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tegral to the national movement of goods--an esti- "We are not working just through employers, mated 45 percent of containerized cargo passes but through mankind in Utah." through its ports.302 Nearly one-half of California's -Angelo Papastamos, urban highways are congested, which is 65 percent TravelWise Program Manager greater than the national average.303 This is partially due to changes in travel patterns, with substantial increases in trips for non-work purposes. Benefits and Challenges TravelWise is indeed a comprehensive, statewide Key Information program with some unique benefits and challenges. The overarching umbrella approach offers uniform Funding: N/A branding and marketing that helps to establish name recognition as a one-stop shop for traveler informa- Lead Department at the DOT: Variable tion. TravelWise serves as a clearinghouse, and with Number of Full-Time Employees: Unknown UDOT overseeing its development, the agency is able to avoid duplication of services. While there are Other Major Partners: Metropolitan Planning no TMAs in the state, the community partners formed Organizations through grassroots relationships serve almost like Contact for More Information: those TMAs by offering localized technical assis- tance and services in the community. Additionally, Tom Neumann UTA provides significant support to the program Chief, Office of Community Planning through its sales staff that cross-promote Travel- Caltrans Wise. These grassroots partnerships provide constant Phone: (916)651-6882 support and momentum for the program. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Partnerships in Utah's TDM world have become Web: http://caltrans511.dot.ca.gov almost commonplace. There is repetition amongst the partners that have worked on Salt Lake Solutions, Envision Utah, Clear the Air Challenge, and now TravelWise. However, with such an emphasis on While Caltrans recognizes the importance of voluntary partnerships, the success of the program TDM, unlike other states, it does not have a state- will only be as good as the partnerships developed. wide TDM program for a variety of reasons. Caltrans In addition to its strong community partnerships, the at one time did have a statewide program in the success of TravelWise will depend on the continued early 1990s which covered TDM and involved support at the DOT. UDOT has benefited from exist- nearly 75 TMAs, but within several years, the gov- ing support from the governor and charges from ernor at the time decided to eliminate the program within DOT leadership to move forward on TDM. and devolve the responsibility for TDM mitigation Nonetheless, UDOT represents a state taking on a new to the local level (counties and MPOs).304 Addition- program that identifies TDM as a solution to many of ally, the state budget also lends itself to giving the the state's air quality and congestion challenges. local government more control over TDM than the state; 75 percent of the state's gas tax goes directly California Department to local government, which leaves Caltrans with of Transportation (Caltrans) California's population is expected to increase 302 California Department of Transportation, California Trans- by an average of 500,000 residents per year, totaling portation Plan 2025, http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/tpp/offices/osp/ 48 million by 2030.301 Furthermore, California is in- ctp2025_files/CTP_2006.pdf, p. 1, accessed 10/26/2009. 303 California Department of Transportation, California Trans- portation Plan 2025, http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/tpp/offices/osp/ 301California Department of Transportation, Caltrans Strategic ctp.html, p. 23, accessed 10/26/2009. 304 Phone interview with Tom Neumann, Nathan Smith, and Plan, http://www.dot.ca.gov/docs/StrategicPlan2007-2012.pdf , accessed 10/26/2009. David Lively, Caltrans, 10/14/2009. 43
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little influence over TDM activities at the local were public and private partnerships responsible for level.305 TDM on a local or regional level.310 Caltrans divided As a result of this institutional structure, Caltrans the region into "TDM Districts" and oversaw the part- represents a decentralized model, in which the state nership development in each district.311 Caltrans hired sets clear goals for institutionally incorporating a marketing and communications firm to help develop TDM into planning and projects, but the authority to regional strategic TDM plans.312 Caltrans managed do so resides with the local government. In this case the program and focused on developing partnerships study, we present examples of this