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build park-and-rides as needed, although each agency strengths is its recognition of the value of TDM.161 Its operates its own programs. formal recognition of TDM goals helps to establish Metropolitan Planning Organizations agency buy-in that TDM is an important strategy and (MPOs)--The three New Jersey MPOs154 review needs to be incorporated into planning activities. all TMA Work Plans and participate in the quarterly Even further, developing a TDM strategic plan--as meetings for the TMAs (alongside transit agencies). NJDOT is currently preparing to do--can formalize The MPOs must additionally approve the work plans the involvement of TDM in planning and projects in order for the TMA to receive funding.155 Some across divisions at the DOT. MPOs provide input on activities that the MPO would Likewise, NJDOT's approach takes a broad per- like for the TMAs to pursue. For instance, North spective on what constitutes TDM, and therefore Jersey Transportation Planning Authority (NJTPA) has been able to partner with local jurisdictions to is encouraging the TMAs in its service area to under- encourage land-use strategies that support demand take anti-idling activities in its work plan.156 NJTPA management, and also support social mobility pro- is also at all of the quarterly meetings held with the grams, like elderly transportation, that are becoming TMAs and the DOT to discuss TDM strategies.157 new topics in TDM.162 Moreover, some MPOs, such as the NJTPA, provide NJDOT's TMA program, which covers the en- additional funding and issue separate work plans tire state, is one of the foundations of success in New for the TMAs to be involved in corridor plans and Jersey's TDM approach. NJDOT manages and over- studies.158 Through its Local CMAQ Mobility Initia- sees TMA activities, providing structure and sup- tive, NJTPA has provided additional funding to TMAs port, but offers the TMAs flexibility to design tai- to conduct an online survey for a bus study.159 lored local solutions in their service areas. All TMAs Department of Human Services--NJDOT is implement statewide incentive and recognition pro- currently partnering with NJ Transit and the Depart- grams developed by NJDOT, including Carpooling ment of Human Services to evaluate the mobility of Makes Sense and Smart Workplaces for Commuters, seniors and disabled travelers.160 NJDOT wants to but can also develop innovative strategies that best work with these other agencies to explore ways to fit their service area, provided the approach is ap- expand mobility options for this group. proved by the DOT. There are challenges associated with New Jersey's Benefits and Challenges approach. For instance, there is no statewide market- NJDOT has a history of success with its TDM ing program. Without this branding of a statewide pro- activities dating to the 1980s and has evolved since gram, some of the messaging may be lost. However, then into a comprehensive TDM program that offers the TMAs have developed a brand and identity at the not only a statewide TDM program through its TMAs, local level, and implement the statewide incentive but also an integration of TDM into projects and programs (Carpooling Makes Sense and Smart Work- planning within the department. One of NJDOT's places for Commuters). Additionally, New Jersey faces challenges with diversity in travel needs. For 154 instance, in the north, where a lot of transit is avail- The three MPOs in New Jersey are: Delaware Valley Re- able, carpooling is one of the big topics, but in the gional Planning Commission, North Jersey Transportation Planning Authority and South Jersey Transportation Planning south, with less transit available, biking is more heav- Authority. Note that South Jersey TPA does not review the ily promoted. work plans since they were not in the TIP. 155 Phone interview with Hamilton Meghdir, Lois Goldman, Georgia Department and Dave Schmetterer, NJTPA, 11/10/2009. 156 Phone interview with Hamilton Meghdir, Lois Goldman, of Transportation (GDOT) and Dave Schmetterer, NJTPA, 11/10/2009. Congestion and air quality are very big issues for 157 Phone interview with Hamilton Meghdir, Lois Goldman, Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT). The and Dave Schmetterer, NJTPA, 11/10/2009. state's heaviest congestion occurs along the urban 158 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. 159 Phone interview with Hamilton Meghdir, Lois Goldman, 161 and Dave Schmetterer, NJTPA, 11/10/2009 Phone interview with Lori Diggins, Consultant, 10/21/2009. 160 Phone interview with Sheree Davis, NJDOT, 10/9/2009. 162 Phone interview with Lori Diggins, Consultant, 10/21/2009. 26

