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Integrating TDM into Project Planning Arizona DOT manages Capitol Rideshare, a state em- and Development ployee ridematching program that offers a variety of incentives to share rides. The program is operated by TDM may be integrated into project planning and the Department of Administration's Office of Travel development. These efforts may include further con- Reduction Programs. The program is funded by sideration of multimodal options, such as bicycling, FHWA, Maricopa Association of Governments, and walking, and transit, within the development of the the Department of Environmental Quality. Capitol project and design. For instance, inclusion of bicycle Rideshare offers a transit subsidy, rideshare parking lanes and sidewalks, design of intersections to accom- permits, free emergency rides home, and an excellent modate pedestrian crossing, and consideration of tran- discount program. An online Share the Ride database sit service and bus stop locations can be conducted provides a list of people with matching commutes, in designing a project. In addition, construction miti- and anyone using an alternative mode of transporta- gation for projects with significant impacts may in- tion at least twice a week is eligible for an incentive clude TDM efforts, such as informing the public about program.21 travel options, implementing new transit services, or promoting ridesharing or alternative trip times. How Can State DOTs Organize Efforts to Advance TDM? Linking with Other Programs As a result of these different roles in TDM, state DOTs can choose to organize these efforts ac- PennDOT furthers TDM through its promotion cording to their specific needs. One way is to have a of trip chaining--combining trips and errands fully centralized program, in which the state provides into one trip so that catalytic converters do not most TDM services statewide. The other end of the cool off--through a state air quality program.19 spectrum is to be completely decentralized in which all TDM services are devolved to local government. This devolution does not imply an absence of state DOT involvement in TDM, but it does imply the lack As an example, TDM is often considered in the of regulation/statewide standardization across TDM project planning phases at Caltrans. TDM is usually programs. The survey and the case studies presented incorporated within project development during the in this digest represent the full spectrum of possible project initiation phase. During the initiation phase, ways to organize a TDM program. No single way is a project team is assembled to develop a Project Ini- preferred nationwide; approximately 38 percent of tiation Document that identifies the project scope, states fund local organizations that focus on TDM, schedule, and cost estimate. It is at this point that the 21 percent fund/manage a statewide program, 36 per- initial decision would be made about whether or cent provide technical assistance to local TDM orga- not any TDM measures need to be incorporated. Re- nizations, and another 21 percent engage in all of finement of the plan, if needed, would occur at the those activities. next stage, the Project Approval and Environmental Document.20 As another example, UDOT created a Centralized construction mitigation and TDM brochure for prac- titioners to bring to project stakeholders. A fully centralized program is one that provides most TDM services statewide, with a high level of di- Integrating TDM into Internal Business Practices rect oversight or management from the state DOT. NJDOT operates a centralized TDM program through Another way for a state DOT to be a promoter of its high-level management of the TMAs. MassDOT TDM is as an employer itself, supporting commute is similarly very centralized due to its statewide options programs for its own employees. For instance, provision of TDM services through MassRIDES. 19 21 Capitol Rideshare, http://www.capitolrideshare.com, accessed Email from Michael Baker, PennDOT, 9/24/2009. 20 Follow-up email from Tom Neumann, 12/3/2009. 10/20/2009. 9
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Vermont State Agency of Transportation runs Go Vermont, the statewide ridematching program, which Hybrid of Regional and Local Programming features a carpool/vanpool matching service, rideshar- ing tips, and other practical information for reducing New York State DOT (NYSDOT) uses a hybrid the cost and environmental impact of driving.22 approach to TDM by managing a comprehensive statewide program and concurrently overseeing Decentralized a regional-based support model to local TDM organizations' TMAs. NYSDOT's two primary A completely decentralized program is one in strategic program initiatives are the Metropolitan which all TDM services are devolved to local gov- New York Commuter Choice Integrated Service ernment, meaning a lack of regulation/statewide Delivery Program, and the Strategic TDM standardization across TDM programs. Caltrans is and Commuter Choice Operations and Service a completely decentralized model, meaning a com- Planning (individual project initiatives having plete devolution of TDM authority and responsibil- statewide significance). For the Integrated Ser- ity to the MPOs. However, the state DOT does play vice Delivery program, NYSDOT funds the a very practical facilitator role to assist the MPOs in operation of three TMAs; each TMA receives coordinating their services, including ITS and fund- ing experimental pilot projects in TDM. funding from the state, but designs, implements, and locally manages its own TDM program with Hybrid Approach guidance from the Regional Mobility Manager. For the Service Planning initiatives, NYSDOT Another option is a hybrid approach, in which the provides funding for individual project initia- centralized approach is one tier of TDM activities and tives of statewide significance. NYSDOT's vi- the regional and local programming is another. sion is to develop an enhanced program that re- New York State DOT takes this approach, as described sults in `Working Smarter, Not Harder' as it in the box. GDOT and UDOT operate statewide develops and measures traveler and commuter programs, but historically the TDM focus has been response to TDM and Commuter Choice initia- in one congested corridor/region, meaning their tives. To meet this vision, NYSDOT utilizes programs mimic a regional-based program in imple- outside-the-box thinking that streamlines strat- mentation. egy development.23 Role within the DOT Another dimension to consider is how the state cases, housing responsibility means where the primary DOT chooses to integrate its TDM responsibilities/ responsibility is for TDM; this does not necessarily programs into its larger organizational structure. The mean that other departments are uninvolved in TDM. most common situation is to house TDM as part of a planning division/department, which is the case in ap- Role with Local Organizations proximately 45 percent of all respondents, and then as part of the public transportation division, which is the Additional variability appears in how the state case for approximately 18 percent.24 However, an ad- DOTs relate to the local transportation organizations ditional 18 percent house TDM across multiple divi- in delivering TDM services; these include cities, sions in their agency.25 All of our case studies housed counties, TMAs, MPOs, and other local private or- their TDM programs in planning, except for Caltrans ganizations. As mentioned previously, when state (which was across multiple departments). In these DOTs aim to deliver TDM services/support to local organizations, they also very frequently provide technical assistance. MassDOT has a cooperative 22 Email from Scott Bascom, Vermont Agency of Transporta- relationship with its TMAs, whereas NJDOT has an tion, 9/18/2009. oversight and strategic vision that the TMAs support. 23 NCHRP 20-65-24 New York Survey Response, submitted GDOT, for the most part, does not directly oversee 8/19/2009. its TMAs, but the MPO for the Atlanta region does. 24 Only 38 states responded to this question. UDOT does not have any TMAs, and localized out- 25 Only 38 states responded to this question. reach and promotion is done by the Utah Transit Au- 10