decentralized at the state level, including state and regional market- model from a variety of perspectives, including: ing, offering flexibility for discretion on promotional · Institutionalizing TDM through the California activities at the local and regional levels, and moni- Transportation Plan. toring and evaluation to track activities.313 · Establishing TDM goals through the Caltrans In the late 1990s, while the Smart Traveler pro- strategic plan. gram was still evolving, the governor decided that · Establishing an ITS to guide TDM activities. these responsibilities held by the statewide program · Coordinating with local levels of govern- should be devolved to the MPO and county levels, ment on project-specific TDM measures, in- which led to the dismantling of this program within cluding emergency response and construction 3 years.314 mitigation. Today, Caltrans follows a decentralized model in which TDM is incorporated into projects, plan- ning, and operations, but travel options, like those History of Statewide Program Management offered by Smart Traveler, are now responsibilities As mentioned previously, through the 1990s, held at the local and regional level by the MPOs. Caltrans had a very large statewide TDM program, called California Smart Traveler, with an annual Institutionalizing TDM budget of $36 million.306 This program included Currently, Caltrans supports TDM services state- statewide and regional marketing, rideshare opera- wide through a decentralized MPO-based model. tions, TMA development, and assistance and trav- They provide a wide range of TDM services on a eler information systems.307 Even then, Caltrans made project-level basis across multiple departments with- efforts to link the program to broader goals for short- out an agency-wide TDM coordinator. In fact, most and long-term planning and operations.308 coordinated TDM programs occur at the MPO level, Part of the reason that Smart Traveler emerged allowing for regionally specific approaches. The trav- was because there was a lack of a central clearing- eling population in San Francisco is different from house for all TDM information. For instance, in 1993, the state had 32 different toll-free rideshare that in San Diego. This method allows each division numbers that were not streamlined in any way.309 to address the integration of TDM into specific proj- This left commuters confused about information, ects on a case-by-case basis. Caltrans has 12 differ- and led to the development of the unified Smart Trav- ent districts that can provide support and guidance eler program. through these project-level mechanisms.315 Caltrans essentially oversaw and managed "re- gional partnerships for marketing" or RPMs, which 310 Caltrans TDM Library, http://www.dot.ca.gov/caltrans511/ biblio/plan/strat/ssmp.htm, accessed 12/1/2009. 305 311 Caltrans TDM Library, http://www.dot.ca.gov/caltrans511/ Phone interview with Tom Neumann, Nathan Smith, and David Lively, Caltrans, 10/14/2009. biblio/plan/strat/ssmp.htm, accessed 12/1/2009. 306 Phone interview with Tom Neumann, Nathan Smith, and 312 Caltrans TDM Library, http://www.dot.ca.gov/caltrans511/ David Lively, Caltrans, 10/14/2009. biblio/plan/strat/ssmp.htm, accessed 12/1/2009. 307 Caltrans TDM Library, http://www.dot.ca.gov/caltrans511/ 313 Caltrans TDM Library, http://www.dot.ca.gov/caltrans511/ biblio/plan/strat/ssmp.htm, accessed 12/1/2009. biblio/plan/strat/ssmp.htm, accessed 12/1/2009. 308 Caltrans TDM Library, http://www.dot.ca.gov/caltrans511/ 314 Phone interview with Tom Neumann, Nathan Smith, and biblio/plan/strat/ssmp.htm, accessed 12/1/2009. David Lively, Caltrans Headquarters, 10/14/2009. 309 Caltrans TDM Library, http://www.dot.ca.gov/caltrans511/ 315 Phone interview with Tom Neumann, Nathan Smith, and biblio/plan/strat/ssmp.htm, accessed 12/1/2009. David Lively, Caltrans, 10/14/2009. 44
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Unlike other states, California's transportation capacity improvement and rehabilitation projects.321 plan is developed for the purposes of implementa- Through these sorts of strategies, the state has shown tion by MPOs and local levels of government, not its commitment to TDM as a viable approach to re- just for Caltrans.316 The MPOs collectively have a duce congestion. lot of authority in the state and consequently main- As mentioned above, the state transportation tain a lot of the implementation roles for TDM.317 As plan is not only led by Caltrans, but is meant to be a a result, Caltrans also prepares its own strategic plan, plan that can be implemented by multiple agencies, outlining the department's goals and visions. In both including MPOs.322 The Caltrans strategic plan, the statewide transportation