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CMAQ and state/local match.88,89 The Suburban Benefits and Challenges Mobility Program funds projects created by munic- MassDOT's TDM program structure works well ipalities, regional transit authorities, TMAs, or plan- for its context. Considering that Massachusetts is a ning agencies that address mobility services and in- densely populated state, a cohesive statewide pro- frastructure specifically in suburban areas that lack gram suits it well. MassDOT believes the approach transit.90 The types of projects funded include de- is efficient and effective and a good way to get a lot mand-response or joint dispatch services, as well as done with a minimal amount of administration.97 services that improve access to commuter rail sta- This structure also allows for some experimentation. tions.91 For instance, it has funded the Ipswich Essex One new area that MassRIDES is developing is Explorer, which provides bus service from the Ip- working with older citizens and their needs for trans- swich Train Station to various popular destinations portation services.98 in the area, essentially eliminating the need for a car As a result of the MOU with the TMAs, some el- to access the beach, shopping, and other recreational ements will be run more efficiently, specifically with activities.92 The Boston Region MPO is currently re- respect to the ridesharing system. There will be one viewing proposals to merge its suburban mobility, software vendor, one contracting process, and greater TDM, and bicycle activities into a single CMAQ- geographic coverage.99 In addition, because of the funded program for 2010 in order to create a more MOU, instead of expending both personnel and fi- flexible and results-oriented program.93 nancial resources in areas covered by the TMAs, Additionally, MassDOT's TDM program funds these resources can be used to expand programs that projects created by local or regional agencies or support mobility for an aging population and to de- municipalities that provide mobility services that will velop TDM programs related to special events in the contribute to air quality improvements.94 Eligible Commonwealth.100 projects include parking management, park-and-ride Unlike some states in which DOTs provide sub- lot amenities, and telecommuting services.95 The pro- stantial funding for the TMAs, the TMAs in Massa- gram has funded community walking maps and city- chusetts are mostly funded by their member organi- wide bicycle maps for Boston.96 zation. One challenge under this structure is that MassDOT does not have control over each TMA workplan, goals, or programs. However, the MOU 88 Massachusetts NCHRP 20-65-24 Survey, submitted offers new opportunities for increased coordination 8/25/2009. on those efforts, which should help to leverage the 89 Suburban Mobility Program Description, Boston MPO, http:// efforts and build effective partnerships to achieve www.bostonmpo.org/bostonmpo/3_programs/7_suburban_ common goals. mobility/mobility.html, accessed 11/14/2009. 90 Suburban Mobility Program Description, Boston MPO, http:// www.bostonmpo.org/bostonmpo/3_programs/7_suburban_ New Jersey Department mobility/mobility.html, accessed 11/14/2009. of Transportation (NJDOT) 91 Suburban Mobility Overview, Boston MPO, http://www. bostonmpo.org/bostonmpo/3_programs/7_suburban_mobility/ Through a cooperative relationship with eight sm_overview.html, accessed 11/14/2009. TMAs, New Jersey Department of Transportation 92 Ipswich Essex Explorer, http://www.ipswichessexexplorer. (NJDOT) manages a statewide TDM program that com, accessed 11/14/2009. provides localized support. The high-density urban 93 Follow-up email from Jim Cope, MassDOT, 12/15/2009. state, which has the most people per square mile of 94 Suburban Mobility Program Description, Boston MPO, http:// all 50 states,101 has well-developed train service www.bostonmpo.org/bostonmpo/3_programs/7_suburban_ along the major corridors, but also faces challenges mobility/mobility.html, accessed 11/14/2009. 95 Transportation Demand Management Program Eligibil- 97 ity, Boston MPO, http://www.bostonmpo.org/bostonmpo/ Phone interview with Jim Cope, MassDOT, 10/9/2009. 98 3_programs/7_suburban_mobility/tdm_eligible.html, accessed Phone interview with Jim Cope, MassDOT, 10/9/2009. 99 Phone interview with Matt Grymek, MASCO TMA, 11/14/2009. 96 Transportation Demand Management Program Services, 11/18/2009. 100 Follow-up email from Andrea Leary, MassComute, Boston MPO, http://www.bostonmpo.org/bostonmpo/3_ programs/7_suburban_mobility/tdm_services.html, accessed 12/7/2009. 101 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. 11/14/2009. 21

