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Some of the ITS strategies offered in California in- time of day, day of the week, weekend versus week clude advanced traffic signals, roadway and weather day, and holiday versus non-holiday.361 monitoring stations, bus location systems, and elec- tronic roadside information signs.355 In terms of man- Benefits and Challenges aging or shifting demand, these ITS tools help Cal- One of the benefits of this decentralized approach trans to handle transit and freeway management, is regionally tailored solutions. Since 94 percent of traffic signal control, and electronic toll collection.356 the state's land area is rural, it is not clear that there Caltrans has a series of working groups, an advi- is a need for a statewide program.362 Caltrans be- sory committee, and stakeholder meetings to ensure lieves that TDM resources should be targeted to the that state needs are met in the ITS Architecture.357 areas facing congestion. In the case of the MacArthur Caltrans sees the goal of the ITS Architecture Plan as Maze incident, it is also not clear that a system as so- "a path for improving the way people travel . . . to phisticated as the one in place would have existed in speed up our roads and make transit easier to use."358 the Bay area, unless the MPO was able to lead and Caltrans has many examples of how its ITS measures manage its own 511 program and leverage its own are working, such as how drivers changed or alerted a dedicated funding sources. The program was never route or travel plan based on information provided on designed for emergency response, but because it was variable message signs. For example, in Los Angeles, designed to be flexible and match the MPO's needs, a survey of motorists found that 78 percent of respon- it was adaptable. If the state had managed it, it is pos- dents changed their routes based on information sible that it would not have been as specialized. The provided by Caltrans ITS' automated work zone fact that California has moved back to a decentral- information system.359 ized model illustrates that the regional approach Caltrans is evolving the ITS system to even fur- works effectively for them. ther benefit TDM planning and strategies by adapt- However, the decentralized approach is not with- ing their travel models to include non-work trips.360 out its challenges. For example, it can be frustrating This is unusual, because the models usually just ad- that TDM solutions are functionally restricted to dress traditional commute trips. Likewise, the ITS just those jurisdictions that are in the MPO region. department is conducting causal analysis for high- Commuters do not restrict themselves to just MPO way monitoring to help evaluate demand and capac- boundaries; it is conceivable that some commuters ity according to a variety of factors, including the start in Sacramento and end in San Francisco, cross- ing the two MPOs. Nonetheless, MPOs are moving towards broader boundary definitions in their prod- ucts, such as mapping, to serve those users that may 355 Statewide ITS Architecture: What is ITS, be commuting between regions.363, accessed 11/14/2009. 356 Electronic Toll Collection, Caltrans ITS, APPENDICES A AND B pps#275,10,Electronic%20Toll%20Collection, accessed 11/14/ Appendices A and B as submitted by the contrac- 2009. tor are not published herein. The titles of the appen- 357 Statewide ITS Architecture: Stakeholders and Meetings http:// dices (available on request to NCHRP) are as follows: Appendix A Specific Survey Responses holders_and_meetings.htm, accessed 11/14/2009. Appendix B Interview Log 358 Caltrans Roles and Responsibilities, ITS Architecture, http:// AC_Meetings/FINAL/Roles_and_Responsibilities,8.5X9.pdf, accessed 11/14/2009. 359 Research and Innovative Technology Administration, ITS, 361 Phone interview with Tom Neumann, Nathan Smith, and BCAC89456AE85257260006E4D77?OpenDocument&Query= David Lively, Caltrans, 10/14/2009. State, accessed 11/14/2009. 362 California Transportation Plan 2025, 360 Phone interview with Tom Neumann, Nathan Smith, and gov/hq/tpp/offices/osp/ctp.html, p. xi, accessed 10/26/2009. 363 Follow-up email from David Lively, 12/7/2009. David Lively, Caltrans, 10/14/2009. 49

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