plan and its strategic however, lists specific goals and strategies that will be plan, Caltrans has established a clear policy to incor- pursued by Caltrans, many of which align with TDM porate TDM as a goal. policies. Most specifically related to TDM is the GoCalifornia, the California Transportation state's goal to reduce the share of commute trips made Plan 2025, is the statewide plan that outlines a vision by SOV by 5 percent from 2005 levels by 2012. Cal- of a safe, sustainable, world-class transportation sys- trans lists a number of ways in which it would pursue tem that provides for the mobility and accessibility this goal, including: of people, goods, services, and information.318 It is · Work closely with local jurisdictions on land essentially a mobility action plan, which sets a goal use issues to promote mode shift. to invest in the resources needed to significantly de- · Partner with stakeholders and region on im- crease congestion below today's levels.319 In the plan, plementing TDM strategies. the state has identified multiple goals, one of which · Establish baseline performance data for vehicle directly applies to TDM: "improve mobility and ac- occupancy. cessibility."320 The state lists several policies associ- · Improve interconnectivity between modes. ated with improving mobility, including: · Complete California's HOV system. · Enhance connectivity between transportation · Partner with transit and rail authorities making modes, transit options more useful, inviting, and less · Better enable travelers to manage their trips, difficult to use. and · Increase support for non-motorized and · Provide greater access to information that promotion/incentives for use of alternate would increase the use of telecommuting. means of transportation. · Assess the need for a park-and-ride lot program. Some of the more specific strategies associated Its important to note that in addition to traditional with these activities include completing the HOV net- TDM strategies, Caltrans is also focused on transit work and supporting facilities, expanding bus rapid oriented development (TOD) and land use policies as transit service and shared car programs, improving a means of addressing congestion. Both TOD and multimodal ground access to airports, and incorporat- associated smart growth policies appear in the strate- ing safe pedestrian and bicycle facilities in roadway gic plan as important elements to reduce congestion. Additionally, the strategic plan coincides with Go- California and offers a statewide perspective on Cal- 316 Phone interview with Tom Neumann, Nathan Smith, and trans' goals, many of which must be implemented by David Lively, Caltrans, 10/14/2009. local jurisdictions through cooperative partnerships. 317 Phone interview with Tom Neumann, Nathan Smith, and David Lively, Caltrans, 10/14/2009. 318 TDM at a Project Level California Department of Transportation, California Trans- portation Plan 2025, http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/tpp/offices/osp/ As outlined above, Caltrans has clear TDM goals ctp.html, p. ii, accessed 10/26/2009. and strategies, but does not have a specific formal 319 California Department of Transportation, California Trans- portation Plan 2025, http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/tpp/offices/ 321 osp/ctp2025_files/CTP_2006.pdf, Executive Summary, p. 5, California Department of Transportation, California Trans- accessed 10/26/2009. portation Plan 2025, www.dot.ca.gov/hq/tpp/offices/osp/ctp. 320 California Department of Transportation, California 2025 html, p. 39, accessed 12/6/2009. 322 Transportation Plan, http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/tpp/offices/ Phone interview with Tom Neumann, Nathan Smith, and osp/ctp2025_files/CTP_2006.pdf, p. 34, accessed 10/26/2009. David Lively, Caltrans, 10/14/2009. 45
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approach to integrate TDM measures into projects. construction project. In the case of Interstate 5 (I-5), Nonetheless, TDM is often considered in the project Caltrans used public outreach for traffic manage- planning phases. TDM usually is incorporated within ment to reduce congestion. With the "Fix I-5" proj- project development during the project initiation ect, Caltrans used TDM strategies for a short-term phase. During the initiation phase, a project team is fix, but ultimately it is likely that the strategies had assembled and develops a Project Initiation Docu- a lasting affect in increasing awareness of transit ment. The team develops a document that identifies options and alternate modes. the project scope, schedule, and cost estimate. It is at Due to draining problems on I-5, Caltrans under- this point