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with "the last mile" transit for suburban travel.102 as primarily a ridematching program, NJDOT's TMA With an expected growth of 1.7 million residents by program has evolved into a much broader program, 2030, New Jersey faces a tremendous increase in de- tackling everything from alternative transportation mand from residents, as well as from employees strategies for seniors to integrating TDM into land coming in and out of the state.103 use plans.109 NJ DOT's involvement in TDM dates back to the 1980s when the department's TMA program was ini- Key Information tiated.110 At the time, New Jersey provided funding to three TMAs to support efforts already made by the pri- Annual Resources and Allocation: $15.3 mil- vate sector to improve employee mobility, employee lion ($6.3 million on TMAs; $1 million state access to transit, and employee use of alternative trans- and $5 million federal on park-and-ride leases; portation services.111 When the federally required $3 million TDM)104 employer commute trip reduction requirement was Source of Funding: CMAQ, Surface Trans- introduced through the Clean Air Act in 1992, NJDOT portation Program, and Transportation Trust expanded its funding to the TMAs.112 After that Fund105 specific requirement was rescinded in 1997, NJDOT continued to provide funding and guidance to the Main Department: Bureau of Commuter and TMAs.113 Originally focused on employers, TMA Mobility Strategies (one of four bureaus in the services were expanded to reach individual com- Statewide Planning Division)106 muters.114, 115 Today New Jersey manages and funds Number of Full-Time Employees: 5 staff eight TMAs that provide localized service to each members (excluding TMA employees)107 county in the state. The TMAs operate two major TDM programs on the ground--the Smart Workplaces for Other Major Partners: North Jersey Trans- Commuters and Carpooling Makes Sense--which portation Planning Association, Delaware Val- were designed and implemented by the DOT. ley Regional Planning Commission, South Jer- NJDOT is developing a TDM Strategic Plan to sey Transportation Planning Authority, eight capitalize on relatively new topics in TDM, such as TMAs, and New Jersey Transit school-age outreach and assistance to disabled pop- Contact for More Information: ulations.116 Some other items for consideration in Sheree Davis the strategic plan include looking at ways to im- TDM Management Office prove access to transit for seniors, reaching out to New Jersey DOT underserved areas in the counties, such as more Phone: (609)530-6551 rural areas, and improving bicycle and pedestrian Email: sheree.davis@dot.state.nj.us safety.117 Over the next year, NJDOT staff, as well Web: http://www.njcommuter.com as external stakeholders from NJ Transit, MPOs, and businesses, will discuss how to help NJDOT de- termine how and where to invest its TDM funds.118 Through the TMAs, NJDOT is able to provide specialized, local TDM options to every county in 109 Phone interview with Lori Diggins, Consultant, 10/21/2009. the state, whether urban or suburban.108 Starting out 110 NJDOT TMA Program Guidelines for Developing an Appli- cation for Federal Funds, December 2008, provided by Lori 102 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. Diggins via email on 10/26/2009. 103 111 NJDOT TMA Program Guidelines for Developing an Appli- New Jersey NCHRP 20-65-24 Survey submitted 8/12/2009. 104 New Jersey NCHRP 20-65-24 Survey submitted 8/12/2009. cation for Federal Funds, December 2008, provided by Lori 105 Transportation Choices 2030 Long Range Transportation Diggins via email on 10/26/2009. 112 Phone interview with Lori Diggins, Consultant, 10/21/2009. Plan, http://www.state.nj.us/transportation/works/njchoices, 113 Phone interview with Lori Diggins, Consultant, 10/21/2009. p. 2, accessed 10/5/2009. 106 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. 114 Phone interview with Lori Diggins, Consultant, 10/21/2009. 107 Transportation Choices 2030 Long Range Transportation 115 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. 116 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. Plan, http://www.state.nj.us/transportation/works/njchoices, 117 Phone interview with Lori Diggins, Consultant, 10/21/2009. p. 1, accessed 10/5/2009. 108 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. 118 Phone interview with Lori Diggins, Consultant, 10/21/2009. 22

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By linking in department goals and evaluation met- These goals have guided NJDOT's statewide rics, the strategic plan will assist the department in TDM approach. The DOT is focused on the TMAs making the best decisions for the state on which to promote the TDM strategies and operate pro- strategies to pursue.119 grams that meet the department's goals. To ensure that the TMAs meet those goals, each must submit The Role of the Transportation Management an Annual Work Plan in order to receive funding. Association (TMA) The DOT has authority to reject or approve the plan Today every county in the state is served by a and may encourage the TMA to pursue additional TMA and the DOT provides a substantial $9 million services, such as the recent push to look at senior in funding to those eight TMAs.120 The TMAs pro- transportation and bicycle/pedestrian facilities.124 vide the foundation for NJDOT's TDM program. The TMAs tailor their messages to the unique con- ditions in each of their service areas.121 For instance, TDM Services Offered by the State in the northeast part of the state, it is very dense and urbanized with an extensive commuter rail system. Localized employer and commuter outreach The TMAs promote travel information for com- through eight TMAs muter rail services in the dense urban areas, as well Ridematching services (using RidePro soft- as carpooling and park-and-ride services in the sub- ware by Trapeze) urban areas of the northern part of the state. How- Vanpool matching ever, in the southern part of the state, there is less Information on transit, bicycling, telecom- transit available, so the key messages are promoting muting, and park-and-ride lots