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· Public service/good issues, such as meeting stance, in Massachusetts, congestion was identified older seniors' transportation demands. as a primary motivator, given the large increase in vehicle miles traveled coupled with limited ability In response to these issues, TDM is increasingly to expand infrastructure; in Georgia, air quality was an attractive choice, providing multiple benefits a key focus, given the non-attainment issues in the including reduced congestion; cost savings (road/ Atlanta metro area; and in Utah, energy reduction facility, user, emergency incidents, and gas); reduced goals of the former governor were a motivation. How- pollution; and more efficient land use.7 ever, common themes include congestion (com- Moreover, TDM may be very cost-effective in muting times and transportation system efficiency); achieving multiple objectives. In addition to includ- environmental concerns (air quality, climate change, ing TDM programs as a specific transportation strat- and energy issues); and infrastructure constraints. egy in the statewide long-range transportation plan,8 the State of Georgia commissioned a study that found that implementing a package of aggressive TDM What Are the Potential Roles of State DOTs strategies would yield 100 times more value in con- in TDM? gestion reduction than a similar investment in new State DOTs can play many different roles in pro- transportation infrastructure.9 In Massachusetts, in- viding TDM services to residents and these roles are creasing system capacity is not really an optionthe road network is very mature and the public has very not mutually exclusive. Some potential roles are listed little desire for large-scale transportation projects, so in the following discussion. demand management is seen as essential. In fact, all five of the state DOTs profiled as case studies high- Administering TDM Services lighted TDM as a major strategy in their long-range This role focuses on the provision of TDM ser- transportation plans, citing multiple cost, transporta- vices and programs, such as ridesharing or encourag- tion, environmental, and quality of life reasons.10 ing alternative modes through program incentives. Significant motivating forces for TDM programs These activities focus on the programmatic side of varied somewhat among the case studies. For in- TDM services, such as offering assistance to employ- ers in setting up worksite programs, maintaining ridematching databases, offering transit incentives, 7 Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Online TDM Encyclope- or providing a GRH program. Both the survey dia. http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/index.php, accessed 12/07/2009. responses and the case studies illustrate kinds of 8 Georgia Department of Transportation, Georgia 20052035 TDM services provided by state DOTs. The most Statewide Transportation Plan. http://www.dot.state.ga.us/ common TDM services include those to support the INFORMATIONCENTER/programs/transportation/Pages/ following activities: swtp.aspx, p. 16. 9 Clean Air Campaign, Advertising and Marketing RFP Sup- · Bicycling (95 percent) porting Promotional Materials. http://www.cleanaircampaign. · Carpooling (88 percent) org/About-Us/Requests-for-Proposals/Advertising-and- · Transit Use (83 percent) Marketing-RFP. Accessed 10/22/2009 · Vanpooling (80 percent) 10 Statewide and Long Range Transportation Plans: Massachu- · Walking (80 percent) setts Long-Range Transportation Plan, http://www.eot.state. · Ridematching (68 percent) ma.us/default.asp?pgid=content/longplanIndex&sid=level2; You Move Massachusetts, February 2009 Interim Report, http:// It is also important to note that state DOTs offer youmovemassachusetts.org/; UDOT'S Long Range Trans- or support several other strategies in significant portation Plan 2007-2030, http://udot.utah.gov/main/f?p=100: percentages as well (approximately 40 percent): com- pg:0:::1:T,V:1843; UDOT Unified Transportation Plan, http:// muter financial incentives, employer-based TDM udot.utah.gov/main/f?p=100:pg:0:::1:T,V:1843; NJDOT Trans- programs/outreach, HOV lanes/priority, special event portation Choices 2030, Public Discussion Draft, http://www. state.nj.us/transportation/works/njchoices/; California Trans- planning, TDM marketing, telecommuting, and portation Plan 2025, http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/tpp/offices/osp/ transit-oriented development. These findings also ctp.html; and Georgia 2005-2035 Statewide Transportation match the results from the case studies, shown in the Plan Update, http://www.dot.state.ga.us/INFORMATION matrix of Table 2, illustrating the modes and programs CENTER/programs/transportation/Pages/swtp.aspx. state DOTs encourage. 6
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Table 2 Main strategies supported in case studies tools for companies interested in learning more about establishing telework policies, launching a pilot pro- MA NJ GA UT CA gram, and determining appropriate equipment.11 Bicycling X X X X X Conducting Marketing Carpooling X X X X Commuter X X X This role focuses on providing a statewide level of Financial support for TDM marketing, helping to provide infor- Incentives mation about alternatives to SOVs. This can span from having a statewide brand for TDM, such as UDOT's Employer- X X X X TravelWise program, to running a full-fledged TMA based TDM program with marketing responsibilities, such as Programs/ NJDOT. TDM marketing in Georgia is one of the Outreach factors for its program success, using reliable per- HOV Lanes/ X X X X X formance metrics to pitch its messages to the public. Priority For example, CAC boasts an annual reduction from Ridematching X X X X commute alternatives: Special Event X X X · 16 million car trips eliminated from metro Planning Atlanta roadways. · More than 200,000 tons of pollution not re- TDM Marketing X X X X leased into the air. Telecommuting X X X X · More than $156 million estimated in reduced Transit-Oriented X X X X commute costs. Development · $30 million estimated in health related costs savings due to improved air quality.12 Transit Use X X X X X For the most part, this role focuses on changing Vanpooling X X X X travel behaviors through informed decision making Walking X X X X X and public education. The most effective TDM mar- keting programs involve a variety of partners within a community, including public officials, community organizations, and individuals who support