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interstates.163 Over 20 percent of VMT on state roads efforts in Georgia have originated out of the metro and 35 percent of VMT on urban roads operate under Atlanta region, where 50 percent of the state's popu- congested conditions. For the most part, congestion lation lives.171 occurs in the urban areas of Georgia.164 In addition, 27 of the state's 159 counties are classified as non- attainment for ground-level ozone, particle pollution, or both. These air quality issues are primarily the Key Information result of fuel combustion, much of which is derived from automobiles. Annual Funding: Over $13 million172 (research Congestion and air quality problems could con- efforts from State Planning and Research fund- tinue to grow considering the rapid population in- ing;173 $6 to $7 million on The Clean Air Cam- crease in the Atlanta metro area. During the last paign (CAC); $4 million to Transportation Man- 8 years, the Atlanta region's population has grown agement Associations (TMAs); $1.5 million to by 1.1 million people, making it the second fastest Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC); $800,000 growing metro area in the country.165 Metro Atlanta to research and measurement. The majority of commuters spend more on gas each year than any- funding is primarily CMAQ. Note also that CAC one else in the country, over $5,000 per household also generates $1 million in cash and in-kind) per year.166 The average metro Atlanta commuter Lead Department at the DOT: Planning also wastes an average of an additional 57 hours a year due to regional congestion.167 Moreover, 84 per- Number of Full-Time Employees: Estimated cent of commuters in the region drive alone and over 75 staff members through the various spend an average of 35.9 minutes on a one-way trip funded programs174 to work, compared to a national average of 24.3 min- utes.168 As mentioned, this heavy usage of highways Other Major Partners: Georgia Department is linked to the air quality problems for the state. of Environmental Protection (GA DEP), ARC, Fifty percent of the smog is from vehicles in Atlanta, Georgia Regional Transit Authority (GRTA), which accounts for more than one-half of the state's and nine TMAs population.169,170 As a result, the statewide TDM Contact for More Information: 163 Phil Peevy 2007 Atlanta Regional Commuter Survey, http://www.dot. Air Quality & Technical Resource Branch Chief ga.gov/informationcenter/programs/environment/airquality/ GDOT Documents/pdfs/Atlanta%20Regional%20Commuter%20 Survey%202007.pdf , accessed 10/22/2009. Phone: (404) 631-1783 164 Georgia Department of Transportation, Georgia Statewide Email: PPeevy@dot.ga.gov Transportation Plan, http://www.dot.state.ga.us/information Web: http://www.dot.ga.gov/informationcenter/ center/programs/transportation/Documents/swtp/SWTP_final_ programs/environment/airquality/Pages/ report_feb_2007.pdf, accessed 10/9/2009, page E-9. CommuteOptions.aspx 165 Regional Snapshot, http://www.atlantaregional.com/ http://www.cleanaircampaign.org documents/RS_June09_Forecast2040.pdf, accessed 10/22/2009. 166 The Clean Air Campaign Press Kit, http://www.clean aircampaign.org/For-the-Press/Press-Kit, date accessed 171 12/07/2009. Phone interview with Kevin Green, The Clean Air Cam- 167 The Clean Air Campaign Press Kit, http://www.cleanair paign, 11/5/2009. 172 Georgia NCHRP 20-65-24 Survey Response, submitted campaign.org/For-the-Press/Press-Kit , accessed 10/22/2009. 168 2007 Atlanta Regional Commuter Survey, http://www. 8/13/2009. 173 TDM Program Comparison Study, prepared by Center for dot.ga.gov/informationcenter/programs/environment/airquality/ Documents/pdfs/Atlanta%20Regional%20Commuter%20 Transportation and the Environment, February 2006, http:// Survey%202007.pdf, accessed 10/22/2009. www.dot.ga.gov/informationcenter/programs/environment/ 169 Promotional Material, http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/ airquality/Documents/pdfs/program_comparison_research_ www/releases/archives/american_community_survey_acs/ for_nine_tdm_programs_across_the_nation.pdf, accessed 004489.html , accessed 10/22/2009. 10/22/2009. 170 Phone interview with Kevin Green, The Clean Air Cam- 174 Georgia NCHRP 20-65-24 Survey Response, submitted paign, 11/5/2009. 8/13/2009. 27

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GDOT oversees the entire TDM approach from State Implementation Plan for air quality, authored the state level; all the major contracts and initiatives by the Georgia EPD.178 ultimately link back to the DOT. (See Figure 5 for an outline of those organizations and relationships.) Georgia's current TDM program is based on the idea that TDM strategy investments can better reduce TDM Services Offered by the State congestion than investments in new transportation infrastructure. A study commissioned by GDOT found Local, technical assistance to employers that implementing an aggressive set of TDM strate- through nine TMAs179 gies would yield 100 times more value in congestion Clean Air Campaign (CAC)--a not-for-profit reduction than in a similar investment in new trans- employer and individual outreach program portation infrastructure.175 RideSmart