that the initial decision would be made on took efforts in the summer of 2008 to replace 3/4 mile whether any TDM measures needed to be incorpo- of pavement, install a new drainage system and rated. Refinement of the plan, if needed, would occur wells, and add new monitoring equipment.327 The at the next stage, the Project Approval and Environ- challenge resided in how to avoid a gridlock when mental Document.323 the lanes would need to be closed to complete the While there is no formal requirement for TDM in work in downtown Sacramento. Considering that the the project, most projects include traffic management interstate carried 190,000 vehicles per day, Caltrans plans, and the majority of those incorporate TDM needed a sophisticated approach to manage demand elements.324 Traffic management plans are created in the area.328 and approved by the District's Traffic Operations Caltrans developed a comprehensive public out- Division. Additionally, during the project develop- reach plan to look at the best ways to handle the travel ment process, there may be periodic "constructability demand and to use alternate commute strategies to reviews" in which the project team would identify manage that demand. Considering that nearly one- new areas that have emerged that may need to be half of their state and California State University's responded to during construction; often there are 256,000 employees work in the Sacramento area, mobility issues. TDM is incorporated then when Caltrans partially focused its outreach on state em- the scale of impacts for a project necessitates the ployees.329 The public outreach campaign included creation of a temporary new transportation service paid media advertising, email blasts on a daily basis, to keep mobility at a minimally acceptable level. On community outreach, direct mailing, development large projects that will definitely have impacts need- of partnerships, and press events.330 Caltrans sent out ing augmentation, TDM is sometimes included as an mailings to 125,000 residents, businesses, and part- expected need from the very beginning, at the proj- ners regarding the project and hosted presentations for ect initiation phase, but other times, those details are neighborhood and business associations.331 Caltrans not worked out until much later in a project.325 also established a website, http://www.fixi5.com, to The following examples demonstrate the use of provide information to government agencies, busi- Caltrans' TDM strategies in a planned construction nesses, the public, and the press, regarding the proj- project and an unplanned emergency. Although Cal- ect timeline, links to maps, and live video feed from trans has devolved authority and responsibility for traffic cameras installed at the site of the construc- TDM to the MPOs and has no formal authority to pur- tion work.332 sue standardization, it does play a role as a facilitator to assist MPOs in coordinating services and guides 327 MPO services through its comprehensive ITS.326 Caltrans I-5 Fact Sheet, link, http://www.cityofsacramento. org/council/bulletinboard/files5075/I-5%20fact%20sheet% TDM as a Traffic Management Strategy 20 5%202%2008.pdf, accessed 10/26/2009. 328 California Transportation Journal, http://www.dot.ca.gov/ during Construction ctjournal/service.html, accessed 11/30/2009. As outlined above, traffic management strate- 329 Follow-up email from Marlo Tinney, Caltrans District 4, gies, a component of TDM, are brought into project 11/30/2009. 330 California Transportation Journal, http://www.dot.ca.gov/ development when mobility will be limited due to a ctjournal/service.html, accessed 11/30/2009. 331 Caltrans I-5 Boat Section Project, Public Outreach and 323 Follow-up email from Tom Neumann, 12/3/2009. Advertising Campaign, Power Point Presentation provided by 324 Follow-up email from David Lively, 12/7/2009. Marlo Tinney via email, 11/17/2009. 325 332 Executive Order S-04-08, http://gov.ca.gov/executive-order/ Follow-up email from Tom Neumann, 12/7/2009. 326 Follow-up email from David Lively, 12/3/2009. 9629, accessed 11/17/2009. 46