carpooling, biking, and walking.122 Smart Workplaces for Commuters-- employer recognition program Carpooling Makes Sense--financial incentive "The Transportation Management Associations Emergency ride home programs are our tentacles to the people in New Jersey. Shuttle Services The Department could not move forward with Safe Routes to School this comprehensive [statewide] program with- out them." -Sheree Davis, TDM Program Manager, The TMA work program identifies the major New Jersey Department of Transportation strategies, goals, and work products, as well as specific evaluation metrics to measure success in those programs.125 The TMAs build on the success of previous services, but will frequently recommend The Bureau of Commuter Mobility, responsible new strategies to the DOT.126 For instance, this past for TDM at the department, has developed specific year, Cross County Connection TMA in south New formalized TDM goals for the state: Jersey recommended a new strategy to "provide 1. To develop new strategies, incentives, and commuters with interactive information regarding pilot programs to reduce VMT and improve bicycle facilities utilizing Google mapping technol- air quality, and ogy."127 Given Cross County Connection's expertise 2. Expand the park-and-ride program to encour- in mapping, and its promotion of biking in southern age more multimodal trips.123 New Jersey, this sort of strategy makes sense as a 119 124 Phone interview with Lori Diggins, Consultant, 10/21/2009. Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. 120 125 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. TMA Work Plan, Cross County Connector TMA, provided 121 Phone interview with Bill Ragozine, Cross County Connec- by Bill Ragozine via email on 11/4/2009. 126 Phone interview with Bill Ragozine, Cross County Connec- tion TMA, 11/2/2009. 122 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. tion TMA, 11/2/2009. 123 TDM Goals, provided by Sheree Davis via e-mail on 127 TMA Work Plan, Cross County Connector TMA, provided 10/26/2009. by Bill Ragozine via email on 11/4/2009. 23

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localized product, rather than a statewide approach. The flexibility afforded to the TMAs allows for tai- lored approaches to best deliver services in their communities. Likewise, given the home-rule na- ture of the towns in New Jersey, the local approach allows the TMAs access to officials and businesses that might not otherwise be accomplished at the state level.128 To continually improve, the DOT encourages new ideas in the work programs, but ultimately has over- sight if the plans do not align with the goals of the department.129 This coming year, DOT is encourag- ing the TMAs to expand services to the underserved areas within their service zones.130 For instance, Cross Figure 4 NJDOT recognizes four levels of employer County Connection TMA is creating and marketing success for its Smart Workplaces for Commuters. interactive bike/transit maps in the Atlantic City, Cumberland, and Gloucestor Area.131 The TMAs do more than just offer the traditional However, the DOT does host a website--http:// services of ridematching and vanpools. Two of the www.njcommuter.com--that serves as a clearing- core requirements as defined in the Annual Report house for traveler and employer services information. are to support community TDM initiatives and offer NJDOT manages two statewide programs--Smart state and regional transportation systems support.132 Workplaces for Commuters, an employer recog- In those capacities, the TMAs assist with corridor nition program, and Carpooling Makes Sense, an studies, participate on task forces for the MPOs, help incentive-based carpooling program. NJDOT de- with traffic mitigation strategy development, and signed each program and ultimately manages and conduct mapping of traffic plans for the region.133 In funds it, but the TMAs do the brunt of the on-the- addition, with construction projects, the TMAs as- ground work to solicit applications and conduct sist the DOT in getting notice out to the public about outreach. While both programs, Smart Workplaces alternative routes, transit options, emergency evac- for Commuters and Carpooling Makes Sense, are uation routing, and shuttle services.134 These ser- statewide, neither serves as a standalone brand for vices go above and beyond the usual traveler and the entire TDM program at the DOT. employer services offered by traditional TMAs. New Jersey Smart Workplaces for Commuters is an employer recognition program that honors orga- Designing and Implementing Statewide nizations that embrace strategies to reduce SOV TDM Programs travel (see Figure 4). Employers eligible for recog- Unlike some other states active in statewide TDM nition must offer some sort of program and incentive for employees, including reduced-cost transit passes implementation, New Jersey does not have a state- or vanpool subsidies.135 In 2009, NJDOT honored wide brand that serves as an umbrella for marketing. 353 companies as partners with New Jersey Smart Workplaces for Commuters (an increase of 38 per- cent since 2008).136 The goal next year is to increase 128 Phone interview with Lori Diggins, Consultant, 10/21/2009; recognition again by 50 percent.137 This program is phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. tailored locally by the TMAs so that they can con- 129 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. 130 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. duct their own outreach on the ground, offering the 131 Follow-up email from Sheree Davis, NJDOT 12/2/2009. 132 2008 NJDOT TMA Annual Report, provided by Sheree 135 Davis via email on 10/21/2009. New Jersey Smart Workplaces, http://www.state.nj.us/ 133 2008 NJDOT TMA Annual Report, provided by Sheree Davis transportation/commuter/njsw/requirements.shtm, accessed via email on 10/21/2009; phone interview with Bill Ragozine, 10/8/2009. 136 Follow-up email from Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. Cross County Connection TMA, 11/2/2009. 134 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. 137 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. 24