ridematching services Much of the current TDM programs and struc- Guaranteed ride home services ture in Georgia is based on a strategic plan, called A Commuter financial incentives Framework for Cooperation to Reduce Traffic Con- Marketing and promotional materials on TDM gestion and Improve Air Quality. The Framework Telework Leadership Initiative was initiated in 1999 as a guidance document that Clean Air Schools would help the region to meet is air quality goals.176 TDM program evaluation and measurements The Framework was designed by a variety of organi- HOT Lanes (projected 2011) zations, including GDOT; Georgia Environmental Construction mitigation Protection Division (EPD); Georgia Regional Trans- Integration of 511 and CAC portation Authority (GRTA); the nine TMAs; the re- gional MPO; ARC; and CAC, a not-for-profit travel options program. In terms of the Framework's present day activ- ities, a TDM Policy Group made up of represen- tatives from GDOT, ARC, GRTA, and EPD meets "The DOT is the nucleus of the TDM activities quarterly each year to discuss new strategies and in Georgia." to review progress to date on all TDM measures in -Allison Richards, Metro Atlanta.180 The TDM Policy Group is respon- Atlanta Regional Commission sible for: Recommending funding levels to support The Framework guided the expansion of TDM TDM activities; services in Georgia and continues to serve as a living Establishing and communicating policies for document that is meant to be revised and updated regional TDM activities; according to the needs of the region. The Framework Overseeing the process for contracting with has a heavy emphasis on air quality, in addition to 10 Employer Services Organizations (ESOs), congestion, as indicated by the inclusion of its TDM programs, including CAC,177 in metro Atlanta's formal 178 Advertising and Marketing RFP Questions & Answers, http:// www.cleanaircampaign.org/About-Us/Requests-for-Proposals/ 175 Advertising and Marketing RFP Supporting Promotional Ma- Advertising-and-Marketing-RFP, accessed 10/22/2009. 179 Note that for the purposes of this report, individual TMAs terials, http://www.cleanaircampaign.org/About-Us/Requests- for-Proposals/Advertising-and-Marketing-RFP, accessed will be referred to as such, but when the entire TDM program 10/22/2009. is referenced (the nine TMAs and The Clean Air Campaign), 176 A Framework for Cooperation to Reduce Traffic Congestion we will refer to the collective group of 10 organizations as the and Improve Air Quality, http://www.tdmframework.org/reports/ ESOs. GDOT differentiates the TMAs and The Clean Air Cam- files/Framework.pdf, accessed 11/9/2009 paign in this manner. 177 The Voluntary Mobile Emission Source Program (VMEP), 180 Phone interview with Allison Richards, Atlanta Regional which included all TDM is included in the SIP. Commission, 11/9/2009. 28

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which include nine TMAs and the CAC, to committees. Several of these stakeholders also serve implement TDM programs; and as chairs of the subcommittee groups.186 ,187, 188 See Monitoring and evaluating the results of the Figure 5. TDM programs.181 The overall TDM program in Georgia, which was formalized with the Framework and evolved over In addition to the TDM Policy Group, there are time, includes the following components: several subcommittees, including employer ser- vices, media planning, financial incentives, and van- Ten ESOs--The nine TMAs and the CAC. pooling, which make recommendations to the TDM Note that for the purposes of this report, indi- Policy Group.182, 183, 184 For instance, the Employer vidual TMAs will be referred to as such, but Services Committee (ESC) represents the orga- when the entire TDM program is referenced nizations that receive federal funding to provide (the nine TMAs and CAC), we will refer to TDM services--the nine TMAs and CAC. The ESC the collective group of 10 organizations as the meets in order to make recommendations to the ESOs. GDOT differentiates the TMAs and TDM Policy Group on the processes used to provide CAC in this manner. TDM services to employers, property managers, The CAC--A not-for-profit organization and individuals in metro Atlanta.185 Stakeholders funded in part by GDOT that focuses on out- such as vanpool vendors and the TMAs, which do reach to commuters, employers, and schools in not participate in the TDM Policy Group but are metro Atlanta and statewide to change travel active in TDM, are invited to participate in the sub- behavior to improve air quality and reduce FHWA Clean Air Campaign GDOT Program Measurement (Statewide) Atlanta Regional Commission TMAs RideSmart, GRH, and ESO Mgmt Figure 5 Organization chart of TDM programs and funding in Georgia.189 181 Follow-up email from Dan Hourigan, Midtown Alliance, 11/24/2009. 182 Phone interview with Allison Richards, Atlanta Regional 186 Phone interview with Allison Richards, Atlanta Regional Commission, 11/9/2009. Commission, 11/9/2009. 183 A Framework for Cooperation to Reduce Traffic Congestion 187 A Framework for Cooperation to Reduce Traffic Congestion and Improve Air Quality, http://www.tdmframework.org/reports/ and Improve Air Quality, http://www.tdmframework.org/ files/Framework.pdf, accessed 11/9/2009. reports/files/Framework.pdf , accessed 11/9/2009. 184 Phone interview with Kevin Green, The Clean Air Campaign, 188 Phone interview with Kevin Green, The Clean Air Cam- 11/5/2009. paign, 11/5/2009. 185 Follow-up email from Dan Hourigan, Midtown Transporta- 189 Phone interview with Phil Peevy, Georgia Department of tion Solutions, 11/24/2009. Transportation, 10/30/2009. 29