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Caltrans also pursued a variety of measures to clock construction rather than the original construc- gain support from the governor's office and the city tion plan of 5 years.338 After construction was com- of Sacramento to issue ordinances that would ease pleted, Caltrans and the city of Sacramento began to travel options. For example, the city of Sacramento issue press releases and media that encouraged more developed an emergency ordinance to permit bicycling alternate commute use. For instance, messages in- on the downtown pedestrian K Street Mall during cluded: "Construction has been completed on the the construction efforts, in order to encourage alter- downtown Sacramento stretch of I-5. Thanks for nate commuting.333 Additionally, the governor's finding travel alternatives that kept traffic disrup- office issued Executive Order S-04-08, which di- tions to a minimum. Just because the construction is rected state agencies to encourage telecommuting, finished doesn't mean you need to drive alone to alternate work schedules, flextime, public transit, and work again, follow the links below to explore your vanpools where feasible and practical.334 The pur- travel options."339 This I-5 project provides an ex- pose was to leverage changes at state offices (which ample of implementing TDM outreach and traffic make up a large amount of the offices in the area) management efforts in a project in order to reduce to reduce traffic demand.335 The executive order congestion and encourage alternate commute modes. provided information resources and recommended processes to implement the TDM strategies. The is- TDM as an Emergency Response Tactic suance also generated additional media coverage, Unlike I-5 in which activities for TDM outreach improving public awareness of the construction were planned in advance, the state faced a serious schedule, as well as potential actions to take to re- emergency in April 2007 in which Caltrans, through duce traveler delay. coordination and cooperation with the MPO, was In addition to the executive order, the state is- able to utilize TDM messaging and strategies in sued a memo to all state employees that encouraged order to avoid gridlock. On April 29th, 2007, early departments to allow flexibility in employee work in the morning, a single vehicle crash of a large gaso- schedules, encouraged departments to schedule line tanker on the lower roadway of a major overpass meetings during non-peak times to avoid bringing connection led to an accident that would challenge additional traffic to the downtown area via the I-5 California's transportation infrastructure and emer- construction area, and offered an internal hotline to gency response plans. The tanker, which carried assist employees with route planning.336 To further 8,600 gallons of unleaded gasoline, hit a guardrail and reach out to state employees, Caltrans utilized the erupted into flames.340 The steel frame and the bolts Global Messaging System at the State Controller's that held the I-580 overpass together began to melt Office to include a text message about the project on from the intense heat.341 About 20 minutes after the the state employees' direct deposit payroll state- crash, the upper connector ramp began to buckle and ments. The message included the project website ad- collapse.342 dress, and referenced the potential for traffic delays in the project area during construction.337 Fortunately, due to proactive planning, as well 338 California Transportation Journal, http://www.dot.ca.gov/ as comprehensive outreach strategies, construction ctjournal/service.html, accessed 11/30/2009. for I-5 was completed in just 35 days of around-the- 339 Sacramento I-5, http://www.sacregion511.org/fixi5, accessed 11/30/2009. 340 Tanker fire destroys part of MacArthur Maze, San Francisco 333 City Approves Bicycling on K Street Mall, http://www.city Chronicle, 4/29/2007, http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article. ofsacramento.org/transportation/fix_i-5/media/6-5-08-KStreet- cgi?f=/c/a/2007/04/29/BAGVOPHQU46.DTL, accessed Mall.pdf , accessed 11/17/2009. 10/19/2009. 334 Executive Order S-04-08, http://gov.ca.gov/executive-order/ 341 Tanker fire destroys part of MacArthur Maze, San Francisco 9629, accessed 11/17/2009. Chronicle, 4/29/2007, http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article. 335 Follow-up email from Marlo Tinney, Caltrans District 4, cgi?f=/c/a/2007/04/29/BAGVOPHQU46.DTL, accessed 11/30/2009. 10/19/2009. 336 Executive Order S-04-08, http://gov.ca.gov/executive-order/ 342 Tanker fire destroys part of MacArthur Maze, San Francisco 9629, accessed 11/17/2009. Chronicle, 4/29/2007, http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article. 337 Follow-up email from Marlo Tinney, Caltrans District 4, cgi?f=/c/a/2007/04/29/BAGVOPHQU46.DTL, accessed 11/30/2009. 10/19/2009. 47