trans- An example of one of these services is the Vir- portation alternatives. Some activities include sur- ginia DOT's efforts to support teleworking. Virginia veying users of alternative modes, creating targeted DOT contributes funds to the Telework!VA pro- personalized marketing campaigns, and providing gram to provide incentives for employers to set up travel options education/travel guides. telework programs. Telework!VA is a public/private partnership founded by the Department of Rail and Funding Investments in Travel Options Public Transportation that was launched to reduce This role focuses on the provision and direct sup- the number of commuters on Virginia's roadways. port for the infrastructure for travel alternatives. This It helps companies attract and retain productive can span many different programs, such as carsharing, employees, reduce employee absenteeism, and lower park-and-ride, HOV, and bicycle and pedestrian infra- operational and recruitment expenses. With help structure. Many states use federal funding from the from Virginia DOT's funds, Telework!VA offers up Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement to $35,000 to help start a new telework program. (CMAQ) program, as well as other funding sources, Eligible businesses must demonstrate commitment to for these investments. a long-term program, willingness to invest in planning and staff resources to sustain a program, and ability to establish a schedule of milestones. Types of eligible 11 Telework!VA, http://www.teleworkva.org/Default.aspx, expenses include equipment lease, technical or con- accessed 10/20/2009. sultant assistance, and telework space leases. In addi- 12 The Clean Air Campaign Press Kit, http://www.cleanair tion to the funding, Telework!VA offers e-learning campaign.org/For-the-Press/Press-Kit, accessed 10/22/2009. 7
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Although many of the activities occur separately The compliance audits and enforcement measures from the statewide TDM program, the TDM pro- embody the "teeth" of this requirement.14 gram activities can help to identify investment needs and define the most effective infrastructure improve- Integrating TDM into Operations ments. For example, MassDOT uses the infrastructure States may consider integrating demand manage- assessment in its Safe Routes to School program to ment into operations, such as traveler information, identify and fund these travel option improvements, incident/weather management, special events man- such as a ramp to a bike trail in Northampton. Both agement, and ITS. These programs and information UDOT and NJDOT work in partnership with their systems and technology allow travelers to make better transit authorities (Utah Transit Authority and NJ decisions about how, when, where, and whether or Transit, respectively) on efforts to improve access to not they travel. transit. As an example, Caltrans uses advanced traffic sig- nals, roadway and weather monitoring stations, bus lo- Enforcing and Providing Technical Assistance cation systems, and electronic roadside information to Meet Regulations signs as part of its ITS infrastructure.15 In terms of This role focuses on the statutory requirements/ managing or shifting demand, these ITS tools help regulatory authority that a state DOT may have re- Caltrans to handle transit and freeway management, garding TDM regulation, such as enforcing commuter traffic signal control, and electronic toll collection, and trip reduction programs, traffic mitigation plans, and to respond to non-recurring congestion.16 Caltrans has environmental agreements. One example is how many examples of how its ITS measures are working, Delaware Department of Transportation (DelDOT) such as how drivers changed or alerted a route or helps the New Castle County government analyze and travel plan based on information provided on variable review TDM measures with respect to Traffic Miti- message signs. For example, in Los Angeles, a survey gation (TM) Agreements.13 Applicants (employers, of motorists found that 78 percent of respondents developers, property owners) are required to carry changed their routes based on information pro- out trip reduction/TDM measures in connection vided by Caltrans ITS' automated work zone infor- with proposed developments. DelDOT coordinates mation system.17 Caltrans' ITS program is conducting specifically with the local government's Department analysis using highway monitoring data to help eval- of Land Use when negotiating TM Agreements. TM uate demand according to a variety of factors, includ- Agreements traditionally include trip reduction mea- ing the time of day, day of the week, weekend versus sures (at a minimum, no more than 85 vehicles per week day, holiday versus non-holiday. This informa- 100 employees may arrive during the morning peak tion can help to advance effective approaches to man- traffic period or depart during the evening peak traf- age travel demand, including strategies that address fic period), as well as contingent trip reduction mea- non-work trips, not just traditional commute trips.18 sures. Applicants must contract with a third-party auditor (supervised by DelDOT) to audit the appli- cant's progress on implementation of the specific 14 NCHRP 20-65-24 Delaware Survey Response, submitted TDM measures annually and to evaluate the effec- 8/12/2009. 15 California Department of Transportation, Statewide ITS tiveness of the measures in achieving trip reduction Architecture: What is ITS, http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/tpp/offices/ goals. DelDOT maintains a role of monitoring the opar/CAarchitecture/What_is_ITS.htm, accessed 11/14/2009. implementation of all trip reduction efforts and 16 Electronic Toll Collection, Caltrans ITS, http://www.dot. TDM measures, and enforcing negotiated agree- ca.gov/hq/tpp/offices/opar/CAarchitecture/Archive/its-elements. ments jointly with New Castle County government. pps#275,10,Electronic%20Toll%20Collection, accessed 11/14/ 2009. 17 Research and Innovative Technology Administration, ITS Lessons Learned Database, http://www.itslessons.its.dot.gov/ 13 DelDOT and NCC Guidelines Regarding Development of, its/benecost.nsf/ID/A70ADBCAC89456AE85257260006E4D Compliance with, and Enforcement of Traffic Mitigation Agree- 77?OpenDocument&Query=State, accessed 11/14/2009. ments, provided via email from Daniel LaCombe, Delaware 18 Phone interview with Tom Neumann, Nathan Smith, and DOT, on 9/15/2009. David Lively, Caltrans, 10/14/2009. 8