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congestion. CAC is one of the 10 ESOs in commissioner and planning director support TDM GDOT's TDM program. and recognize that the DOT's activities are critical Rideshare matching and guaranteed ride home strategies in the state to improve transportation.196 (GRH)--Provides ridematching services and GDOT recently commissioned a study to demon- GRH services funded by GDOT and managed strate just how effective TDM is in comparison to by ARC (in metro Atlanta) and currently has other infrastructure strategies; the study found that a database of 59,000 registrants.190 implementing a package of aggressive TDM strate- Vanpool Services--GDOT provides some gies would yield 100 times more value in congestion funding through CMAQ and GRTA operates reduction than a similar investment in new trans- contracts with vendors. portation infrastructure.197 This sort of evidence, pur- TMAs--Nine organizations that are part sued by the state, helps to keep TDM as a frontline of GDOT's ESOs. They provide employer strategy at the DOT.198 services in specific job centers within non- attainment areas in metro Atlanta and are funded through GDOT and managed by ARC. The Clean Air Campaign Results TDM Program Measurement--Evaluation ac- tivities funded by GDOT and conducted by the Each year, commute alternatives yield:199 Center for Transportation and the Environment 16 million car trips eliminated from metro (CTE). Atlanta roadways In many ways, GDOT is the funder and also the More than 200,000 tons of pollution not re- manager of TDM activities in the state. GDOT co- leased into our air ordinates with most of the players involved in TDM More than $156 million estimated in reduced activities, and with support from the members of the commute costs TDM Policy Group, helps to determine which strate- $30 million estimated in health-related costs gies are working and which are not. Like other mem- savings due to improved air quality bers of the TDM Policy Group, GDOT is involved in strategic planning, goal setting, and benchmarking for TDM activities.191 For instance, GDOT oversees The Clean Air Campaign (CAC) and approves the TMA workplans in metro Atlanta, CAC is a not-for-profit corporation, formed in but ARC manages the TMAs. Similarly, CAC imple- 1996 by collaboration between government, busi- ments its own services, but GDOT provides guidance nesses, and civic organizations. Originally started as and oversight on activities. GDOT is regularly in con- a public awareness campaign for the link between air tact with all stakeholders and an active decision maker quality and vehicle emissions, CAC began to conduct in the direction of TDM in the state.192, 193, 194 employer outreach in 2000.200 Currently, CAC pro- GDOT recently was restructured and the Office vides statewide employer outreach and commuter of Planning now reports to a separate planning di- outreach services (with the exception of private sec- rector that reports to the governor.195 The current tor employer outreach in nine job centers in the metro Atlanta non-attainment area, which are managed by 190 Note: In 2010, CAC will be doing ridematching outside of metro Atlanta. (Source: Kevin Green, follow-up e-mail, 196 Phone interview with Kevin Green, The Clean Air Cam- 11/24/2009.) paign, 11/5/2009. 191 Phone interview with Kevin Green, The Clean Air Cam- 197 Advertising and Marketing RFP Supporting Promotional Ma- paign, 11/5/2009. terials, http://www.cleanaircampaign.org/About-Us/Requests- 192 Phone interview with Phil Peevy, Georgia Department of for-Proposals/Advertising-and-Marketing-RFP, accessed Transportation, 10/30/09. 10/22/2009. 193 Phone interview with Allison Richards, Atlanta Regional 198 Phone interview with Kevin Green, The Clean Air Campaign, Commission, 11/9/2009. 11/5/2009. 194 Phone interview with Kevin Green, The Clean Air Cam- 199 Phone interview with Kevin Green, The Clean Air Campaign, paign, 11/5/2009. 11/5/2009. 195 Phone interview with Phil Peevy, Georgia Department of 200 Phone interview with Kevin Green, The Clean Air Campaign, Transportation, 10/30/09. 11/5/2009. 30