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After the accident, Caltrans had to face repair (Caltrans, MTC, CHP, locals) because things got done and rebuild decisions, as well as travel decisions in much more quickly than would have been the case if order to accommodate the nearly 80,000 vehicles everyone had been in separate areas.349 per day that would be displaced by the accident.343 During the emergency, MTC used 511 as the pre- Caltrans closed Interstate 580 since the overpass that ferred tool for disseminating information to the pub- connects I-80 and I-580 collapsed onto I-880.344 Cal- lic regarding the state of the emergency, the state of trans had to design a repair plan and a travel plan. the roadway infrastructure, and detour, alternate route, Working with Metropolitan Transportation Com- and transit information.350 Those who visited the mission (MTC), the local MPO, Caltrans and MTC 511 site were able to access information on detours, were able to collaborate and coordinate to divert detailed maps of the region, and recommendations what could have been an incredible gridlock through on transit options.351 MTC found that its 511 traffic integrated TDM and emergency response strategies. web usage increased to 711% of average (approxi- Immediately after the incident, Caltrans' Emer- mately 100,000 sessions versus the average of about gency Operations Center was activated, and func- 15,000 per day).352 tioned as a gathering place for Caltrans District 4 Caltrans was able to effectively incorporate staff, as well as staff MTC, to gather and make deci- TDM messaging and traffic management by lever- sions.345 MTC handled the 511 outreach, verifying aging relationships with MTC and utilizing MTC's information to post, and developing maps of the af- mapping and data in order to reduce congestion and fected routes.346 Parallel to these efforts, Caltrans avoid gridlock after a major traffic accident. arranged for a significant outreach program, includ- ing daily media briefings at the Emergency Opera- Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) tions Center, website updates, press conferences, and Caltrans' approach to TDM reflects its decentral- a live camera feed for the public to see the progress.347 ized role in operating the state's highway system; the Caltrans established the detour routes and MTC pro- state owns only 15,000 miles of highways in the vided mapping of those routes. Caltrans also worked state, while over 100,000 miles of the state's roads with the governor's office to declare a state of emer- are owned by others.353 While Caltrans no longer has gency, which makes it easier to establish contracts, a statewide travel options program in place, the state eases environmental codes, and provided emergency does maintain and operate a comprehensive ITS pro- funding for free transit incentives.348 gram, which Caltrans sees as one of its stronger Both MTC and Caltrans agreed that it was very TDM strategies to be offered at the state level.354 effective having all the decision makers in one place 343 349 Bay Area Rapid Response to MacArthur Maze Meltdown, Debrief and Lessons Learned from MacArthur Maze Inci- Metropolitan Transportation Commission and Caltrans Fact dent and Response, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, Sheet, http://www.dot.ca.gov/dist4/mazedamage/docs/maze 5/9/2007, provided via email by Barb Laurenson, Metropolitan factsheet_mtc.pdf, accessed 10/19/2009. Transportation Commission on 10/22/2009. 344 Freeway Out of Action, USA Today Visual, 4/30/2007, 350 511 Emergency Response, Presentation by Metropolitan http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-04-29-baybridge_ Transportation Commission to ITS World Congress. Presented N.htm, accessed 10/19/2009. by Janet Banner on 11/18/2009; provided via email by Carol 345 Debrief and Lessons Learned from MacArthur Maze Inci- Keuster, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, on dent and Response, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, 10/20/2009. 351 Phone interview with Carol Keuster, Metropolitan Trans- 5/9/2007, provided via email by Barb Laurenson, Metropolitan Transportation Commission on 10/22/2009. portation Commission, 10/19/2009. 346 Debrief and Lessons Learned from MacArthur Maze Inci- 352 511 Emergency Response, Presentation by Metropolitan dent and Response, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, Transportation Commission to ITS World Congress. Presented 5/9/2007, provided via email by Barb Laurenson, Metropolitan by Janet Banner on 11/18/2009; provided via email by Carol Transportation Commission on 10/22/2009. Keuster, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, on 347 California Transportation Journal, http://www.dot.ca.gov/ 10/20/2009. 353 Phone interview with Tom Neumann, Nathan Smith, and ctjournal/service.html, accessed 11/30/2009. 348 Emergency Ramp Replacement Project, Caltrans District 4 David Lively, Caltrans, 10/14/2009. 354 Phone interview with Tom Neumann, Nathan Smith, and Press Release, http://www.dot.ca.gov/dist4/newsreleases/maze update43007.pdf, accessed 10/26/2009. David Lively, Caltrans, 10/14/2009. 48