Georgia but those responsibilities were devolved to local government by order of the governor at the time. Georgia Department of Transportation's Nonetheless, Caltrans has established a precedent of (GDOT's) employer services organization approach, incorporating TDM into projects, such as construc- which includes nine TMAs and The Clean Air Cam- tion mitigation, and has additionally developed an paign (CAC), provides TDM services statewide with Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) that helps to a focus on air quality in addition to congestion. Orig- inating as a metro Atlanta program, in part due to a guide TDM activities in the state. Caltrans has incor- Framework for Cooperation established with the porated a TDM objective into its Strategic Plan Atlanta Regional Commission and Georgia's Envi- 20072012 to reduce the share of commute trips made ronmental Protection Division, GDOT's TDM pro- by SOVs by 5 percent from 2005 levels by 2012.5 gram recently expanded statewide. The comprehen- Caltrans' decentralized model allows for region- sive program, with a budget of $13 million, now offers ally tailored solutions, led by the MPOs and local commuter financial incentives Commuter Rewards governments. as well as ridematching and guaranteed ride home As a result of the survey, the research team also (GRH). GDOT funds and oversees the TDM pro- developed several miniature profiles of interesting gram, but works closely with the Framework partners state TDM practices. Many of these are discussed in to guide and develop the activities of the employer the primer, and include practices from the following services organizations. states: · Arizona DOT: Integrates TDM into projects Utah and manages a state employee ridematching Leveraging a 6-week commuter challenge called program called Capitol Rideshare. Clear the Air Campaign, the Utah Department of · Delaware DOT: Requires and enforces traf- Transportation (UDOT) recently launched a statewide fic mitigation agreements, which include TDM TDM program, TravelWise, that builds on the inter- requirements. The respondent emphasized how section of energy reduction, congestion reduction, their program has "teeth." and air quality improvements. The $1.5 million pro- · Minnesota DOT: Funds local TMAs but also gram evolved out of the governor's interest in reduc- has a TDM coordinator for all non-MPO areas, ing energy consumption, which has become well meaning the state TDM person is responsible recognized through the state's adoption of a com- for rural, decentralized TDM strategies. pressed work week. The state does not have TMAs · Mississippi DOT: Analyzes the best ways to and instead is focusing on partnerships with commu- integrate TDM for rural traffic to reduce SOV nity organizations, private businesses, and govern- travel. ment offices, to build its network and expand its · New York State DOT: Uses a hybrid approach TDM services, along with the Utah Transit Author- by managing a comprehensive statewide pro- ity. TravelWise will serve as a statewide brand, as gram and concurrently overseeing a regional- well as offer a clearinghouse of information and based support model to local TMAs/TMOs. technical assistance for TDM activities. Utah's pro- · Pennsylvania DOT: Promotes trip chaining gram has benefitted from political support to reduce through a state air quality program. energy consumption in the state, as well as its network · Virginia DOT: Contributes funds to the Tele- of partnerships. Additionally, its statewide brand will work!VA program to provide incentives for help with name recognition as it strives to become employers to set up telework programs. the clearinghouse for TDM information. · Washington State DOT: Funds a new tele- work pilot project in Kitsap County and sub- California sidizes vanpools. California DOT (Caltrans) has a decentralized From these research activities, the research team approach to TDM in which the state sets TDM goals, has created a primer in the next section. The details but the authority to implement those goals rests mainly with local government and Metropolitan Plan- 5 California Department of Transportation, Caltrans Strategic ning Organizations (MPOs). At one time, Caltrans Plan 20072012. http://www.dot.ca.gov/docs/StrategicPlan did fund and manage a statewide TDM program, 2007-2012.pdf, accessed 12/16/2009. 4