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Figure 6 The Clean Air Campaign homepage. the TMAs), as well as comprehensive marketing and a downward trend in code red days for ground-level public relations services statewide. CAC also han- ozone in metro Atlanta, even though starting last year dles public-sector outreach (federal, state, and local there have been more stringent requirements for code governments) statewide, including TMA service red day classifications.204 areas. CAC works closely with the nine TMAs and CAC has a budget of approximately $7 million sees them as the "feet on the ground" for the private- and receives 80 percent of its funding from CMAQ sector employer outreach in the job centers.201 through the DOT, and the remaining comes from The goal of the program is to motivate Georgians match sources, including state and local as well as to take action to improve air quality and reduce traffic private sponsorships. Its outreach to private compa- congestion (see Figure 6). The main strategies are to nies is unique and well developed, as demonstrated motivate commuters to use alternative modes, part- by the fact that 20 of the top 25 Fortune 500 compa- ner with employers to develop customized programs, nies in the Atlanta region are partners with CAC.205 and work with schools to reduce smog-forming Additionally, CAC has secured $1 million annually emissions and to reduce car travel to schools.202 CAC in private-sector and in-kind funding, which is unusual operates a smog alert system in addition to its general for this sort of program.206 outreach strategies and sends out notifications on days While CAC started as an Atlanta-based pro- when the air quality is forecasted to be unhealthy for gram, it has expanded statewide, now covering other the public. Currently, there are 8,000 people signed up to receive smog alerts.203 There has actually been 204 The Clean Air Campaign Press Kit, http://www.cleanair campaign.org/For-the-Press/Press-Kit, accessed 10/22/2009. 201 205 Advertising and Marketing RFP Questions and Answers, The Clean Air Campaign Press Kit, http://www.cleanair campaign.org/For-the-Press/Press-Kit, accessed 10/22/2009. http://www.cleanaircampaign.org/About-Us/Requests-for- 202 The Clean Air Campaign website, http://www.cleanair Proposals/Advertising-and-Marketing-RFP, accessed 10/22/ campaign.org/About-Us, accessed 10/9/2009. 2009. 203 The Clean Air Campaign Press Kit, http://www.cleanair 206 Phone interview with Kevin Green, The Clean Air Cam- campaign.org/For-the-Press/Press-Kit, accessed 10/22/2009. paign, 11/5/2009. 31

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regions being considered for ozone non-attainment, rolled in 2008, a threefold increase over 2007, some including Rome, Columbus, Augusta, Athens, and of which was due to increasing gas prices.211 Macon.207 GDOT has been instrumental in helping to expand the program due to its relationships and Employer Outreach. CAC has doubled the num- contacts outside of the Atlanta region.208 GDOT has ber of employers who have joined the program-- further expanded the reach of CAC by linking it to approximately one-half are from CAC and one-half its 511 system. Anyone calling 511 can sign up on are from specific job centers and areas serviced by the spot to be a partner of CAC and link to rideshar- the TMAs.212 CAC focuses on reaching its potential ing and transit information. employers by offering worksite assessments, mar- keting tools, and free training seminars.213 CAC em- Marketing. Unlike other programs, Georgia has a ployer program managers work in assigned territo- substantial statewide marketing and advertising cam- ries to consult with employers and help to tailor paign. The materials are all very results oriented, programs, including ridematching and vanpooling.214 following the belief that numbers really do sell. For Next Steps. Moving forward, CAC will explore instance, in one of its promotional materials, CAC opportunities to further improve its telework offer- uses visuals to demonstrate to the public that the ings as this commute alternative becomes more average cost of driving alone is more than 50 cents popular in the region.215 To support these strate- per mile.209 Using these sorts of performance mea- gies, CAC first launched a Telework Leadership sures, CAC focuses on results to build an even larger Initiative in 2003 to provide professional consult- case for changing travel behavior. ing and financial resources (up to $20,000 per em- ployer) to launch a telework program.216 According Financial Incentives. Another unique aspect of CAC to surveys conducted by CTE, 500,000 Georgia is its financial incentive program, Cash for Com- residents telework on occasion; of those, 297,000 muters, which is now being implemented in other telework at least once a week.217 There are signifi- areas of the country, including Washington D.C., due cant opportunities to extend teleworking in Geor- in part to the success of the program in Georgia. This gia, and CAC has pursued this through its one-on- past year, CAC was able to triple the participation