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local connections that would otherwise not be avail- portation planning makes the promotion of its strate- able at the state level. The DOT sets the goals for the gies much easier. program, funds it, and oversees its implementation. At DOT headquarters, senior-level management Carpooling Makes Sense is an incentive gas card at NJDOT recognizes the importance of integrating program designed by the NJDOT and implemented TDM across multiple divisions.145 For the most part, by the TMAs. The program was initiated in Decem- TDM representatives (one of the five specified TDM ber 2006 and has drawn much attention. Carpoolers staff at the NJDOT) are invited to the table for proj- in the NJDOT Ridesharing Program are eligible for ect discussions and scoping meetings.146 TDM staff up to $200 depending on the size of the carpool, pro- is also invited to review local smart growth plans for vided that they carpool at least 24 days in a 2-month potential endorsement under the State Development period.138 In the 20072008 report, more than 15,800 and Redevelopment Plan.147 had registered to participate in the program.139, 140 As part of its work programs, the TMAs are actu- NJDOT sees this as one of its flagship programs and ally required by the DOT to "assist NJDOT, other plans to continue offering the incentive due to the state agencies and regional MPOs with state and re- high interest.141 The DOT will be tracking how many gional TDM initiatives."148, 149 Likewise, the DOT es- carpoolers participate in the program, even after no tablished the Community TDM initiative as part of its longer qualifying for the incentive.142 work program to "encourage and support expanded implementation of TDM initiatives in communities Integrating TDM into Planning and at activity centers, by providing support and as- sistance to county and municipal governments."150, 151 NJDOT makes significant efforts to incorporate Through these sorts of measures, NJDOT is able to TDM strategies into the planning process. Trans- integrate TDM at the statewide and local planning portation Choices 2030, the most recent statewide levels. long-range transportation plan, identifies one of its four primary goals as: "continue investment in mea- Partnerships sures that shift travel out of cars, move trips to other times of the day, and eliminate some auto trips al- Partnerships (both formal and informal) have together."143 In its statewide long-range transportation been effective for New Jersey. See below for several plan, the state identifies that the strategy to reduce examples. demand is only possible through a variety of inte- New Jersey Transit--The governor's consoli- dation of transportation services has formalized the grated measures, including investments in public existing cooperative informal relationship between transportation to encourage shifts in travel from SOV New Jersey Transit (NJ Transit) and NJDOT.152 The to bus, rail or ferry, use of ITS to improve transit op- DOT Commissioner, who also serves as Chairman erations, and use of smart growth for development of NJ Transit, ensures that there is limited duplica- and redevelopment.144 This sort of state-level en- tion and increased cooperation between the two dorsement of TDM as a critical component of trans- agencies.153 NJ Transit also works with NJDOT to 138 New Jersey Carpooling Makes Sense, http://www.state.nj.us/ 145 transportation/commuter/rideshare, accessed 10/8/2009. Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. 139 2008 NJDOT TMA Annual Report, provided by Sheree Davis 146 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. 147 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. via email on 10/26/2009. 140 Phone interview with Bill Ragozine, Cross County Connec- 148 2008 NJDOT TMA Annual Report, provided by Sheree Davis tion TMA, 11/2/2009. via email on 10/26/2009. 141 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. 149 Phone Interview with Bill Ragozine, Cross County Connec- 142 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. tion TMA, 11/2/2009. 143 Transportation Choices 2030 Long Range Transportation Plan, 150 2008 NJDOT TMA Annual Report, provided by Sheree Davis http://www.state.nj.us/transportation/works/njchoices, p. 4, via email on 10/26/2009. 151 Phone Interview with Bill Ragozine, Cross County Connec- accessed 10/5/2009. 144 Transportation Choices 2030 Long Range Transportation tion TMA, 11/2/2009. 152 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. Plan, http://www.state.nj.us/transportation/works/njchoices, 153 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. pp. 30-40, accessed 10/5/2009. 25