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of the survey are available in Chapter 4. The afore- Why Should State DOTs Be Interested mentioned case studies are available in more detail in TDM? in Chapter 5. State DOTs are facing a wide variety of trans- portation issues that TDM can help address. Some CHAPTER 3 PRIMER of these issues include: Based on the results of the survey and the case Environmental concerns such as air quality and studies, the research team has identified several TDM climate change; trends as they relate to state DOTs. Many of these help Transportation concerns, such as traffic conges- to provide insights and a national perspective on suc- tion, system efficiency and reliability, and the cessful strategies and roles taken by state DOTs to high cost of constructing facilities to accom- support and implement TDM programs. Drawing on modate demands; these, this primer is a resource for state DOTs to im- Quality of life issues, such as excessive com- plement TDM programs or improve existing TDM muting times, the costs of energy and trans- programs. portation services, and supporting more livable communities; and What Is Transportation Demand Management (TDM)? TDM and Emerging Transportation Issues Transportation demand management (TDM) fo- cuses on strategies to reduce congestion by: TDM can also be applied to non-traditional areas of transportation activities. Transportation Shifting demand to alternatives to SOVs, such staffs often believe that traffic congestion is an as carpooling, vanpooling, transit, walking, "urban" issue, which is true, but increasingly bicycling, or telecommuting; traffic congestion and the other motivating forces Shifting travel out of the peak period, such as for TDM apply to other areas. This means that through flexible schedules, compressed work TDM has broader applications, such as for rural weeks, or congestion pricing; or areas, to address incident management issues, for Shifting travel to less congested facilities, such special events, in transportation operations, and as through providing traveler information sys- in work zone/construction management. tems that warn motorists about delays. Mississippi DOT has invested in studying the best ways to integrate TDM for rural traffic For example, DOTs have implemented High to reduce single occupancy vehicle (SOV) travel. Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes to encourage car- Mississippi DOT recently released a study of pooling, developed commuter choice programs to pro- the feasibility of ridesharing as a practical, ef- mote employer-sponsored transit benefits programs, ficient alternative to SOV commuting; it con- and developed marketing campaigns to spread the cludes that the state has all the elements needed message about ridesharing and/or consolidating trips. to make a successful ridesharing program. The TDM programs usually involve a number of these report recommends the acquisition of rideshar- types of strategies. ing software, presents a prioritized list of pos- Although TDM programs have traditionally fo- sible ridesharing pilots, and discusses potential cused on commute trips, TDM strategies can be park-and-ride locations.6 used for a wide range of trip types, including travel In addition, Minnesota DOT funds local to school, shopping, and recreation sites. Moreover, TMAs but then also has a TDM coordinator for TDM strategies can be used not only to respond to all non-MPO areas, meaning that the state TDM recurring congestion problems, but also for special person is responsible for rural TDM strategies. events and to respond to traffic incidents, poor weather conditions, and emergency situations by helping trav- elers make more informed choices. TDM strategies 6Strategies for Ridesharing Report, August 2009, prepared by can also be known as travel options, mobility manage- ABMB Engineers for Mississippi DOT, provided via email by ment, or travel choices. Al Brantley, Mississippi DOT, on 9/16/2009. 5