one technical assistance available to employers to rate in the Cash for Commuters Program. Started in evaluate their programs and develop customized 2002, the program offers participants $3 for each day telework policies.218 CAC is also recognizing re- they use a commute alternative within a consecutive gional employers, property managers, and individ- 90-day period ($100 maximum). According to a study conducted by GDOT's program evaluation contrac- tor, Center for Transportation and the Environment 211 Advertising and Marketing RFP Questions and Answers, (CTE), 64 percent of participants continue to use al- http://www.cleanaircampaign.org/About-Us/Requests-for- ternative modes 9 to 12 months after the program, Proposals/Advertising-and-Marketing-RFP, accessed 10/22/ without an incentive.210 More than 8,500 people en- 2009. 212 Phone interview with Kevin Green, The Clean Air Cam- paign, 11/5/2009. 213 The Clean Air Campaign Press Kit, http://www.cleanair 207 Phone interview with Kevin Green, The Clean Air Cam- campaign.org/For-the-Press/Press-Kit, accessed 10/22/2009. paign, 11/5/2009. 214 Phone interview with Kevin Green, The Clean Air Cam- 208 Phone interview with Kevin Green, The Clean Air Campaign, paign, 11/5/2009. 11/5/2009. 215 Phone interview with Kevin Green, The Clean Air Cam- 209 Advertising and Marketing RFP Supporting Promo- paign, 11/5/2009. tional Materials, http://www.cleanaircampaign.org/About-Us/ 216 The Clean Air Campaign Press Kit, http://www.cleanair Requests-for-Proposals/Advertising-and-Marketing-RFP, campaign.org/For-the-Press/Press-Kit, accessed 10/22/2009. accessed 10/22/2009. 217 The Clean Air Campaign Press Kit, http://www.cleanair 210 Making the Change to Alternative Modes, but Does it Last? campaign.org/For-the-Press/Press-Kit, accessed 10/22/2009. Presented at 2009 Association for Commuter Transportation 218 The Clean Air Campaign website, http://www.cleanair Conference, http://data.memberclicks.com/site/asct/Cash_ campaign.org/Our-Services/Teleworking-Assistance, accessed Commuters.pdf, accessed 10/22/2009. 10/22/2009. 32

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uals with significant contributions to TDM in the base of 59,000 users whom Georgians can contact to region, including telework initiatives, through the share a ride or van.226 Today, each TMA promotes PACE Awards program.219 RideSmart, as does CAC. ARC does not actively promote its services through outreach, rather de- Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC)-- pends on the activities of the TMAs and CAC to Transportation Management Associations, advertise its services.227 ARC and CAC created a Ridematching, and Guaranteed Ride bridge so that anyone who signs up online for one of Home Management the region's financial incentive programs, such as Cash for Commuters, is automatically registered in ARC, the MPO for the 18-county (20 non-attain- the RideSmart database, which creates a larger pool ment areas) region in Atlanta, plays a major role in of potential matches.228 the TDM services operated by GDOT and has been Anyone looking for a vanpool match can also use involved in TDM in the region since the beginning. RideSmart to identify potential vanpools.229 Van- As one of the members of the TDM Policy Group, poolers, as well as alternative mode commuters, are ARC is a decision maker in the TDM activities un- eligible for the Commuter Prizes Program managed dertaken in the area and helped to design the Frame- by CAC. GRTA contracts with vendors to provide work for TDM.220 GDOT funds ARC to lead Ride- the vanpool services, and CAC, RideSmart, and the Smart,221 the ridematching system, GRH, and manage TMAs promote those services.230 The TMAs and CAC the TMAs. ARC and GDOT have a close relation- also conduct outreach to form new vanpool groups ship and interact regularly regarding these con- and to place commuters in existing vans. GDOT tracts.222, 223 GDOT has dedicated staff managers that provides a vanpool subsidy through CMAQ funding work with ARC to administer its contracts for TDM which is eligible for the first 3 years of the vanpool activities.224 Likewise, ARC has an entire division program.231 Many TMAs also provide additional dedicated to TDM, separate from transportation vanpool subsidies funded by local dollars.232 planning. The GRH program has evolved over time and ARC has restructured the program. GRH is now RideSmart and Guaranteed Ride Home. RideSmart available to anyone who signs up for RideSmart, began as Commute Connections--the ridematching not just for anyone whose employer signs up. This service designed for the 1996 Olympic Games in At- change to the program has expanded the member- lanta.225 The program grew out of the need to provide ship pool significantly.233 ARC also issued a request alternate commute information to employers and for proposals to solidify contracts with the GRH businesses that would be affected by the increase in providers, including taxi services and rental cars.234 traffic from the Olympic Games. Over the years, the program has been rebranded and today offers a data- 226 Phone interview with Allison Richards, Atlanta Regional Commission, 11/9/2009. 219 227 Phone interview with Allison Richards, Atlanta Regional The Clean Air Campaign website, http://www.cleanair campaign.org/Our-Services/Teleworking-Assistance, accessed Commission, 11/9/2009. 228 Phone interview with Allison Richards, Atlanta Regional 10/22/2009. 220 Phone interview with Allison Richards, Atlanta Regional Commission, 11/9/2009. 229 RideSmart Vanpool Information, https://www.myridesmart. Commission, 11/9/2009. 221 Note that RideSmart was recently rebranded and used to be com/html/vanpool.htm, accessed 11/9/2009. 230 RideSmart Commuter Information, http://www.grta.org/ called 187RideFind. 222 Phone interview with Allison Richards, Atlanta Regional commuter_options/vans.htm, accessed 11/9/2009. 231 Phone interview with Phil Peevy, Georgia Department of Commission, 11/9/2009; Commute Options, http://www.atlanta regional.com/html/356.aspx, accessed 11/9/2009. Transportation, 10/30/2009. 223 Phone interview with Phil Peevy, Georgia Department of 232 Follow-up email from Dan Hourigan, Midtown Alliance, Transportation, 10/30/2009. 11/24/2009. 224 Georgia NCHRP 20-65-24 Survey Response, submitted 233 Phone interview with Allison Richards, Atlanta Regional 8/13/2009. Commission, 11/9/2009. 225 Phone interview with Allison Richards, Atlanta Regional 234 Phone interview with Allison Richards, Atlanta Regional Commission, 11/9/2009. Commission, 11/9/2009. 33

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Note that RideSmart's GRH service is not currently funds and is therefore targeted for activity in non-at- available in attainment areas.235 tainment areas. CAC however receives additional funding which allows coverage for the entire state. Transportation Management Associations. The nine Beginning in January 2010, CAC will be conducting TMAs providing service to the specific employment ridematching outside of metro Atlanta.244 centers in the non-attainment regions in Atlanta are 80 percent funded by DOT (a pass through con- Statewide TDM Oversight tract through ARC) and the remaining 20 percent GDOT's mission, as identified by the Frame- match comes mostly from Community Improve- work for Cooperation, is "oversight and account- ment Districts (CIDs).236, 237 Due to this funding ability" and its main activities are identified as re- from employer-based CIDs, the TMAs are primar- porting and planning.245 GDOT is involved in nearly ily employer-based in their outreach strategies, and every element of TDM activity in the state and has operate mostly to serve those employers.238 Public highly interactive, supportive relationships with the relations and marketing is more in the realm of players. CAC, which is also tasked with providing public and employer outreach statewide in the attainment and non-attainment areas.239 The TMAs create work plans and send them to Recent Evaluation Reports ARC. ARC evaluates them to determine if the plans Prepared for GDOT are allowable or not, according to CMAQ funding regulations. Once finalized, ARC submits a compi- Cash for Commuters Survey Findings, 2009 lation of work plans to the TDM Policy Group for Regional Employer Survey, 2007 discussion and final approval from GDOT.240 ARC Regional Commuter Survey, 2007 is encouraging the TMAs to "get back to the basics" Regional Vanpool Survey, 2006 by focusing on employer outreach.241 Commuter Rewards Program Evaluation, 2006 The Clean Air Campaign Coordination. In terms of Evaluation of TDM Framework, 2001 and ARC's involvement in CAC, the MPO provides 2002 the "behind the scenes" services, such as mapping Strategic Research Report for Clean Air and technological services.242 CAC and RideSmart Campaign, 2000 cross-promote one another's services,243 but one limitation is that RideSmart is funded by CMAQ GDOT evaluates and measures progress on all TDM activities, including regional surveys of com- 235 Follow-up email from Kevin Green, The Clean Air Cam- muter and business leaders conducted on a periodic paign, 11/24/2009. basis, as well as program impact calculations annu- 236 Phone interview with Allison Richards, Atlanta Regional ally to determine alternative mode placements in the Commission, 11/9/2009. vanpool programs.246 Its most recent report, Cash for 237 Phone interview with Phil Peevy, Georgia Department of Transportation, 10/30/2009. 238 Phone interview with Allison Richards, Atlanta Regional 244 Commission, 11/9/2009. Follow-up email from Kevin Green, The Clean Air Cam- 239 Phone interview with Kevin Green, The Clean Air Cam- paign, 11/24/2009. 245 A Framework for Cooperation to Reduce Traffic Congestion paign, 11/5/2009. 240 Phone interview with Allison Richards, Atlanta Regional and Improve Air Quality, http://www.tdmframework.org/reports/ Commission, 11/9/2009. files/Framework.pdf, accessed 11/9/2009. 241 Phone interview with Allison Richards, Atlanta Regional 246 TDM Program Comparison Study, prepared by Center for Commission, 11/9/2009. Transportation and the Environment, February 2006, http:// 242 Phone interview with Allison Richards, Atlanta Regional www.dot.ga.gov/informationcenter/programs/environment/ Commission, 11/9/2009. airquality/Documents/pdfs/program_comparison_research_for_ 243 Phone interview with Allison Richards, Atlanta Regional nine_tdm_programs_across_the_nation.pdf, accessed 10/22/ Commission, 11/9/2009. 2009. 34

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Commuters Evaluation, is based on surveys con- GDOT has taken the lead by working on the state's ducted to measure commuter mode changes and the first HOV to HOT conversion project to start in influence of the incentive program on changing 2010.253 The conversion, which covers 15 miles along modes from 2007 and 2008.247 The report concluded I-85, would allow the use of lanes by vehicles with that 74 percent of 2007 Cash for Commuter partici- three or more persons in a carpool, or by single- or pants had continued using an alternative mode after double-occupancy vehicles that pay a fee for riding completing the program, and therefore were no longer in the HOT lane.254 This example of dynamic pric- receiving a financial incentive to do so.248 These sur- ing demonstrates GDOT's push toward TDM in pro- veys, along with others that analyzed the major in- jects and planning, as listed as a strategy in the fluences on changing travel behavior, have helped Framework for Cooperation. GDOT to refine its programs to be more successful. Prior to the Cash for Commuters Evaluation in 2009, GDOT commissioned a study on employers GDOT's Leading Role in TDM and commuters in 2007, and vanpools and commuter and Construction Mitigation rewards in 2006. Likewise, CTE prepared a report in 2006 for GDOT that compared different TDM pro- Due to encouragement from one TMA, Midtown grams throughout the United States. GDOT commis- Transportation Solutions (MTS), GDOT took an sioned the report to find the best ways to expand the active role in mitigating the potential for traffic funding sources available to TDM by identifying congestion due to the rebuild of Midtown's 14th other possible funding sources for statewide and Street Bridge. Working with MTS, GDOT col- regional TDM programs.249 GDOT has been effec- laborated on a Construction Congestion Mitiga- tive in looking for ways to emphasize TDM and plans tion Plan for the 14th Street Bridge project. to continue to improve its programs.250 GDOT conducted a traffic analysis and In addition to its evaluation role, GDOT has been simulation to provide a better understanding influential in expanding TDM strategies throughout of peak travel patterns prior to the initiation of the state by leveraging relationships in TDM, both construction. The traffic model predicted major in project planning and development.251 For instance, congestion and travel time delays if current GDOT's connections have also helped to expand travel behavior continued. the CAC program statewide due to its relationships GDOT allocated funding to MTS to provide throughout other regions of the state.252 Likewise, intensive outreach to employers and commuters in an attempt to attain a 10 percent reduction in peak-period SOV travel. With GDOT's 247 assistance, MTS was able to achieve the needed 2009 Cash for Commuters Evaluation, http://www.dot.ga. 10-percent reduction and major congestion was gov/informationcenter/programs/environment/airquality/ Documents/reports/CAC_Cash_for_Commuters_FINAL_ averted.255 2009.pdf, accessed 10/22/2009. This sort of congestion mitigation effort in 248 2009 Cash for Commuters Evaluation, http://www.dot.ga. Metro Atlanta is the first of many that will come gov/informationcenter/programs/environment/airquality/ as the state continues to take on new ways to im- Documents/reports/CAC_Cash_for_Commuters_FINAL_ prove traffic and reduce congestion.256 2009.pdf, accessed 10/22/2009. 249 TDM Program Comparison Study, prepared by Center for Transportation and the Environment, February 2006, http:// www.dot.ga.gov/informationcenter/programs/environment/ 253 airquality/Documents/pdfs/program_comparison_research_ Georgia NCHRP 20-65-24 Survey Response, submitted for_nine_tdm_programs_across_the_nation.pdf, accessed 8/13/2009. 254 I-85 Hot Lane Fact Sheet, http://www.dot.state.ga.us/ 10/22/2009. 250 Georgia NCHRP 20-65-24 Survey Response, submitted informationcenter/activeprojects/interstates/I85hotlanes/Pages/ 8/13/2009. default.aspx, accessed 10/9/2009. 251 Phone interview with Kevin Green, The Clean Air Cam- 255 Follow-up email from Dan Hourigan, Midtown Transporta- paign, 11/5/2009. tion Solutions, 11/24/2009. 252 Phone interview with Kevin Green, The Clean Air Cam- 256 Phone interview with Dan Hourigan, Midtown Transporta- paign, 11/5/2009. tion Solutions, 11/16/2009. 35